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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



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'TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS^' 

REPORT 



ROYAL SOCIETY Of SODTH AUSTRALIA. 



(For 1886-7.) 




FBIGE, TEN SHILLINGS. 



W. C. KIGBY, 74, KING WILLIAM STREET. 



1888. 



Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Aus- I 

tralia, from Europe and America, should be addressed "per I 

I • ^^^. C. Rigby, care Messrs. Thos. Meadows & Co., 35, Milk i 

T Street, Gheapside, London." T 

A Vardox & Pritchard, Printers, Gresham Street, Adelaide. A 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



AND 



REPORT 



ROYAL SOCIETY Of SODTH AUSTRALIA. 



"VOL. x: 

(For 1886-7.) 




PBICE, TEN SHILLINGS. 



%Mmh : 



1888. 



Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Aus- 
tralia, from Europe and America, should be addressed "per 
W. G. Rigby, care Messrs. Thos. Meado^ws & Co., 35, Milk 
Street, Gheapside, London." 



|loj)al Society of Snxttlj |.itstralia. 

HEK MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

ma-m^on : 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR WILLIAM ROBINSON, K.C.M.G., C.B., &c. 



OFFICERS. 

[Elected October 5, 1887.] 
PROFESSOR RENNIE, D.Sc, F.C.S. 



WALTER HOWCHIN, Esq., F.G.S. (Editor). 
RICHARD L. MESTAYER, Esq., C.E. 



Wow, ^xm^uxtx: 3o\x, 3i^cxdKxut 

WALTER RUTT, Esq., C.E. | W. L. CLELAND, Esq., M.B. 

©tt^r Igjemtes of €oxuux{: 



H. T. WHITTELL, Esq., M.D. 

(Representative Governor) 
J. W. BUSSELL, Esq. 



C. TODD, Esq., C.M.G., M.A. 

D. B. ADAMSON, Esq. 

REV. THOS. BLACKBURN, B.A. 



J. DAVIES THOMAS Esq., M.D. 

Assistant ^-emtax-ij: 

MR. A. MOLINEUX. 



CONTENTS, 



PAGE. 

Eev. T. Blackburn : Description of Twenty New Species of South 

Australian Coleoptera . . . . 1 

Kev. T. Blackburn : Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with Descriptions 

of New Species . . . . . . . . 12 

Walter Howchin : Eemarks on a Geological Section at the New Graving 
Dock, Glanville, with special reference to a supposed Old Land 
Surface now below Sea Level . . 31 

Eev. T. Blackburn : Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with Descriptions 

of New Species . . . . . . 36 

Eev. T. Blackburn : Further Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with 

Descriptions of New Species 52 

Prof. E. H. Eennie : Notes on the Colouring Matter of Drosera 

Whittakeri 72 

Dr. W. L. Cleland : Caroona Hill (Lake Gilles) 74 

Baron F. von Mueller and Prof. E. Tate: Definitions of Two New 

Australian Plants 80 

H. Y. L. Brown : Notes on the Geological Features of the Teetulpa 

Goldfields 82 

Thomas Parker : The Underground Waters of South Australia and 

Suggestions as to Mode of their Utilization 84 

Prof. E. Tate : The Gastropods of the Older Tertiary of Australia — 
Part I. (plates i.-xiii.) • • 91 

Eev. T. Blackburn : Further Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with 
Descriptions of New Species 177 

J. G. 0. Tepper : Notes on and Additions to the Flora of Kangaroo 

Island 288 

A. ZiETz : The Ophidia of South Australia 293 

A. ZiETz : Descriptions of New Species of South Australia Crustaceans 
(plate xiv.) 298 

A. ZiETz : Notes on some Eare Varieties of South Australian Snakes . . 300 



IV. 

MISCELLANEA. 
ExcEBPS : New eoiitli Australian Plants from Kangaroo Island. . . . 301 

Additions to the Queensland Flora 302 

Notes on the Straphylinidae in the Adelaide Museum Ibid 

List of Species of Agaricus and Pamis from Lake Bonney . . . . 303 
Note on Carcharias hemiodon as an Australian Species . . . . . . Ibid 

Abstract of Proceedings , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 

Annual Eeport . . . . . . . . . . . , 309 

Balance Sheet 312 

Donations to the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 

List of Fellows, Members, &c. 319 

APPENDIX. 

Field Naturalists' Section 322 

Microscopical Section .. 325 



' iS'^ < S>^^>'' 



Descriptions of Twenty Nkmsjt Species of 

South Australian Goleoptera. 

By Eev. T. Blackbuei^, B.A. 

[Eead December 7, 1886.] 

For some time past I have been occupied in examining and 
describing a number of StapTiylinidce in my possession (cMefly 
collected at Port Lincoln), whicb appear to be i\qv7. The issue 
of the first part of a memoir entitled " A Eevision of the 
StapTiylinidcB of Australia, by A. Sidney Olliff," has led me to 
suppress for the present my descriptions of AleocTiaridcB (to 
which that part of Mr. Olliff's memoir relates), as some of the 
species I was intending to describe appear to be identical with 
species described by that author. The Stapliylinidce treated of 
in the following pages belong, therefore, to the tribes ii.-v. of 
M. Lacordaire. I take the opportunity of this publication to 
insert descriptions of two fine species of Tluryscaplius presented 
to me about a year since by Professor Tate, of the Adelaide 
University, which, the Professor informs me, were captured 
at Ouldea, the larger and finer of which I have taken the 
liberty of associating with his name. 

EuETscAPHrs Tatei, sp. nov. Niger, nitidus, capite inter 
oculos foveis duabus profundis arcuatis instructo ; pro- 
thorace minus lunulato ; elytris convexis, minus circulari- 
bus, subseriatim punctatis ; utrinque in disco puncto valde 
majore • tibiis anticis externe bideutatis, intermediis 
dente acuto instructis. Long., 15 lin. ; lat., 6i lin. 
The head is smooth (though somewhat lumpy in front), broad, 
and flattish, with the usual two bent sulci, and (close within 
the eyes) one or two large punctures. The thorax is about half 
again as wide as long, considerably emarginate in front, its 
sides not much rounded, its hinder angles quite rounded off, 
and its base quite strongly lobed ; its surtace is transversely 
wrinkled. On either side of the anterior portion, a little 
within the angle, is a large well-defined shallow impression, 
and the space between the two impressions along the anterior 
portion of the thorax is closely set with distinct shallow punc- 
tures. A well defined longitudinal channel occupies the disc 
of the thorax, but is limited in front by the transverse punc- 
tured space, and is intersected near its hinder extremity by a 
strongly impressed transverse depression. 

The elytra, taken together, are a little longer than wide, 
with the turned-up margin rather narrow, except at the 



shoulders, where it is broad and prominent ; the basal portion 
is scooped out not very strongly, and the shoulders are well 
marked. A sparing and very fine puncturation (not noticeable 
without a lens) is rather evenly distributed over the entire 
surface o£ the elytra, in addition to which there is a system of 
coarse (but not large) shallow punctures distributed, with 
little order, near the suture and external margin, but forming 
fairly regular . rows on the disc — about 50 punctures in each 
row. On each elytron a single, large, deep puncture or fovea 
is placed about one-third of the length of the elytron from 
the apex, and about a third of the width of the same from the 
suture. 

The fore tibiae have three small teeth above the two large 
ones. 

In general build this insect must resemble E. anr/ulatus, 
Macl. (which I have not seen), but, infer alia, its thorax is 
totally different. The two large punctures on the elytra dis- 
tinguish it from all the described species, except hipunctatus^ 
Macl., and obesus, Macl. From these its narrower form and 
more strongly lobed thorax, as well as the peculiar punctura- 
tion of the elytra readily distinguish it, 

Ouldea, S. Australia. . 
EuEYscAPHUS suBSiiLCATrs, sp. nov. Niger, nitidus, capite 
inter oculos f oveis duabus prof undis arcuatis instruct© ; 
prothorace basi subtruncato, angulis posticis reflexis ; 
elytris longioribus quam conjunctim latioribus, subsul- 
catis ; tibiis anticis externe bidentatis, intermediis dente 
parvo acuto instructis. Long., 11 lin. ; lat., 4 lin. 
The head is of the form and sculpture usual in the genus ; 
there does not, however, seem to be any noticeable puncturation 
close to the eyes. The thorax is just twice as wide as long, 
considerably emarginate in front, not much rounded on the 
sides, but very much so near the posterior angles, which are 
almost vertical, and somewhat dentiform. The base is sub- 
truncate, being very slightly and widely lobed. The peculiar 
form of the posterior part of the thorax effects that the base, 
when viewed directly from above, appears to have its angles 
almost effaced, and to be gently sinuate, while viewed horizon- 
tally from the front the angles appear very sharp, and the base 
absolutely truncate. The thorax has a strong discal channel 
not reaching the front, and some obscure puncturation near 
the anterior margin ; otherwise its surface has no noticeable 
sculpture, but is very inconspicuously and irregularly wrinkled 
or punctured ; its re'flexed margin is broad and strong. 

The elytra together are just a little longer than wide, 
strongly convex, moderately rounded on the sides, with the 
shoulders little prominent, and with the reflexed margin nar- 



row. The surface is quite distinctly, ttiougli very sTiallowly, 
sulcate, with the interstices rather strongly convex, the sulci 
faintly but not finely punctured. 

The fore tibiae have three small teeth above the two large 
ones. 

This insect must be closely allied to E. angulatus, Macl., but 
is only about two-thirds of its size, and evidently has the 
elytra very differently sculptured, as they are distinctly sulcate 
to the naked eye, while in angulatus they are said to be " finely 
striated when examined under a lens." 

Ouldea, S. Australia. 

TACHYPORID^. 
CONTJETJS. 

So many of M. Fauvel's species in this genus are undes- 
cribed but merely compared with some other insect, that there 
is an inevitable danger of creating confusion in describing new 
species allied to those of the learned French author. I there- 
fore pass by for the present several species in my possession 
which may be identical with some of his, and describe only the 
following evidently distinct one : — 

C. instalilis, sp. nov. Niger, nitidus, antennarumbasi, palpisque 
testaceis, pedibus piceis, abdominis segmentis postice 
rufomarginatis, nonnullis exemplis elytris plus minusve 
rubis ; antennis elongatis, robustis, sat incrassatis ; 
prothorace basi latiore quam longiore, antice rotundatim 
angustato, subtilissime crebrius punctato ; elytris pro- 
thorace sat longioribus, postice angustatis, seque ac thorax 
punctatis. Long., 5 mm. 
In the male the basal joints of the front tarsi are strongly 
dilated, the apical ventral segment is strongly incised in a tri- 
angular form, and the preceding segment is emarginate in the 
middle, the emargination being fringed with golden ciliae. In 
the female the apical segment terminates dorsally in four 
lacini^, the upper (middle) ones rather longer than the 
external, but the incision between them extending backwards 
not nearly so far as that between them and the latter. 
Port Lincoln district. 

MYCETOPOErS. 

M.floralis, sp. nov. Nitidus, ferrugineo-rufus, palpis, antennis 
(basi excepto), pectore, coxis, elytrisque (praeter humeros 
et angulum apicalem externum) piceis, abdominis segmen- 
tis plus minusve infuscatis, aureo-pubescentibus ; capite 
prothoraceque Jsevibus ; elytris prothorace sat longioribus, 
utrinque apice longitudinaliter foveatis, triseriatim punc- 
tatis, serie dorsali circiter 10 punctata; abdomine sparsim 
obscure punctato. Long., G mm. 



Of the liind body segments 1-4 are infuscate except a 
narrow apical margin, five has only the base infuscate, six and 
seven are entirely blackish. 

This insect will probably have to form a new genus. Unfor- 
tunately I have only a single specimen which I am unwilling to 
subject to the treatment necessary for describing its characters 
with accuracy ; the following, however, is such information as 
I can supply : — Facies of Bolitohius, maxillary palpi as in 
Ilycefoporus ; antennas elongate, and thick, reaching to near the 
middle of the elytra, none of the joints transverse ; tarsi five 
jointed, all longer than their tibise (the posterior nearly twice 
as long), the basal joint of all about equal in length to the 
following two joints ; the discal series of punctures on each 
elytron ends in a deep fovea, between which and the suture 
there are faint indications of several more longitudinal fovesB ; 
second segment of hind body not keeled beneath, albeit there 
is a small somewhat triangular space at the base of that seg- 
ment only discernible in certain lights which seems faintly ele- 
vated above the surface of the segment ; prosternum very 
strongly carinate ; intermediate and posterior coxae not at all 
elevated above the surface of the meso and meta sterna. 

On flowers of Eucalyptus, near Port Lincoln. 

STAPHYLINID^. 
ACTLOPHOEL^S. 

A. indigniis, sp. nov. Niger, antice nitidissimus, antennarum ar- 
ticulo prime ad basin et pedibus fuscis, abdomine et 
elytris opacis fusco pubescentibus, illo minus iridescente 
segmentorum marginibus apicalibus dilutioribus ; capite 
subovato, antice gradatim (basi ipsa fortiter subito) an- 
gustato, inter oculos (et basin prope) binis puncturis 
magnis, post oculos subtiliter crebre j)unctato ; prothorace 
antice fortiter angustato, punctis 2 disco fere medic, 
singulo prope angulos anticos notato ; elytris crebre for- 
tius, abdomine fortius minus crebre, punctatis, illis 
prothorace vix longioribus. Long., 5i mm. 
This species appears to resemble A: asperatus, Fauv., but is 
•entirely different in colour, with a different puncturation of the 
head and thorax, and, if I am right in understanding M. 
Pauvel to say that the elytra of his species are a third longer 
"than together wide, with much shorter elytra. The contrast 
hetween the brightly shining head and thorax of A. indignus, 
and its opaque elytra and hind body is very noticeable. 

Near Adelaide, banks of the Torrens, presented by 3Ir. E. H. 
Pulleine. 

HETEEOTHOPS. 

J5". taiirus, sp. nov. Nitidus, piceus, antennis, palpis, pedi- 



busque sordide testaceis, protliorace rufescenti ; elytrorum 
apice obscure iiavo, abdominis segmenti Gi. apice anguste 
albo-marginato ; antennis robustis ; capite fortiter traus- 
verso, protborace vix angustiori ; protborace, latitudine 
longitudiui sequali, pimctis 2 ante medium disco sat ap- 
proximatis notato ; elytris protborace yix lougioribus, sub- 
tiliter crebrius punctatis, abdomiue crasse sparsim punc- 
tato. Maris segm. 6° parum profunde emargiuato. 
Loncf., 4-5 mm. 



■■to- J 



Tbis species seems to be ratber closely allied to H. laticeps, 
EauY., but is very differently coloured, bas tbe bead smootbly 
convex between tbe antennae, and doubtless differs in otber res- 
pects, but as M. Eauvel, instead of describing S. laticeps. 
merely compares tbat species witb \A% picipennis, ?indi picipenms 
again witb tbe European prcBvius, Er., it is difficult to gain a 
correct notion of tbe relative lengtb of its tborax, elytra, &c. 
I sbould judge, bowever, tbat tbe bind body of II. laticeps is 
considerably more closely and finely punctured tban tbat of tbe 
insect I bave just described. 

In one of my specimens (perbaps immature), tbe wbole elytra 
are suffused witb testaceous, so tbat tbe yellow apical border 
is less conspicuous tban in darker examples. 

In sbape tbis species resembles Quedius aicricomus, Kies., 
tbougb tbe eyes are mucb smaller and tbe antennae longer and 
more robust tban in tbat insect. 

Under bark of JEucalyptus, about 30 miles nortb of Port Lin- 
coln. 

QUEDirs. 
Q. inconspicuus, sp. nov. Niger, nitidus, antennis piceis apicem 
versus ferrugineis, palpis pedibusque piceis, tarsis rufis, 
protborace rufo-piceo, elytris viridescentibus, abdominis 
segmentis 6° (ad apicem) et 7° obscure cupreis ; anten- 
narum articulo 3° 4° sat longiore, articulis 4-10 subaequali- 
bus vix elongatis ; capite suborbiculato, utrinque punctis 3 
(2 in margine ipso oculi), 2 aliis utrinque basi, aliis post 
oculos subtilibus, notato ; protborace capite sat latiore, 
fortiter transverso, tertia parte disci antica punctis 2 ap- 
proximatis notato, angulis anticis obtusis, posticis rotun- 
datis ; elytris protborace vix longioribus, his cum scutello 
fortius sat sparsim punctatis ; abdominis segmentis basali- 
bus fortiter nee crebre, segmento 6"^ fortiter crebrius, 
segmento 7° fortiter sparsim punctatis. Long. S mm. 
Apparently not unlike Q. luridus, Eauv., but differing in 
colour and m baving longer antennae (in wbicb none of tbe 
joints are transverse), more faintly punctured elytra, &c., &c. 
Wallaroo. 



6 

Q. Anclersoni, sp. nov. Niger, nitidus ; autennis piceis, apice 
rufescentibus ; protliorace et coxis anterioribus la^te rufis ; 
elytris ferriigineo-rufis ; pedibus piceis, geuubus tarsisque 
ferrugiueis ; antennarum articulis 4-10 paulo lougioribus 
quam latioribiis ; capite suborbiculato, ut Q. inconspicui 
notato ; protliorace capite niulto latiore, sat trausverso, 
tertia parte disci antica punctis 2 sat approximatis, extus 
utrinque punctis 2 marginalibiis, notato, angulis anticis 
obtusis, posticis rotundatis ; elytris protliorace vix longi- 
oribiis, bis cum scutello fortius nee crebre puuctatis \ 
abdomine longe nigro-piloso, sparsim fortiter punctato. 
Long., 5-6 mm. 

Somewhat near Q. rujicollis, Grav., but smaller and differently 
coloured, the elytra being bright rustj-red, and the hind body 
unicolorous ; also the head is much smaller, the elytra are more 
closely punctured, &c. 

Taken in the Port Lincoln district by Mr. J. Anderson, ta 
whom I am indebted for the knowledge of this insect. 

Q. Tepperi, sp. noy. Nitidus, niger, genubus tarsorumque 

apice rufis, elytris seneis ; antennis elongatis, articulo 2° 

3° paulo breviore, 4-10 etiam brevioribus nee transversis ;. 

capite fortiter transyerso, antice (? maris soli) fortiter 

depresso, ut Q. inconspicui notato ; prothorace capite 

latiori, antice angustato, tertia parte disci antica punctis 

2 sat approximatis, et quibusdam aliis majoribus in mar- 

ginibus lateralibus, notato ; elytris prothorace evidenter 

longioribus, fortius crebre puuctatis ; abdomine fortius 

minus crebre punctato. Long., 5^ mm. 

This species is probably allied to Q. luridus, Fauv. (which I 

have not seen), but is smaller, with the head and thorax deep 

black. The depression on the front of the head seems to be 

distinctiye, and the antennae are evidently more slender than 

in hi7ndus. The punctuation is finer and closer than in rufi- 

eoUis, Grrav., but stronger and less close than in iridiventris, 

Fauy. Compared with inco7ispicuus, mihi, Tepperi, is much 

smaller, with the elytra more closely punctured, &c. 

There is a single specimen of this insect in the Adelaide 
Public Museum. It was taken by Mr. Tepper on Mount 
Lofty. 

OXTPOErs. 

O. Tufus, Linn. Of this European insect (not hitherto recorded 
as Australian, so far as I know) there is a specimen among 
the Australian StapliylinidcB in the Adelaide Public 
Museum. It has no ticket or note of locality attached to 
it. 



HESPERUS. 

H. Pulleinei, sp. nov. Niger, uitidus, parce nigro-pubesceiis, 
clypeo, palpis, antennis et abdominis segmentis ultimis 2 
laete testaceis (his aureo-pubescentibus), elytris violaceo- 
cseruleis ; capite fortiter trausversim quadrato, crasse 
punc-tato, disco laevi ; prothorace vix transverso, antice 
truncato, crasse punctato, disco lougitudinaliter laevi ; 
elytris protborace vix longioribus, subtilius squamose uec 
crebre puuctatis ; abdomine subtilius nee crebre punctato. 
Long,, 12 mm. 
A single female of tbis beautiful species was taken by Mr. 

H. H. PuUeine at Burnside, near Adelaide, in stercore hovis. 

LEPTACINUS. 

i. linearis, Grav. I cannot discover that this species has been 

previously recorded as occurring in Australia. I possess, 

however, a single specimen taken at Port Lincoln which I 

cannot distinguish from European examples. 

L. Ficticornis, sp. nov. Robustus, nitidus, niger, antennarum 

articulo prime apice, secundoque toto testaceis, articulis 

4-11 fusco-rufis, palpis mandibulis tarsisque rufescenti- 

bus ; capite elongato-quadrato, utrinque sparsim fortiter 

punctato ; prothorace vix elongate, seriebus dorsalibus 6-7 

punctatis; elytris prothorace vix longioribus, confuse- 

lineatim punctatis ; abdominis lateribus punctatis, disco 

laevi. Long., 6-7 mm. 

The antennae are short, joints 4-10 strongly transverse ; the 

forehead has only two longitudinal furrows (which are strongly 

punctate), the external ones of the usual 4 being obsolete. In 

most specimens the knees, and in some the tibiae, are pitchy 

red. In some specimens also the elytra and apex of the hind 

body are of a dull reddish tint. 

I have found this species plentifully in the Port Lincoln 
district and also near Adelaide. Notwithstanding its abun- 
dance, however, I cannot ascertain it to have been described. 
The absence of the lateral furrows of the forehead and the 
peculiar colouring of the antennae distinguish it strongly. 
L. Jilum, sp. nov, Augustus ; parallelus ; nitidus ; niger ; an- 
tennis, palpis, pedibusque piceis ; elytris nonnullis exem- 
plis apicem versus dilutioribus ; antennarum articulis 4-10 
sat fortiter transversis ; capite elongate, crebre subtilius 
punctato, fronte lougitudinaliter obsolete bifoveolato ; 
prothorace tertia parte longiore quam latiore, subtiliter 
crebrius vix lineatim punctato, disco laevi ; elytris protho- 
race vix longioribus, crebrius subtiliter confuse punctatis ; 
abdomine subtilissime nee crebre punctato. Long,, 5-5|- 
mm. 



8 

The sliglitness of tlie impression of t"he frontal fovese, and 
tlie confusion of the dorsal series of thoracic punctures with 
the lateral punctures are unusual in this genus, but I can dis- 
cover no other character to separate this insect from typical 
Leptacimis of Avhich it has perfectly the facie s. 

Taken rarely near Port Lincoln. 

P.EDEKID.E. 

LATHEOBIUM. 

L. Adelaides, sp. nov. Parallelus, parcius pubescens, sat niti- 
dus, ferrugineus, abdominis segmentis 1-5 apice infuscatis ; 
antennis sat gracilibus, elongatis, articulis 2, 4, 5, 6 sub- 
iequalibus ; oculis parvis ; capite quadrate fortiter nee 
crebre punctate ; prothorace vix elongate, disco utrinque 
punctorum serie sulculo impressa externe spatio laevi 
secuta notato, lateribus confuse subtiliter punctatis ; ely- 
tris prothorace sat longioribus subtiliter lineato-punctatis ; 
abdoraine vix distincte punctate. Long., 5-5^mm. 
The generic position of this insect is perhaps a little doubt- 
ful, as the first joint of the hind tarsi is decidedly (though 
only very slightly) longer than the second. In respect of its 
dilated front tarsi and other characters it agrees very well 
with LatTirolium. Two specimens (both female) have occurred 
near Adelaide. 

SCIMBALIUM. 

S. agreste, sp. nov. Minus depressnm ; piceo-nigrum ; antennis, 
palpis, pedibus et sutura ruf escentibus ; antennis elongatis, 
ad basin elytrorum attingentibus ; prothorace capiteque 
nitidis, hoc longiore quam latiore, subparallelo, inter an- 
tennarum basin depresso, antice sparsim fortiter postice 
densius subtilius duplo punctate ; illo longiore quam 
latiore, antice parum angustato, sat dense duplo punctate 
(subtiliter et multo subtilius), linea longitudinali angusta 
Igevi ; elytris minus nitidis, thorace quinta parte longiori- 
bus et latioribus, dense nee fortiter punctatis, sutura 
elevata ; abdomine parum nitido, crebre subtilissime punc- 
tato. Maris segmento 6° subtus medio arcuatim emargi- 
nato, utrinque minus fortiter emarginato, iucisuris later- 
alibus dense nigro-ciliatis, 7° profunde incise. Long., 
11-12 mm. 
This species is evidently near S. duplopunctatum, Fauv., from 
which it differs inter alia in having its elytra proportionately 
longer (the suture beiug quite red and rather strongly elevated), 
and in the sexual characters (the male having the apex of the 
sixth ventral segment quite strongly emarginate in the middle, 
while there is also a shallow emarcrination on either side fur- 



9 

nished witli black cilife). I do not observe any iridescence 

on tbis insect. 

Port Lincoln ; also near Adelaide. 

S. Icetum, sp. nov. Subdepressum, nigrum, antennis, mandi- 
bulis, palpis, pedibus, et abdominis segmentorum margini- 
bus apicalibus plus minusve f uscescentibus ; elytris (prseter 
basin) laete rufis ; capite longiore quam latiore, subtiliter 
nee crebre punctato, punctis majoribus crebrius intersper- 
sis, disco baud laevi, lateribus rotundatis ; prothorace 
capitis latitudine, tertia parte longiore quam latiore, spar- 
sim duplopunctato, disco longitudiualiter laevi ; elytris 
prothorace sat latioribus vix longioribus, crebre rugose 
nee fortiter punctatis ; abdomine sat crebre punctato. 
Maris segmento 6° subtus medio et a lateribus leviter 
emarginato, incisuris lateralibus nigro-ciliatis, 7° late sat 
fortiter inciso. 
Henley Beach and Woodville, under stones , also flying to 

light. 

CEXPTOBIUil. 

C delicatulum, sp. nov. Angustulum ; nitidum ; colore vari- 
abile ; nigrum, antennis palpis pedibusque testaceis, non- 
nullis exemplis thorace elytrisque piceis vel rufescentibus, 
nonnullis antennis tibiisque plus minusve infuscatis ; capite 
elongate, depresso, fortiter nee crebre punctato, disco 
laevi : prothorace fere duplo longiore quam latiore, postice 
angustato, subtiliter crebrius punctato, linea media l«vi ; 
elytris prothorace vix longioribus subtiliter (nonnullis ex- 
emplis obsolete) nee crebre punctatis ; abdomine obsolete 
punctato, segmentis 6-7 apice piceolis : Maris segmento 
6° subtus profunde triangulariter inciso. Long., 4-5^ mm. 
Somewhat allied to C.fractiom, Eauv., but smaller, narrower, 

and differently coloured. The thorax is much more narrowed 

backwards, and the elytra much more faintly punctured, indeed 

in some specimens they are almost devoid of defined punc- 

turation. 

Not rare in marshy places near Port Lincoln ; also taken 

near Adelaide. 

srjs-ius. 

8. ceq^ualis, sp. nov. Augustus, ferrugineus ; antennis, palpis, 
pedibus et elytrorum apice, pallide testaceis, abdominis 
segmento 6° praeter apicem nigro ; antennis gracilibus, 
elongatis ; capite elongate subquadrato dense subtiliter 
aequo ac thorax punctato ; prothorace capite sat angustiori, 
a parte latissima (paulo post marginem anticum posita) 
antice fortiter, postice leviter vix rotundatim, angustato ; 
elytris prothorace sat latioribus longioribusque, fortius 



10 

minus crebre punctatis ; abdomine sparsim squamose punc- 
tate. Long., 4x-5t mm. 

This species closely resembles in build the European S. an- 
giistatiis, Er., compared with \Yhich it has longer antennae, 
and the elytra and hind body differently punctured. The 
colour — entirely ferruginous and testaceous, except the black 
basal part of the penultimate segment — distinguishes it widely 
from all the Australian species previously described. 

Not rare near Port Lincoln ; also taken by Mr. Tepper in 
the Mount Lofty range. 

P,TEDEErS. 

P. Adelaidce, sp. nov. Eufus, capite (mandibulis exceptis) 

nigro, elytris cyaneis ; antennis elongatis gracilibus; capite 

prothoraceque sparsim fortiter punctatis, hoc subgloboso ; 

elytris angustis, prothorace vix longioribus, crebre fortiter 

grosse puuctatis, abdomine sparsim fortiter punctato. 

Long., 10 mm. 

This is a very distinct species, owing to the uniformity of 

colouring — the head and elytra excepted. Two specimens were 

taken by Mr. Pulleine in debris of the Eiver Torrens, near 

Adelaide. In one of these the knees, and in the other the 

knees and tibiae, are slightly mfuscate. 

PINOPHILn).E. 

(EDICHIEIJS. 

(E. Andersoni, sp. nov. Eerrugineus ; griseo-pubescens ; palpis, 
antennis, pedibusque testaceis, nonnullis exemplis ab- 
domine nigricante ; capite leviter transverso, rotundato, 
sparsim grosse punctato ; prothorace ovato, capite vix 
latiore, postice sat angustato, grosse confuse punctato, in 
longitudinem (prsesertim prope basin) carinato ; elytris 
prothorace tertia parte brevioribus, grosse punctatis ; 
abdomine (prseter segmentorum marginem apicalem) pro- 
funde nee crebre punctato. Long., 8-9 mm. 
A very distinct species. Occurs near Port Lincoln, under 

stones. 

PIXOPHILrS. 

P. latelricola, sp. nov. Conyexus ; niger; fusco-pubescens ; an- 
tennis, palpi s, pedibusque rufo-testaceis ; capite transverso, 
antice parce (postice densius) subtiliter punctato, disco 
]aevi ; prothorace vix longiore quam latiore, antice sub- 
truncato, capite vix latiore, postice rotundatim angustato, 
basi hand carinulato, dense subtiliter punctato, angulis an- 
ticis subrectis, posticis rotundatis ; elytris prothorace sat 
longioribus, dense subtiliter punctatis, abdomine densissime 
subtiliter punctato. Maris segmento 7" apice subtus tri- 
angulariter inciso. Long., 10-11 mm. 



11 

ISTot very closely allied to any described species. Compared 
with P. rujitarsis, Fauv., this insect is more convex, with the 
thorax more truncate in front, the sides more rounded and less 
narrowed backwards, the elytra considerably longer (about 
one-fifth longer than the thorax), and the puncturation through- 
out much closer and finer. 

Not uncommon under stones near Henley Beach. 



12 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera, ^with 
Descriptions of New Species. 

By the Eev. T. Blackbuex, B.A. 

[Kead April 5, 1887.] 

The Hon. W. Macleay, of Sydney, has recently published 
through the Linnean Society of I^ew South Wales two papers 
of very great interest, each of them being a monographic revi- 
sion of a genus of LamelJioornes peculiar (so far as is known) to 
Australia, viz., Dijjliucephala and Liparetrus. In 1866 Mr. 
Macleay, through the Entomological Society of New South 
Wales, dealt similarly with the genus Phylloiocus and its allies, 
and in 1871, through the same Society, he supplied descriptions- 
of several new species from Queensland of the last-named 
genus. I venture to draw the special attention of the Eoyal 
Society to the exceedingly valuable work that Mr. Macleay has 
commenced in the series of memoirs alluded to above, entitled 
" Miscellanea Entomologica," and which is all the more valu- 
able because in all probability he is the only entomologist 
qualified for the task, so that without his doing it it would long 
remain undone. By far the richest Australian collections both 
of specimens and books are at his disposal, and by publishing 
the results of his studies of these he will open the way for less- 
favoured students to supplement his w^ork by the publication 
of such of their observations as his memoirs enable them to 
ascertain to be still unrecorded. 

In the present paper I offer to the Eoyal Society descriptions 
of several new species belonging to genera that Mr. Macleay 
has dealt with, and add a few notes on certain species that he 
has treated of. I take the opportunity also to furnish descrip- 
tions of a few new Coleoptera belonging to other groups that 
have recently come under my notice. 

SCAEITID.E. 
EuRXGNATHUS, gen. nov. 
Corpus maxime elongatum ; palpi maxillares et labiales apice 
f ortiter securif ormes ; caput rotundatum ; mandibular 
crassje capite breviores, fortiter arcuatae, intus unindentatse ; 
sulci frontales sat fortiter impressi, elongati, postice 
divergentes ; tibiae anticae externe bidentatas ; intermedia^ 
unispinosae. 



The remarkable insect on whicli this genus is founded must 
be somewhat allied to Teratidium macros, Bates, one of the 
rarest and most interesting of Australian Carabidce. It differs 
from it, however, in certain respects that render the two incap- 
able of being associated in the same genus. The general form 
of this insect — the rounded head, the extremely incrassated 
apex of all the palpi, the bisinuate labrum prominent in the 
middle, the prominent eyes encased behind in broad orbits, and 
the projecting tooth at the shoulders of the elytra — are strongly 
suggestive of Teratidium, but the bidentate anterior tibiae, the 
head scarcely so wide as the thorax, the well-marked frontal 
fovese, and the strong external apical spine of the intermediate 
tibiae, are inconsistent with its finding a place in Mr. Bates' 
genus. 

E.fortis, sp. nov. Niger ; nitidus; capite (mandibulis inclusis) 
f ortiter transverso ; antennis prothorace vix longioribus ; 
prothorace leviter transverso canaliculato, antice subtrun- 
cato (angulis anticis minus notatis), lateribus in parte 
anteriore plus quam dimidia leviter emargiuatis, inde 
f ortiter angustatis, basi leviter rotundata, angulis posticis 
vix perspicuis, basi apice multo angustiori ; elytris pro- 
thorace vix angustioribus, subcylindricis, fortiter punc- 
tato-striatis, striis punctatis apicem marginesque versus 
obsoletis, humeris externe dentatis ; pedibus validis ; tibiis 
anticis apice abrupte palmatis, externe fortiter bidentatis ; 
tibiis intermediis et posticis apice intus fortiter bispinosis. 
Long., 40 m. ; lat., 11 mm. 

I may add that the elytra are slightly narrowed at the base, 
and rather deeply emarginate across their front, that there is a 
row of somewhat elongate impressions in a deep furrow just 
before the reflexed margin of the elytra, the portion of the 
elytra on w^hich it is placed being vertical, and that the frontal 
fovese are very strong behind, commencing in a fovea nearly 
as far back as the hinder edge of the eye, thence converge 
strongly to about the level of the front of the eye, whence 
they diverge again, but become exceedingly faint, and that 
they are united at their hinder end by a shallow furrow. 

A single specimen of this magnificent insect was taken by 
Mr. Tepper at Ardrossan, and is in the South Australian 
Museum. 

STAPHYLINID^. 

ELEDIUS. 

B. caroli, sp. nov. Niger ; minus nitidus ; breviter albido- 
pubescens ; ore, antennis, palpis, pedibusque testaceis ; 
elytris pallide testaceis, basi et macula communi nigris ; 



14 

auo rufescente ; capite, protliorace elytris efc abdominis 

seginentis (basi excepta) creberrime subtiliter punctatis ; 

protliorace subtilissime canaliculato, antice truncato, pos- 

tice sat augustato, elytris sat breviore, lateribus fortiter 

rotundatis. Long., S-Ss mm. 

The black mark common to the elytra proceeds from tbe 

scutellum down the suture, becoming wider to about tbe middle 

of the elytra, where it expands abruptly on each side till it 

reaches nearly half way across each elytron, and does not 

extend into the apical quarter of the elytra. It has somewhat 

the shape of the club in a pack of cards. 

I have named this species after my son, who obtained a 
short series by washing sand on the banks of the Port Eiver, 
near Adelaide. 

JB. minax, sp. nov. Niger ; nitidulus ; parce pilosus prothoracis 
cornu, elytris, pedibus, anoque piceis vel rufescentibus ; 
antennis elongatis minus clavatis ; capite creberrime sub- 
tiliter punctato, inter spinam utrinque elongatam acutam 
longe ciliatam fortiter incurvam, et verticem, transversim 
late depresso ; prothorace convexo, subquadrato, parce 
nigro-piloso, parce prof unde punctato, angulis anticis sub- 
rotundatis, lateribus medio intus emarginatis postice for- 
titer coarctatis, angulis posticis minus perspicuis, sulco sat 
prof undo antice spina gracili acuta a basi ad apicem incurva 
producto ; elytris convexis, prothorace vix latioribus, hand 
longioribus, dense crasse punctatis ; abdomine alutaceo, 
segmentis apicem versus obscure crasse punctatis. Long., 
5 mm. 
Allied to B. liamifer, Pauv., from which it differs inter alia 
in its more parallel form, longer and more slender antennae, 
frontal horns strongly bent inwards, and very coarsely punc- 
tured thorax. 

A single specimen occurred to me on the bank of a creek 
about 35 miles north-west of Port Lincoln. 
B. injucundus, sp. nov. Piceo-niger ; minus nitidus ; antennis, 
tibiis, tarsisque rufescentibus ; antennis sat brevibus, 
apicem versus incrassatis, articulis subaj^icalibus sat for- 
titer transversis ,• capite alutaceo vix evidenter punctato ; 
prothorace leviter canaliculato subtilius sat crebre, elytris 
fortius sat crebre, abdomine sparsim subtiliter, punctatis. 
Long., 3i mm. 
This is an inconspicuous species, but it does not appear to 
bear much resemblance to any yet described as Australian. 

I have a single specimen from Port Lincoln, but I do not 
know the circumstances of its capture. 



15 

LAMELLICOENES. 
PHTLLOTOCrS. 

P. occidentalism sp. nov, P. assimili affinis ; latius, pallide testa- 
ceus, nitidus, el3'trorum apice (vix) abdomineque fuscis ; 
prothoracis angulis posticis rotimdatis; elytris leviter 
punctato-striatis ; tibiis anticis (? maris solum) externe 
bidentatis. Long., 8i-9 mm. 
Eatber closely allied to P. Macleayi, Eiscb., and P. assimilis, 
Macl., but a broader and sborter insect tban eitber, witb tbe 
bind angles o£ tbe tborax rounded off, tbe sculpture of tbe 
elytra fainter, and tbeir apex almost devoid of fuscous sbading. 
My specimens all appear to be males. Tbe anterior tibise are 
bidentate externally, and tbe claws of tbe anterior tarsi are 
only very moderately tbickened, witb very little, if any, differ- 
ence inter se. 

Several specimens of tbis insect were sent to me from Wes- 
tern Australia by E. Meyrick, Esq., B.A. 

P. MeyricM, sp. nov. Minus convexus, niger, obscure irides- 
cens, sparsim albo-birtus ; an tennis (clava excepta), pedi- 
busque (tarsis piceis exceptis) squalide testaceis ; elytris 
(sutura marginibusque exceptis) pallide testaceis ; capite 
protboraceque sparsim subtilius punctatis, elytris leviter 
punctato-striatis ; tibiis anticis (? maris solum) externe 
bidentatis ; tarsorum anticorum unguiculis (? maris solum) 
modice dilatatis, subsequalibus. Long., 61-7 mm. 
Var. — E-ufus ; capite, pal pis, et maculis in protborace nonnullis, 
nigris ; elytris albidis piceo-marginatis. 
Tbe iridescence of tbis species is not very conspicuous (in 
tbe pale variety it is scarcely discernible) ; tbe suture of tbe 
elytra is blackened only very narrowly ; tbe marginal blacken- 
ing or infuscation of tbe same is scarcely traceable along tbe 
base, at tbe base of tbe external margin is scarcely as wide as 
an interstice between tbe elytral striae, widens towards tbe 
apex till it is about tbree times as wide as at tbe base, and 
tben becomes merged in an apical cloud of tbe same colour, 
wbicb occupies nearly a quarter tbe lengtb of tbe elytra. Tbe 
wbitisb bairs witb wbicb tbe insect is furnisbed are cbiefly on 
tbe underside, and fringing tbe margins. I am not quite sure 
of tbe sex of my two specimens ; but from tbe bidentation of 
tbe anterior tibiae and tbe decided (tbougb equal and not very 
strong) dilation of tbe anterior claws I expect tbey are males. 
Tbe basal joint of tbe posterior tarsi is sborter tban tbe 
second. 

Perbaps somewbat allied to P. iridescens, Macl. (a species 
tbat I am not sure I know). Judging by Mr. Macleay's brief 
description (dealing only witb size, colour, and pubescence), 



16 

MeyricJci is smaller than iridescens, inucli less conspicuously 
iridescent, and has the thorax quite differently coloured. 
Falliatus, Macl. (which its author conjectures may be female 
iridescens) has the elytra sulcate. 

This also was sent to me from Western Australia by E. 
Meyrick, Esq. 

MJECHIDIUS. 

M. major, sp, nov. Brunneo-piceus, subnitidus, depressiusculus; 
clypea triangulariter exciso, lateribus obliquis, bisinuatis; 
capite prothoraceque crasse punctatis dense hispidis ; hoc 
postice minus angustato, lateribus crenulatis, angulis 
posticis subdentiformibus, basi leviter bisinuata ; elytris 
tuberculis miuutis instructis, his seriatim minus regulari- 
ter positis; tibiis anticis modicis, dente superiori (prope 
medium posito) subobsoleto ; unguiculis simplicibus ; 
pygidio aequo ac prothorace, hispido. Long., 14 mm. 
The clypeus resembles that of M. sordidus, Boisd. The setae 
on the head, thorax, and pygidium are of a golden brown 
colour, and nearly as long as the basal joint of the antennae. 
They stand erect, but their apical third part is bent over 
backwards. The setae on the elytra are of similar form and 
colour, but being shorter and much less dense are not so con- 
spicuous. The sculpture of the elytra is very difficult to des- 
cribe. Owing to the projection (above the punctures) of the 
tubercles w^ithin the punctures, and their frequent coalesence 
with each other, the surface of the elytra (when not viewed 
from directly above it) seems to be confusedly covered with rows 
of short transverse ridges mingled with minute conical granu- 
lations. There are about 20 of these rows, and nearly 40 
granulations in each of them. 

This species is probably allied to variolosus, Macl., and 
longitarsis, "Waterh., both unknown to me. Compared with the 
former it is larger, with the clypeus more deeply emarginate, 
the elytra differently sculptured, the legs differently coloured, 
&c. Erom the latter it differs by the conspicuous long setae of 
the head, thorax, and pygidium ; by the shorter basal joint of 
the hind tarsi, &c., &c. 

Taken at King George's Sound by E. Meyrick, Esq. 
M. crenaticollis, sp. no v. Brevis, convexus, piceus, minus niti- 
dus, sat confertim granulatus, granulis setiferis ; clypeo 
sat leviter exciso, lateribus obliquis fortiter bisinuatis ; 
prothorace postice leviter angustato, lateribus rotundatis 
fortiter crenulatis (fere serratis) postice sinuatis, angulis 
posticis fere rectis, basi leviter bisinuata ; elytris tuber- 
culis oblongis instructis, his seriatim positis, inter stitiis 
5° 9" que ceteris latioribus ; tibiis anticis tridentatis, un- 
guiculis simplicibus. Long., 9 mm. 



17 

The emargination of the clypeus is very well marked, but 
evidently shallower than in M. sordidus, Boisd., the bisinuation 
of its sides somewhat stronger than in that insect. The lateral 
margins of the thorax are each cut into about 20 teeth, each of 
which is scarcely shorter than one of the thoracic setae. As the 
setiferous tubercles are raised above the surface of the insect, 
it has no punctures rightly so called. The elongate tubercles 
form about 18 rows on the elytra, each row containing less 
than 30 tubercles. The set® are of a pale brown colour, but 
are not particularly conspicuous. The middle tooth of the 
front tibia is fairly well defined, and is about intermediate in 
position between the base of the tibia and the apex of the ter- 
minal tooth. The widening of the fifth and ninth (and in a 
less degree of several other) intervals between the rows of 
granulations on the elytra is very noticeable. 
Taken by Mr. B. S. Eothe, of Sedan, S.A. 
N.B. — The South Australian Museum, Adelaide, contains a 
specimen ticketed " S.A.," which I cannot regard as distinct 
from that sent me by Mr. Eothe, although it is larger (11 mm.), 
somewhat darker in colour, and has the granulations on the 
surface of the thorax not quite so strong. I have also seen 
two specimens taken by Mr. J. Anderson on Boston Island. 
Jf. rugosipes, sp. nov. Brevis, convexus, rufo-piceus, minus 
nitidus ; clypeo triangulariter, minus f ortiter exciso lateri- 
bus obliquis vix sinuatis ; prothorace creberrime punctato, 
antice angustato, lateribus rotundatis vix crenulatis, 
angulis posticis subdentiformibus, basi fortiter lobata ; 
elytris seriatim punctulatis tuberculatisque ; tibiis anticis 
obtuse minus fortiter tridentatis ; tibiis intermediis et 
posticis in medio margine externo bi-vel trituberculatis ; 
unguiculis simplicibus. Long., 10 mm. 
The shape of the thorax is remarkable in this species. From 
the front, which is the narrowest part, it widens with gently- 
curved margins nearly to the base, and then is rapidly nar- 
rowed, with a strong curve, to the posterior angles, which are 
dentiform ; but behind the posterior angles the thorax is quite 
strongly emarginate in such manner that the middle of the 
basal portion forms a conspicuous lobe. The sculpture of the 
elytra resembles that of M. major, mihi. The external outline 
of the anterior tibiae might almost be called " strongly 
bisinuate" rather than "tridentate." On the intermediate and 
hind tibiae two or three of the asperities on the middle of the 
external edge exceed the rest in prominence much more notice- 
ably than is usual in the genus. 

I obtained a single specimen of this insect some years ago 
from Victoria, but the exact locality of its capture is unknown 
to me. 



18 

LIPAKETRUS. 
L. plicenicopterus, Germ. — In Lis recent paper on Lipcn'etriis, 
tlie Hon. AV. Macleay adds some particulars to those originally 
furnished by Germar regarding this species. I have no doubt 
Mr. Macleaj's identification of Germar's species is accurate, in- 
asmuch as (so far as I know) there is only one South Australian 
species of the same group of Liparetrus in which the pilosity 
on the disc of the thorax is (as Germar describes it in pJicsni- 
co'pterui) in contrast by its dark colour with that at the sides ; 
and that species is plentiful and widely distributed. There 
still remain, however, several characters of the above-men- 
tioned species that I have not seen recorded, viz. : — That in 
many examples the elytra are more orlessinfuscate or blackish 
at the base, and that the basal joint of the anterior tarsi is very 
peculiar in form. In the male it is almost square, attached to 
the tibia by one of the corners, so that the tarsus looks as if it 
had been broken off and gummed on again ; in the female it is 
much narrowed at the base, and the basal portion is bent, at 
an angle of about 45 deg. to the axis of the tarsus, the apex of 
this bent portion being the point of attachment to the tibia. 
In the male the claws of this tarsus are short and strongly 
bent, the inner claw miich more strongly than the outer ; in 
the female the claws are very similar to those of the male, 
but are a little more slender, and are equally bent. 

There is another species very closely allied to L. plicBnicop- 
terns, but having the front tarsi and claws of the male quite 
different, and the hair on the upper surface paler, which is 
widely distributed in South Australia. It must be still more 
closely allied to the Queensland L.fulvoliirtus, Macl. It seems 
so improbable that an insect having a wide range in Queens- 
land and also in South Australia should have failed to be 
noticed in ^N'ew South "Wales that I think the South Australian 
insect is probably not identical wdth the Queensland one, but 
as it agrees very fairly with the description (I observe no dis- 
crepancy except that the thorax is hardly so coarsely punc- 
tated as from the description I should expect it to be hifulvo- 
Tiirtus, and that the clypeus is somewhat more strongly emar- 
ginate) I abstain from giving it a new name. 
L.Jimhnatus, sp. nov. Niger ; antennis (clava excepta), palpis, 
tarsis, tibiis anticis et elytris (basi lateribusque exceptis) 
rufescentibus ; capite crebre subtiliter punctato ; pro- 
thorace capillis longis brunneis erectis fimbriate, sat for- 
titer nee crebre punctato ; elytris glabris subnitidis 
sparsim punctatis, striis 3 geminatis pimctatis instructis ; 
pygidio crasse (nee profunde) crebrius punctato, sparsim 
albo-hirto ; subtus sat dense albido-hirtus ; tibiis anticis 
tridentatis ; unguiculis basi tuberculo setifero instructis ; 



19 

maris clypeo antice reflexo leviter emarginato, lateribus 
pone apicem valde emarginatis, angulis anticis acutis ; 
tarsis ungaiculisque anticis fortiter incrassatis, his apice 
abrupte arcuatis ; feminse clypeo antice reflexo vix emar- 
ginato, lateribus vix sinuatis, angulis anticis subrotun- 
datis ; an tennis noviesarticulatis. Long., 7-8|- mm. 
The fringe of erect, moderately close and very long hairs 
■completely surrounding the prothorax (the rest of the upper 
surface being glabrous) gives this insect a peculiar appearance. 
The hairs along the front of the thorax are evidently darker 
in colour than those along the base. 

Compared with L. pTioenicopterus, Grerm., the clypeus of the 
male scarcely differs, while that of the female is less sinuated 
at the sides ; the head is more closely, the thorax very similarly 
punctated ; the elytra differ chiefly in being darker along the 
base and sides, and having the geminate striae more distinct ; 
ihe pygidium is less closely punctured, and the whole insect is 
incomparably less hairy. 

The basal joint of the hind tarsi equals about two-thirds of 
the second joint. 

This species is common on flowers near Tumby Bay in the 
Port Lincoln district in early summer. 

L. caviceps, sp. no v. Niger, iridescens ; antennis (clava 
excepta) palpisque rufis, tarsis, plus minusve piceis ; pro- 
thorace capillis (antice sparsis erectis longis, postice 
crebris retrorsum directis brevibus, ad latera crebris 
longis erectis) fimbriato ; clypeo nitido confuse sat crasse 
punctato, marginibus reflexis, antice subtruncato, angulis 
rotundatis sutura postice baud arcuata ; capite opaco sat 
fortiter nee crebre punctato, antice longitudinaliter im- 
|)resso (nonnullis exemplis obscure et obtuse bituber- 
culato) ; elytris fortius sparsim punctatis, striis geminatis 
instructis, his subtilius punctatis ; pygidio propygidioque 
glabris, crebre crasse (feminse? quam maris? crassius) 
nee profunde punctatis ; tibiis anticis bidentatis ; tar- 
sorum posticorum articulo primo secundo fere dlupo 
longiore ; subtus cinereo-pilosus ; antennis noviesarticu- 
latis. Long., 7-8-| mm. 
This species seems to be well distinguished by the strong 
broad furrow running down the forehead from near the base to 
the apex, at which point there is in some specimens a minute 
tubercle on either side. In the specimens which I take to be 
females the iridescence is conspicuous and brilliant over the 
whole upper surface, and the puncturation of the pygidium and 
propygidium is quite rugose ; in a single specimen, which I 
judge from a slight incrassation of the anterior claws to be the 



20 

male, the iridescence is very sliglit, and the hind parts of the 
body are punctured more smoothly. 

This species occurs in the Port Lincoln district, but I have 
met with it only rarely. 

Xi. senex. sp. nov. Niger, iridescens ; antennis (clava excepta), 
palpis, tarsisque rufis ; pedibus anticis et intermediis plus 
minusve rufescentibus ; prothorace capillis longis albidis 
erectis ad latera fimbriate ; clypeo nitido crasse leviter 
punctate, antice tridentato (maris sat fortiter, femin?e vix 
evidenter), sutura postice arcuata ; capite minus nitido 
multo crebrius punctate ; prothorace spar si tn subtiliter 
punctate, postice canaliculate ; elytris fortius nee crebre 
punctatis, striis geminatis modice distinctis, pygidio 
propygidioque sat confertim punctatis; tibiis anticis 
fortiter tridentatis ; tarsorum posticorum articulo primo 
secundo subsequali ; maris tarsis anticis sat fortiter incras- 
satis ; subtus griseo et brunneo pilosus ; antennis novies 
articulatis ; tarsis robustis. Long., 8-10 mm. 
There are specimens of this insect in the South Australian 
Museum ; one of them is ticketed as having been taken by 
Mr. Tepper at Murray Bridge ; the others are unticketed. 
Zi. gracilijpes, sp. nov. Niger, iridescens -, antennis palpis pedi- 
busque piceis vel rufopiceis ; prothorace ad latera capillis 
longis subtilibus, elytris capillis brevibus crassis, nigro- 
fimbriatis ; clypeo subnitido crasse leviter punctate, antice 
rotundato-truncato vix evidenter bisinuato, sutura postice 
parum arcuata ; capite confertim crebrius punctate ; pro- 
thorace sparsim subtiliter punctate, postice canaliculate ; 
elytris fortius nee crebre punctatis, striis geminatis sat 
distinctis ; pygidio propygidioque sat confertim punctatis, 
hoc medio longitudinaliter biimpresso ; tibiis anticis maris 
extus bisinuatis, parte apicali angustata producta, feminae 
fortiter tridentatis ; tarsis omnibus gracilibus, posticorum 
articulo primo secundo subsequali ; subtus griseo et 
brunneo pilosus ; antennis novies articulatis. 
This insect seems to occur near Adelaide, specimens in the 
South Australian Museum being ticketed as having been taken 
by Mr. Tepper at Mitcham and Belair. I have taken it in the 
western districts of Victoria. 

The preceding three species belong to a section of Liparetrus 
probably numerous, and so far as yet known confined to South 
and West Australia. Its members agree in having their bodies 
(except the antennae, palpi, and legs, which are sometimes more 
or less reddish) of a uniform deep black, which in some lights 
is brilliantly iridescent ; the upper surface of the head, thorax, 
and elytra glabrous (save that those parts are surrounded with 



21 

fringes of hair) ; the under surface rather thickly pilose, and' 
the elytra very short. The first description aj^pertaining to 
them was published by G-ermar in 1818, in the " Beitrags zur 
Insektenfauna von Adelaide," under the name iridipennis. This 
brief description (founded on a single female specimen) would 
apply to almost any member o£ the group, but the Hon. W. 
Macleay, of Sydney, in a paper recently published by the Linn. 
Soc. of New South "Wales, furnishes details omitted by Germar. 
Since 1848 three more species of the group have been described, 
so that the three described in this paper bring up the number 
to seven. The following table will enable the student to dis- 
tinguish them inter se : — 

A. Basal joint of posterior tarsi twice the length of the 
second joint. 
a. Clypeus of male tridentate in front. Size, about 
9 mm. ... ... ... iridipennis, Germ. 

aa. Clypeus not tridentate. Size, about 6 mm. 

convexior, Macl. 

AA. Basal joint of posterior tarsi about half again as long as 

second joint. 

a. Forehead longitudinally sulcate. Elytra quite con- 

colorous, with prothorax .... caviceps, Blackb. 

aa. Forehead not sulcate.* Elytra of a pitchy sub- 
iridescent colour ... ... rotundipennis, MacL 

AAA. First and second joints of posterior tarsi not much dif- 
ferent in length. 
a. Pygidium and propygidium densely clothed with 
white scales ... ... ... tristis, Blanch. 

aa. Pygidium and propygidium glabrous, or nearly so. 

h. Propygidium with two short longitudinal furrows,t 

the space between which is elevated, as though 

pinched up. Hairs fringing the thorax black; 

tarsi very slender ... ... _^r«<?z7i^ds, Blackb. 

M. Propygidium normal ; thorax fringed with whitish 
hairs ; tarsi very robust ... ... seiiex, Blackb. 

It should perhaps be noted that some specimens of L. pici- 
pennis, G-erm., are coloured somewhat similarly to the insects 
mentioned in the preceding table, but they may be readily dis- 
tinguished by their elytra extending nearly or quite to the 
apex of the propygidium. 

L. diversus, sp. nov. Ovatus ; niger; parum, nitidus, antennis 
(clava excepta) palpis pedibusque rufis ; elytris lividis, 

* This colour leads me to doubt whether L. rotundipennis (which I have 
not seen) should really be included in this group. 

t These furrows are sometimes faintly defined, sometimes very deep, but 
appear to be always discernible. 



22 

lateribus apiceque iufuscatis ; supra ubique capillis longis 

crassis (iu capite, et in prothoracis elytrorumque disco, 

bruuneis vel piceis ; iu marginibus albis) sparsim vestitus; 

subtus et iu pygidio propygidioque deuse albo-tomeutosus ; 

clypeo autice rotuudato-truncato ; capite prothoraceque 

opacis ; hoc trausverso sparsissime, illo miuus sparsim, 

fortiter puuctatis ; elytris subnitidis crasse vix seriatim 

puuctatis ; tibiis auticis iu medio obsolete deutatis, apice 

iu deutem longum producto ; tarsorum posticorum articulo 

1° 2^ paullo longiore. Long., 6|-mm. 

A very distiuct little species, uot very closely allied, I tbink, 

to auy yet described. Probably it is most at home uear 

L. discipennis. 

It was takeu iu "Westeru Australia by Mr. Meyrick. 
JL. nigro-umhratus, sp. uov. Late ovatus ; sat uitidus ; niger ; 
auteuuis, palpis, tarsisque, rufo-piceis ; elytrorum disco 
cupreo-lurido ; capite prothoraceque deuse nigro-pilosis ; 
subtus cinereo-pilosus ; clypeo autice rotuudato-truucato, 
margiuibus sat fortiter reflexis ; capite prothoraceque 
crebre sat fortiter, elytris sparsim subtilius, pygidio propy- 
gidioque louge fulvo-pilosis sat sparsim nee fortiter, puuc- 
tatis ; striis gemiuatis, leviter notatis ; tibiis auticis 
alterius sexus leviter, alterius fortiter, tridentatis ; tar sis 
posticis gracilibus elongatis, articulo 1° et 2° subsequalibus ; 
auteuuis 9-articulatis. Long., 10-11 mm. 
Occurs iu various localities near Adelaide. 
Allied to L. erythroijterus, Blanch., but differing intei' alia 
iu its greater pilosity and in the absence from the thorax of a 
channel and from the propygidium of a keel. The upper tootb 
on the anterior tibiae is much smaller than the others, so that 
in the sex (probably male) in which the teeth are feebly 
developed this one is only barely indicated. 

Mr. Tepper has shown me a very remarkable Liparetrus from 
Kangaroo Island, whicb I think is an extreme variety of this 
insect. It differs iu being much smaller (long., 8 mm.) and 
Having the lurid colouring (whicb in the type occupies only 
the disc of the elytra, and shades obscurely off into the sur- 
rounding black) extended over the whole of the elytra except a 
narrow basal margin. 

L. Rotliei, sp. uov. Ovatus; sat uitidus ; piceo-uiger, auteuuis 
(clava infuscata excepta), palpis, pedibusque rufesceutibus, 
elytris rufo-piceis ; supra sat glaber ; prothorace ad latera 
et autice capillis longis nigris, elytris postice ciliis fuscis 
pervalidis, fimbriatis ; subtus cinereo-pilosus ; pygidio 
propygidioque sparsissime pilosis ; clypeo (? alterutrius 
sexus solum) reHexo, autice truncate, angulis rotundatis ; 



23 

hoc et capite protLoraceque crasse nee profunde, elytris 
crasse nee profunde subseriatim, pjgidio propygidioque 
sparsim profimdius, punctatis ; striis geminatis vix evi- 
denter impressis ; elytris brevibus ; tibiis anticis (? alteru- 
trius sexus solum) apice longe leviter arcuatiin productis, 
margine exteruo leviter bidentato ; tarsorum posticorum 
articulo 1° 2° duplo lougiore anteniiis no vies articulatis (?). 
Long., 4i mm. 

This is one of the smallest species of the genus known to 
me. The antennae of the single specimen placed in my hands 
for description are not capable of satisfactory examination y 
but they are evidently peculiar, having the portion between 
the second joint and the club exceptionally short and thick, 
and apparently consisting of four joints, though these joints 
are so small and crowded together that I cannot be absolutely 
certain on this point without breaking an antenna off. The 
anterior tibiae (with two obscure teeth on the external margin^ 
and then one very long and only slightly curved at the apex) 
are also peculiar, as is the fringe of long thick bristles at the 
apex of the elytra. These latter project across the narrow 
riband-like membranous border that edges the hinder portion 
of the elytra so conspicuously in some Jjiparetri, and which in 
this species is yellow and very broad. The general appearance 
of the insect is, however, quite that of an ordinary Liparetrus^ 
and it is much of the build of hitubeo^culatus, Macl. 

Taken by Mr. Eothe, near Sedan, South Australia. 
L. analis, sp. nov. Ovatus ; supra glaber ; nitidus ; ater, 
antennis palpis pedibus, pygidio, propygidio, et subtus 
tota superficie (metasterno ad latera infuscato excepto) 
laste rufis ; prothorace antice et ad latera capillis fulvis 
fimbriate ; elypeo crasse nee fortiter punctate, antice 
reflexo rotundato ; capite crebre sat fortiter, prothorace 
fortiter minus crebre, elytris sat fortiter subseriatim, 
punctatis ; his striis geminatis evidenter impressis ; pro- 
pygidio antice vix evidenter, hoc postice et pygidio toto 
fortiter, punctatis ; tibiis anticis tridentatis ; antennis 
novies-articulatis ; subtus obscure pilosus ; tarsi postici 
specimini descripto desunt. Long., 7\ mm. 
Although the loss of the hind tarsi involve the omission from 
the preceding description of an important character, yet the 
species is so widely distinct from its congeners, that I have no 
hesitation in describing it. It must bear a good deal of resem- 
blance to L. erytJiopygus, Blanch, (indeed, if my identification 
of that species is correct, its superficial resemblance is very 
close), which, however, seems to have antennae consisting of 
only eight joints. The position of L. analis in Mr. Macleay's 



24 

•arrangement of tlie genus would probably be near L. rubefactus 
of that author. 

There is a single specimen in the Sotitb Australian Museum. 
i. insularis, sp. nov. Ovatus ; supra (pygidio propygidioque 
sparsim breviter griseo-birtis exceptis) glaber ; nitidus ; 
piceus aut rufopiceus, tibiis tarsisque nonnullis exemplis 
dilutioribus ; prothorace capillis longis pallidis fimbriato ; 
subtus longe sat sparsim pallide pilosus ; clypeo crebre 
fortius, protborace minus crebre fortius, elytris trans- 
versim rugose subseriatim sat fortiter, punctatis ; bis 
(maris fere, feminas omnino) propygidium tegentibus, 
striis geminatis vix evidenter impressis ; p3^gidio maris 
obscure, feminae sparsius sat fortiter punctato; tibiis 
anticis tridentatis ; antennis novies articulatis ; tarsorum 
posticorum articulo prime secundo suboequali. Long., 
5-5|^ mm. 
AWiedi to L. picipennis, Germ. The clypeus is truncate in 
front in the male, rounded in the female. 

Collected on Kangaroo Island on flowering shrubs by Mr. 
Tepper, of the South Australian Museum, whose indefatigable 
labours are very rapidly developing the national collection, and 
who probably possesses the best knowledge of any living 
person of the habits and localities of South Australian insects. 
JL. simplex, sp. nov. Sub-hemisphaericus ; supra (pygidio pro- 
pygidioque sparsim breviter griseo-hirtis exceptis) glaber ; 
prothoracis lateribus capillis pallidis fimbriatis ; subtus 
fulvo-pilosus ; nitidus ; niger, subiridescens, antennis 
palpisque testaceis, pedibus elytrisque plus minusve rufes- 
centibus ; clypeo antice rotundato-truncato (? alterutrius 
sexus solum) crasse nee profunde, capite duplo (crebrius 
subtiliter et sparsim fortius), prothorace sparsim minus 
fortiter, elytris subseriatim sat fortiter, propygidio crebre 
sat fortiter, pygidio sparsim profunde, punctatis ; striis 
geminatis evidenter impressis ; propygidio permagno ; 
tibiis anticis apice longe productis, margine externo minute 
bidentato ; antennis novies- articulatis ; tarsorum posti- 
corum articulis primo et secundo sat longis, subsequalibus. 
Long., 7^ mm. 
The sub-hemisphseric form of this species gives it a very 
distinct appearance, and its anterior tibiae are peculiar, being 
longitudinally produced at the apex after the manner of 
DiplntcepTiala, while the external margin is interrupted above 
the middle by a very small tooth, and below the middle by a 
somewhat larger one. The puncturation of the pygidium is 
moderately close at the extreme base, becoming very sparing 
and very strong towards the apex. The insect may be best 
placed perhaps not far from L. rotundipeiinis, Macl. 



25 

There is a single specimen in tlie South Australian Museum. 
I do not know where it was taken. 

L. modestus, sp. nov. Ovatus ; supra glaher ; sat nitidus ; rufo- 
piceus, antennis, palpis, pedibus, eljtris, abdominequa 
rufis ; prothoracis lateribus capillis pallidis fimbriatis ; 
subtus cinereo-pilosus ; cljpeo (? alterutrius sexus solum) 
antice rotundato, sutura arcuata fortiter impressa, illo et 
capite crasse rugatis, vix evidenter punctatis ; prothorace 
obscure canaliculato sparsim subtiliter, elytris crebrius 
fortiter, pjgidio propygidioque obscure crasse, punctatis ;. 
striis geminatis elytris parum evidenter impressis ; propy- 
gidio sat magno ; tibiis anticis apice longitudinaliter 
fortiter productis, margine externo vix dentato ; antennis- 
novies articulatis ; tarsorum posticorum articulo primo 
secundo sat longiore. Long., 4i mm. 
The position of this little species in the genus should be, I 
think, near the preceding (Z. simplex'). It is no doubt in many- 
respects allied to the West Australian L. rubefactus, Macl., but 
differs in the absence of a carina from the pygidium, the 
arcuate clypeal suture, sculpture of the head, &c., &c. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum. 
i. dispar, sp. nov. Late ovatus ; sat nitidus ; niger ; antennis 
(? clavo excepto), palpisque testaceis ; elytris (marginibu& 
late obscure infuscatis exceptis) tibiis anticis et tarsis 
omnibus rufescentibus ; capite prothoraceque nigro pilosis; 
subtus cinereo-pilosus ; clypeo (? alterutrius sexus solum) 
antice rotundato, marginibus sat fortiter reflexis ; capite 
crebre sat fortiter ; prothorace duplo (subtilius et fortiter), 
elytris pygidio propygidioque fortiter sat crebre, punc- 
tatis ; striis geminatis evidenter impressis ; pygidio basi 
carinato, utrinque sat fortiter sulcato ; elytris propygidii 
partem majorem tegentibus ; tibiis anticis (? alterutrius 
sexus solum) externe sat fortiter tridentatis ; tarsorum 
posticorum articulo 1° 2^ vix breviori ; antennis 9 articu- 
latis. Long., 10 mm. 
This species is evidently allied to picipennis, Germ., from 
which the black pilosity of its head and thorax, the complete 
absence of a thoracic channel, larger size, different colour, and 
different thoracic puncturation easily distinguish it. 

There is a single specimen in the South xlustralian Museum, 
but the locality of its capture is not known. 
L. agrestis, sp. nov. Ovatus, minus nitidus ; niger, antennis 
(clava excepta), palpis, pedibus anticis, elytris (marginibus 
anguste infiiscatis exceptis), pygidio et propygidio rufis; 
pedibus posticis piceis ; supra glaber, prothorace antice et 
ad latera capillis longis pallidis sparsis fimbriate, postice 



26 

pallide ciliato, pygidio propygidioque sparsim pallide 
pilosis ; subtus sat dense ciuereo pilosis ; clypeo (? alter- 
utrius sexus solum) antice rotundato-truucato, marginibus 
minus reflexis ; capite pone medium transversim carinato ; 
hoc crebre subtilius, prothorace fortius minus crebre ; 
elytris et fortius et sparsius vix seriatim, propygidio 
crebre minus fortiter, pygidio minus crebre sat fortiter, 
punctatis ; striis geminatis evideuter impressis ; elytris 
propygidii partem dimidiam tegentibus ; tibiis antic is 
(r' alterutrius sexus solum) externe obtuse tridentatis, 
unguiculis anticis sat incrassatis ; antennis octies articu- 
latis ; tarsis posticis elongatis, articulo 1° 2° paullo 
longiore. Long., 8 mm. 

A single specimen of this species (which does not seem to 
resemble any hitherto described as having antennae of only 
•eight joints) was sent to me from AVestern Australia by 
E. Meyrick, Esq. The distinct, though not strong, incrassation o£ 
its front claws points to the probability of its being a male. 
The teeth on the anterior tibiae are equidistant, or nearly so ; 
the two nearer to the apex are only moderately large, and the 
upper one is very small. 

Zi. Icetus, sp, nov. Elongato-ovatus, sat nitidus ; rufus, capite 
pectoreque nigris, prothorace elytrisque antice infuscatis ; 
supra glaber ; prothoracis, lateribus capillis longis pallidis 
fimbriatis, margine postico pallide ciliato ; subtus pallide 
pilosus ; clypeo (? alterutrius sexus solum) antice rotun- 
dato-truncato, sutura minus fortiter arcuata ; illo, aeque 
ac capite, rugoso punctato ; prothorace hand canaliculate 
fortiter minus crebre, elytris sparsim crasse, pygidio 
propygidioque minus fortiter sat crebre, punctatis ; striis 
geminatis obscure notatis ; elytris propygidium fere tegen- 
tibus ; tibiis anticis apice longitudinaliter arcuatim pro- 
ductis, margine externo medio obtuse dentato ; antennis 
octies articulatis ; tarsis posticis sat brevibus, articulis, 
1° et 2° subsequalibus. Long., 7 mm. 

This species is probably not unlike L. ononticola, Eab., though 
evidently distinct. The very brief original description calls 
that species 'S^mi^z'ff," which my insect is not, as compared 
with other species of Liparetrus described by Eabricius, and 
also calls the elytra '''' ahdomine multo hrevioribus''^ (^^ abdomine 
hrevioribus " being the expression applied to the elytra of 
others of the genus), which is evidently inapplicable to an in- 
sect with exceptionally long elytra. The Hon. W. Macleay, in 
his recent paper on Liparetrus, gives a detailed description of 
an insect which he considers to be L. monticola, Eab. (very 
probably on good grounds), but which does not appear to me 



27 

to fit in very well with the original description. Taking it for 
granted, however, that Mr. Macleaj is right, Z. Icetus must 
differ from monticola in respect of the much coarser punctura- 
tion of its upper surface and (unless Mr, Macleay's descrip- 
tion applies only to one sex) in respect of the shape of its 
anterior tibiae. 

This insect was sent to me from "Western Australia by 
E. Meyrick, Esq. 

L. Macleayi, sp. no v. Ovatus, minus nitidus ; niger, palpis- 
tibiis anticis tarsis et elytrorum disci parte posteriori plus 
minusve rufescentibus, antennis piceis ; supra nigro, 
subtus cinereo-hirsutus ; clypeo reflexo (? alterutrius 
sexus solum) antice subemarginato truncato, crasse nee 
profunde punctato ; capite subopaco creberrime, pro- 
thorace sat crebre, elytris minus crebre minus seriatim, 
rugoso-punctato ; striis geminatis vix evidenter impressis ; 
pygidio propygidioque fortiter rugoso-punctatis (aeque ac 
L. salehrosi), carinatis ; tibiis anticis (? alterutrius sexus- 
solum) tridentatis, dente summo parvo ; tarsis posticis 
gracilibus, articulo 2°, 1° sat longiore ; antennis octies 
articulatis. Long., 7-i- mm. 
Of each elytron of this insect the hinder two-thirds contains 
a large dull red blotch, which, however, does not touch the- 
margin or suture, being everywhere surrounded (somewhat 
narrowly, except in front) by the black ground colour. The 
species is rather closely allied to L. ferrugineus, Blanch., differ- 
ing, however, inter alia by the darker pilosity on the upper 
surface, and the extremely strong and rough sculpture of the 
pygidium and propygidium. 

I took a single specimen at Ararat, Victoria, by sweeping 
flowers in September. 

L. aureus, sp. nov. Ovatus crasse puncturatus, puncturis 

singulis squamas singulas minutas ferentibus ; piceus ; 

capite, prothorace pygidio, propygidio et pedibus capillis 

longis aureis vestitis ; elytris capillis brevioribus minus 

dense instructis, vix striatis ; clypeo, antice et ad latera, 

reflexo, truncato ; tibiis anticis bidentatis ; tarsis posticis 

sat robustis, articulo secundo primo paullo minus duplo 

longiore ; subtus aureo-hirtus ; antennis 8 articulatis. 

Long., 7J mm. 

Probably allied to L. mcecJiidioides, Macl., but double the 

size, and densely clothed (except on the elytra) with very long 

decumbent golden hairs. On the elytra the pilosity is shorter 

and less dense. The elytra are not striated, but the punctures 

run in rows, and the interstice between the fourth and fifth 

rows is conspicuously wide. The basal joint of the hind tarsi 



28 

"being evidently more tlian balf as long as tlie second distin- 
guishes tliis species from many of its allies — the non-sinuosity 
of the sides of its clypeus from others — and the Mcschidius-Wke 
nature of its puncturation distinguishes it from all its des- 
cribed congeners of the hasalis group that approach it in size. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide. 

L. hicolor, sp. nov. Oblongo-ovalis ; crasse nee prof unde punc- 

tatus ; nigro-piceus ; antennis (clava excepta), palpis, 

pedibus anterioribus et intermediis, tarsis posterioribus, 

elytris, pygidio et prop3'gidio plus minusye rufis ; capita, 

prothorace, scutello, pygidio propygidioque longe aureo- 

pilosis ; prothoraci in disco capillis nigrescentibus ; elytris 

subseriatim puncturatis, puncturis singulis (his in pygidio 

propygidioque etiam) squamas singulas minutas ferentibus ; 

interstitiis alternis obscure elevatis ; clypeo reflexo antice 

truncate, lateribus leviter emarginatis ; tibiis anticis apice 

bidentatis, basi vix dentatis ; tarsis posticis gracilibus, 

articulo secundo prime circiter triple, longiore ; subtus 

sat sparsim aureo-hirtus ; antennis 8-articulatis. Long., 

7^ mm. 

This is an obscure little species distinguished by its McecJii- 

.dius-\\kQ puncturation, the peculiar sculpture of its elytra, and 

the very slender hind tarsi, with unusually long second joint. 

It probably resembles striatipennis, MacL, but is smaller, and 

differs in the colour of the thoracic pilosity, of the elytra, &c., 

.and, as Mr. Macleay does not mention the puncturation o£ 

striatipennis as being of the IIcEchidius type, probably in that 

respect also. 

A single specimen in the South Australian Museum, Ade- 
laide, is ticketed as having been taken at Summerton. 
Jj. p^amdatus, B-p. nov. Oblongo-ovalis; nigro-piceus ; antennis 
(clava excepta), palpis pedibusque plus minusve rufescen- 
tibus ; capite prothoraceque fortius nee crebre granulatis, 
granulis singulis squamas singulas pallidas adpressas 
ferentibus ; elytris brevibus postice attenuatis seriatim 
granulatis, granulis (ut prothoracis) setigeris ; pygidio 
propygidioque (cTque ac prothorax) granulatis setulosisque; 
hoc permagno ; illius disco toto excavate nitido, excava- 
tione intra canaliculata, antice tuberculo obtuse instructa ; 
clypeo antice truncate, lateribus sat emarginatis ; tibiis 
anticis bidentatis ; tarsorum posteriorum articulo secundo 
prime duplo longiore ; subtus granulatus, setis longioribus 
pallidis instructus ; antennis S-articulatis. Long., 6|- mm. 
Small as it is, I consider this the most remarkable Z//?ffr<?i^rMs 
I have seen. Its sculpture throughout is exaggeratedly 
McecJii dues-like. Its elytra are scarcely longer than the dis- 



29 

"tauce from tlaeir apex to the apex of tlie pygidium, and are so 
narrowed beliind that (viewed from above) the hind body is 
visible on both sides outside the hinder two-thirds of the 
elytra. The pygidium is most extraordinary. Not far from 
its base a kind of ridge runs transversely across it, which is 
gathered up in the middle into an obtuse tubercle. This ridge 
forms the anterior boundary of a large depression or excava- 
tion, which is much more shining than the rest of the segment, 
and is longitudinally divided by a deep furrow. The portion 
of the pygidium bearing this sculpture is obliquely bent under 
towards the ventral surface of the hind body. 

A single specimen has been submitted to me by Mr. Eothe, 
taken, I presume, in the interior of South Australia. I am 
uncertain as to its sex. 

MACLEAYIA, gen. nov. 

Mentum planum, antice hand emarginatum ; palpi labiales 
brevissimi, maxillares modici, art° 1° brevi, 2° et 3° subsequali- 
bus, 4° 3° paullo longiore; labrum vix conspicuum ; clypeus 
magnus antice subemarginatus, lateribus reflexis, sutura vix 
conspicua ; antennae 9-articulat8e, sat longse, clava articulis 
reliquis omnibus conjunctis vix breviore, altero sexu 5, alter o 
3, articulata ; prothorax transversus, basi rotundato-truncatus ; 
scutellum magnum fortiter transversum ; elytra prothorace 
plus duplo longiora, propygidii ad medium attingentia ; hoc 
€t pygidium perpendicularia ; pedes robusti, tibiis anticis 
altero sexu 3-dentatis, altero simplicibus apice attenuatis ; 
iinguiculis simplicibus. 

Of this remarkable genus I possess three specimens taken in 
"Western Australia by E. Meyrick, Esq. Two of them are 
sexually similar, and are probably attributable to the same 
species ; they have the anterior tibiae quite simple, and the 
antennal club three- jointed. The other has the anterior tibiae 
tridentate, and the antennal club of five joints, and seems 
specifically distinct from the other two. I am unable to say 
which is the male. 

M. singularis, sp. nov. Elongato-ovata ; sat nitida ; nigra, 
antennis (clava excepta), palpis, tibiis tarsis et elytris jdIus 
minusve rufis ; supra glabra, prothorace et elytris capillis 
longis fulvis ad latera fimbriatis ; subtiis sparsim fulvo 
pilosa ; clypeo (? alterutrius sexus solum) reflexo, antice 
rotundato-truncato ; hoc et capite fortius sat crebre, pro- 
thorace conspicue canaliculate fortius minus crebre, scutello 
transverse magno sparsim minus fortiter ; pygidio propy- 
gidioque subopacis albo squamosis sparsim fortiter, punc- 
tatis ; elytris propygidii partem dimidiam tegentibus 
punctato-striatis, interstitiis latis convexis ; tibiis anticis 



30 

(? alterutrius sexus solum) tridentatis ; tarsorum posti- 
coriim articulis 1° et 2° subrequalibus ; antennis novies- 
articulatis, flabello 5 articulate. Long., 7i mm. 
Jf. Tiylrida, sp. nov. Ovata ; minus nitida ; supra glabra, 
prothorace et elytris capillis albis fimbriatis, illo postice 
albo-ciliato ; pygidio propygidioque pruinosis ; illo sparsim 
albo-hirto ; subtus pruinosa sparsim fortiter punctata 
longe albo-birta ; clypeo antice (? alterutrius sexus 
solum) leviter emarginato marginibus reflexis, sparsim 
fortiter punctato ; capite protboraceque subtilius sat 
crebre puncturatis (puncturis intus nitidis), boc nullo- 
modo canaliculato ; scutello transverso, punctato ; elytris 
striatis, striis crasse punctatis, bis prope suturam et mar- 
ginem externum profundioribus, interstitiis nonnullis sub- 
conyexis ; pygidio propygidioque pruinosis, sparsim nee 
fortiter puncturatis, puncturis reque ac tboracis intus 
nitidis ; tibiis anticis (? alterutrius sexus solum) apice 
longitudinaliter productis, margine ex.terno yix bisinuato ; 
tarsorum posticorum articulis 1° et 2° subfequalibus ; an- 
tennis novies articulatis, articulis 5° et 6° intus evidenter 
productis, flabello 3 articulato. Long., 9 mm. 
M. Jiyh'ida, var. ? Elytris pedibusque nigrescentibus. Long.^ 
8 mm. 
The antennae of this insect seem to be intermediate between 
tbose of the preceding species and of a typical Liparetrus, for 
although the club consists of only three joints, the two joints 
preceding it are quite distinctly (though slightly) produced on 
the inner side. The antenna! club is longer, narrower, and 
more pointed at the apex than that of any Liparetrus known to 
me. Apart from such distinctions as are probably sexual, this 
species differs from the preceding in the much greater opacity 
and much closer puncturation of its thorax. 

I can discover nothing but size and colour to distinguish 
the small dark specimen called "var?" from that described. 

This species was sent to me from "Western Australia bj 
E. Meyrick, Esq. 



31 



Remarks on a Geological Section at the 
Ne^w Graving Dock, Glanville, ^with 

SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A SUPPOSED OlD 

Land Surface no^w below Sea Level. 

By Walter Howchik-, F.G.S. 

TEead December 7th, 1886.] 

The excavations in connection with the new G-raving Dock at 
Glanville have exposed what is probably the best section of the 
local Post-Tertiary beds hitherto known. By a comparison of 
the strata at the Glanville excavation with those penetrated 
in the making of the " New Dock," as shown by samples of the 
latter exhibited in the Port Adelaide Museum, there appears 
to be a general correspondence between the two sections, but 
the beds thicken slightly as they pass westward, the limestone 
crust in the " New Dock " being at a depth of 25 ft., whilst in 
the Glanville excavation it is about 27 ft. below the natural 
surface. The section now under review is a particularly 
interesting one, as it supplies on what, I think, indisputable 
evidence that these recent marine beds which occupy our sea- 
board were not deposited in one uninterrupted succession, but 
that they occur as an older and a newer marine bed, with an old 
land surface intercalated and separating them. The section 
may be given as follows : — 

No. 1. Made ground 

2. Surface clay 

3. Whitish sea-sand with shells 

4. Do. with bands of decomposed veget- 

able matter ... 
J, Blue clay ) 
Brown clay j 

6. Limestone crust 

7. Calcareo as sand and shells, about 

8. Brown argillaceous sand (not exposed) 
No. 2 is the ordinary surface clay of the marshy flats border- 
ing the river, lying at or about high water level, and which has 
accumulated by deposition of material from the tidal waters in 
their periodical overflow. This clay contains the usual 
estuarine mollusca of the flats, as well as a few species of 
foraminifera generally found in such a habitat, the occurrence 
of the latter proving that within recent times considerable 
areas of these flats bordering the river were permanently under 
water. 

Nos. 3 and 4. Underlying the thin covering of surface clay is 



ft. 


in 


6 





1 





6 





9 





11 








1 


4 





10 






32 

a bed of white sand about 15 ft. in thickness, very full of 
fossils — Venus, Pectens, Oysters, Pholas, small Gastropods, 
Polyzoa, Coral, and the usual accumulations of a sea beach are 
present in great profusion. The lower nine feet of this bed, 
(as also the upper part in a less degree), is laminated with 
thin bands of decomposed sea-weed running in lines which 
maintain their regularity for considerable distances. This bed 
is an undoubted beach formation. The shells are not in situ, 
but are irregularly heaped and sorted by wave action, whilst 
the sea-weed is spread out in thin layers, the fronds of the 
latter being much broken and matted together. Several pieces 
of wood were found in this bed, one being the trunk of a tree 
about six feet in length and about six inches in diameter. When 
this littoral deposit was in course of formation, the present 
barrier of sand-hills which lines the coast did not exist, and the 
open sea flowed over what is now Port Adelaide and the low- 
lying ground in its vicinity. 

No. 5. Underlying the above-mentioned beach deposit is a very 
interesting bed of sandy clay, which, in the aggregate, measures 
about eleven or twelve feet in thickness. This clay, in its 
upper part, is of a dark blue colour passing into drab and 
reddish-brown hues in the lower portions. These colours do 
not mark divisional lines in the strata, but follow a very 
irregular course throughout the bed, the differences in colour 
apparently arising from the more pervious portions of the clay 
admitting"^ the percolation of water, Avhich has given the lower 
parts more or less a reddish colour. Immediately at the 
base of this bed of clay, and resting on the limestone crust, is a 
layer of coarse red sand a few inches in thickness and is the 
main water stratum of the section. This bed of sandy-clay or 
loam is peculiarly interesting from the somewhat anomalous 
way in which the fossils it contains are arranged. These are 
apparently limited to the upper three feet of the bed, and do 
not occur in horizontal layers, but in vertical fissures and 
pockets. These pockets of sand and shells are most common 
at the upper limits, near the junction of the clay with the 
beach deposit that overlies it, and they thin out to narrow lines 
as they descend into the clay, dying out at about three feet 
from its upper limits. I think it cannot be doubted that these 
fossil remains are foreign to the clay in which they are enclosed, 
and have consequently been derived. The vertical pipes in 
which they occur have all the appearance of crevices filled with 
the material from the overlying bed, the white sand and shells, 
which are often slightly consolidated into stalactitic pipes, 
showing on the face of the clay in striking contrast to the dark 
blue colour of the bed in which they are found. Outside these 
vertical strings of shells, the clay, on either side of them, was 



33 

found to give not the sliglitest trace of organic remains — not 
even so mncli as a f oraminif er — although the material was care- 
fully washed and searched under the microscope. Moreover, in 
the clay, especially in the upper portions, the sand proper to 
the bed is extremely fine and sharp mixed with flakes of mica, 
whilst the sand in the fossiliferous pipes is comparatively 
coarse and similar to the beach sand which overlies the clay. 
[From the considerations just set forth it seems a moral certainty 
that the deposition of the fine, sandy, non-fossiliferous clay 
was not synchronous with the coarser sand and shells which are 
included in vertical lines in the upper three feet of the bed, but 
that the latter is of distinct origin and subsequent date. There 
appears but one theory capable of explaining the matter. The 
bed in question, prior to the deposition of the littoral sands 
now overlying it, must have been at the surface and subject to 
the desiccating influence of the sun and atmosphere, by which 
the surface became cracked, much in the way that the clay 
ground of the marshes around the Port Creek is rent now in 
the hot season. When in this condition, the sea came in, 
bringing its drift of sand and shells, which immediately filled 
up the fissures in the clay, and in this way placed in vertical 
juxtaposition material of somewhat different geological age. 

JVos. 6 and 7. The next bed in descending order is a cal- 
careous sand, very rich in fossils, and is about four feet in 
thickness. This bed is generally loose and friable in its 
character, but is coated on its upper surface with a " limestone 
crust," the latter supplying so excellent a floor line for the 
proposed dock that *Mr. Eietcher decided to make it the base of 
the excavations, instead of going a foot deeper, as was intended 
according to the plans. This limestone crust is a somewhat 
remarkable and suggestive feature. Whilst the bed with which 
it is associated is highly fossiliferous, this crust is non-fossil- 
iferous, and is evidently a travertine, and must have been formed 
whilst the bed in question was above water and exposed to 
meteorological conditions. Prof. Tate some years ago showed 
that the limestone crusts, which form over the calcareous lands 
in this colony, are the result of evaporation of water charged 
with the carbonates of calcium and magnesia causing these 
minerals to aggregate at or near the surface of the ground. If 
so, then the travertine on the top of the calcareous bed now 
under consideration, and which is 191 ft. below present low- 
water mark, must have been at the surface and dry land sub- 
ject to the solar rays before the travertine could have been 
formed. This crust has been but slightly disturbed, so that I 

* Since the above was writteu Mr. Fletcher has informei me that he in- 
tends carrying out the original design as to depth. 



34 

cannot give an estimate of the average thickness, but I have 
obtained fragments fully an inch in thickness. I have also 
obtained portions of a similar travertine and about the same 
thickness from the excavations recently carried out in deepen- 
ing the Patawalonga at Grlenelg. 

If our theory be correct, the section at Glanville affords an 
interesting record of the oscillations which have taken place 
in the coast line within comparatively recent times. The cal- 
careous sand and shell bed, which forms the bottom of the 
excavation, is a true marine deposit, which was probably formed 
in shallow water, but covered at all states of the tide. The 
passage from this marinebed to the overlying clay is very abrupt, 
and looks on the face of it as a case of non-continuity of deposit, 
a view which the presence of the travertine at the line of 
juncture strongly confirms. The fine silt or loam which over- 
lies the travertine crust is most probably of fresh-water origin, 
as the non-occurrence of fossils in it, whilst the beds above and 
below are highly fossiliferous, is difiicult to explain on any 
other hypothesis. It marks a period of elevation when the 
marine bed on which it rests was raised above high-water mark 
and received the wash of fluviatile matter over its surface. 
Whether the deposit owed its origin to lacustrine conditions 
or simply river sediment, cannot be shown at present. When 
this clay was being deposited the drainage of the country may 
have been locally intercepted in its seaward flow (much as it 
is at present in the case of the Eiver Torrens), causing a deposit 
of light clayey and sandy material over a wide area, and 
which is represented by this clay bed of the Glanville section. 
Then the vertical fissures which exist in the upper part of this 
clay bed, with their derived fossil remains, point as forcibly to 
dry land conditions as does the travertine crust which under- 
lies it. The change in the character of the deposit at the upper 
parting of this clay bed is also very marked, for the white sand 
and shells of the littoral deposit which overlies it can be 
brushed from its upper surface, revealing the dark blue ground 
of the clay bed sharply defined in the parting. Before the 
superimposed sixteen feet of beach deposit could be thrown 
down in the position in which it occurs, we must suppose that 
there followed once more a depression of the land so as to 
bring this fresh-water clay below sea level. Such a supposi- 
tion falls in with the view v/hich Prof. Tate has at various times 
expressed with regard to the inner line of sand-hills which 
follow a more or less regular trend from Glenelg to about Dry 
Creek, that they represent the old coast sand-hills when these 
recent marine beds were in course of formation. 

That there was a considerable interval of time separating the 
upper and lower marine beds in the section is borne out by the 



35 

palseontological evidence. lu tlie upper bed, formed under 
littoral conditions, all tlie examples are specifically identical 
with those now inhabiting our Grulf, and which may be picked 
up on our beach almost any day. In the lower marine bed, 
represented by the stratum of calcareous sand and shells, all 
the forms are recent and agree with known Australian shells, 
but some of these (as has been pointed out by Prof. Tate), 
such as Area trapezia and the large foraminifer Orhitolites 
complanata, whilst found in the warmer seas of the Eastern 
Coast have become extinct in the Grulf , where they formerly 
existed in immense numbers. A consideration of habitat might 
account for some of the differences noted in the fauna of the 
respective beds, but it certainly does not explain the whole of 
the ]3henomena. If, for example, O. complanata, which is ex- 
tremely plentiful in the lower marine bed, existed in the Grulf 
at the time when the upper marine bed was in course of forma- 
tion, it is unaccountable that examples of this very conspicuous 
foraminifer should not occur with the other remains in this 
beach deposit, for in most cases where this form occurs in the 
waters it is a marked feature in the local shore sands. 

Prom the reasons already detailed, I think there are strong 
presumptive evidences, based on several collateral lines of proof, 
that the Post-Tertiary beds of the seaboard do not represent a 
regular succession of marine beds, but that there was a break 
in the continuity of their deposition. In the view we have 
taken, there is an older and a newer bed of recent marine, with 
an intercalated formation of fresh-water origin dividing the 
same, and connected with the fresh-water bed two horizons 
representing dry-land conditions. In the section of the " New 
Dock" shown in the Port Adelaide Museum, the white cal- 
careous bed is represented as having been subjected to consider- 
able denudation, gutters having been eroded in the bed to a 
depth of more than half its thickness, and these subsequently 
filled with the brown clay which is supposed in this paper to 
be of fresh-water origin. Assuming this to be a correct 
representation of the section, there could not be a stronger 
confirmation of the theory of dry-land conditions at that 
particular geological horizon. 

"What may underlie the lower marine bed is not very well 
known. Mr. Pletcher informed the Pield Naturalists in their 
visit to the section that below this calcareous bed there occurs 
a bed of loose sand 10 ft. in thickness, and in proof of this he 
pushed a rod down for about that depth without much difficulty. 
Subsequent examination has shown that this bed is a loose 
argillaceous sand, of a brownish colour, the included sand grains 
being both large and angular. Under this bed of argillaceous 
sand, in the judgment of Mr. Pletcher, another limestone crust 
is supposed to occur. 



36 



Notes on Austr/vlian Coleoptera, with 
Descriptions of New^ Species. 

By the Eev. T. Blackbtjex, B.A. 

[Eead July 5, 1887.] 

In the following pages I have the pleasure of offering to the 
Eoyal Society a further contribution towards a knowledge of 
the Coleoytera of South Australia. Probably this colony con- 
tains a Coleopterous fauna second in extent to none on the 
Australian continent ; and I doubt not that if the opening up 
of the country in the Far Xorth be accompanied by any syste- 
matic attempt to explore the natural history of the districts 
rendered accessible, the discoveries of new and very interesting 
species will be so numerous that students will scarcely be able 
to keep pace with them. Unfortunately, those who are engaged 
in the work of extending our railways and of settling the 
newly opened country seldom have any inclination to trouble 
themselves with the collection of specimens for scientific study, 
so that it will probably be the case that the knowledge of the 
fauna will have to depend almost entirely on such occasional 
visits as may be made for the express purpose of collecting 
specimens by those who are themselves engaged in natural his- 
tory studies. 

SCAKITID^. 
PHILOSCAPHUS. 

P. Tepperi, sp. nov. Niger ; subtus obscure violaceus ; capite 
magno, fortiter bisulcato, utrinque juxta oculos punctis 
2 setiferis notato ; prothorace sublunulato, postice lobato, 
canaliculate, vix evidenter rugato, auguste marginato, mar- 
gine anteriori rugis longitudinalibus subtiliter notato, 
elytris prothorace vix latioribus, obscure striatis, intersti- 
tiis alternis elevatioribus obsolete tuberculatis, margine 
anteriori medio leviter emarginato utrinque oblique trun- 
cate, humeris subdentiformibus, regione laterali abrupte 
declivi ; hac supra antice costa elevata ab humero ad longi- 
tudinis medium, postice costa inferior! ab medio fere ad 
apicem, marginata ; tibiis anticis externe tridentatis. 
Long., 33 mm. 
This species appears to differ from all of the genus hitherto 

described in the sculpture of the grooved lateral sub-vertical 



37 

portion of the elytra. From the shoulder a strong keel runs 
along the upper edge of the groove to ahout the middle of the 
length of the elytron, where it passes to the upper surface of 
the elytron, and there continues as one of the obsoletely tuber- 
culated ridges with which the surface is furnished. Just below 
the point where this keel ceases to limit the groove, and about 
2 mm. nearer to the shoulder, a second keel commences and 
continues nearly to the apex, so that the groove is suddenly 
narrowed about the middle of its length. The sculpture of 
the surface of the elytra is very difficult to describe intelli- 
gibly. It seems to consist in a series of scarcely traceable 
striae, the interstices between which are (alternately) decidedly 
and scarcely convex. These convex interstices are intersected 
by numerous irregular transverse impressions, which seem to 
divide them into very uneven tubercles. Towards the basal 
and extreme apical portions all system disappears from the 
sculpture, and it consists of small granules interspersed among 
wavy furrows. The sculpture is all lightly impressed and ob- 
scure ; about a dozen striae can be faintly discerned on each 
elytron, though it is hardly possible for the eye to follow smj one 
of them continuously along its course. The anterior tibiae have 
three external teeth, and no trace of any more ; the apical 
tooth, which is bent, equals in length the basal two joints to- 
gether of the tarsus ; the next is rather near to it and half its 
length, a greater interval separates the upper tooth (which is 
about at the middle of the length of the tibia) from the second, 
and it is scarcely half the length of the second. 

This insect was taken at Angebuckina. 

P. crassus, sp. nov. Mger; capite magno fortiter bisulcato, 

utrinque juxta oculos punctis 2 setiferis notato ; protho- 

race sublunulato, postice lobato, canaliculate, transversim 

fortiter crasse rugato, late reflexo-marginato, margine 

anteriori rugis longitudinalibus subtiliter notato ; elytris 

prothorace angustioribus supra fortiter depressis, vix evi- 

denter striatis, seriatim inaequaliter sat fortiter tubercu- 

latis, margine anteriori medio leviter emarginato utrinque 

oblique truncate, humeris subdentiformibus, regione 

laterali abrupte decliri longitudinaliter bisulcata ; tibiis 

anticis externe 5 dentatis. Long., 83 mm, 

The width of the thorax compared with the length is as 13 

to 7i. In the preceding insect it is as 11 to 7. The sculpture 

of the upper surface of the elytra is as follows : — Next the 

suture are two rows of small and very ill-defined tubercles, 

among which (especially in the apical half) are some minute 

granules ; then follow three rows of large coarse tubercles 

(which in the specimen before me are not quite symmetrical on 

the two elytra) — about ten tubercles in the first row, five in 



38 

tlie second, seven in tlie external one — the largest of which, 
cover an area scarcely less than that of the insect's eye, but 
they are not strongly elevated in proportion to the area they 
cover. The first of these rows terminates apically at the end 
of the keel that limits on the upper side the upper lateral 
groove of the elytra ; and the space between the external row 
and the above-mentioned keel, as well as the interstices 
between the rows, is pretty thickly strewn with small round 
granules. The lower lateral keel dividing the lateral groove 
into two very unequal parts (the upper being the narrower) 
commences a little behind the shoulder, not, however, taking 
its rise from the upper keel, and both keels terminate consider- 
ably short of the apex of the elytra. The apical external tooth of 
the front tibiae is nearly as long as the basal three joints to- 
gether of the tarsus, the four teeth above it being in rotation, 
each about half the length of that in front of it, so that the 
topmost tooth (which is above the middle of the tibia) is quite 
short, though perfectly well defined. Above it there are rudi- 
mentary indications of one or two more teeth. The presence 
of more than three teeth on the anterior tibiae sufficiently dis- 
tinguishes this species from all others of the genus hitherto 
described. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum, 
but I cannot ascertain where it was found. 



BEMBIDIID^. 

TACHTS. 

T.iiifuscatits, s]). HOY. Elongatus ; depressus ; piceus ; nitidus; 
prothorace dilutiore ; antennis, palpis, mandibulis, pe- 
dibus, elytrisque testaceis, his circa scutellum et circa 
suturae partem pone medium inf uscatis ; antennis sat elon- 
gatis ; prothorace transverso postice augustato, vix evi- 
denter canaliculato, angulis posticis distinctis obtusis ; 
elytris sat parallelis, striis 4 punctatis antice leviter 
notatis, suturali solum ad apicem attingente, hac fortiter 
arcuatim recurva. Long., 2-J mm. 

Compared with the European T. histriatits, Duftschm., apart 
from colour differences, this insect is somewhat narrower, and 
more parellel, and much less convex. There is very little dif- 
ference inter se in the profundity of the four elytral stride, but 
they are all fainter than the two strise near the suture in T. hi- 
stinatus ; the recurved stria does not diif er much except in being 
more arched ; the stria close to the margin is very much deeper 
than in hisiriatus, especially close to the apex, where it widens 
out and seems to be divided by a short keel. A similar struc- 
ture exists, but much more obscurely, in histriatus. There are 



39 

two rather strong punctures bearing setaB on each elytron, one 
in front of the middle, one near the apex. 

The hinder infuscation of the elytra is subject to variety 
being very slight in some specimens, and in others occupying 
the whole of the hinder two-thirds of the disc. 

There is a short series of this insect in the South Australian 
Museum. The specimens were taken near the mouth of the 
Murray. 

T. similis, sp. nov. Minus elongatus ; depressus ; sat nitidus ; 
capite piceo vel rufopiceo, prothorace rufotestaceo antice 
infuscato, antennis palpis labro mandibulis pedibus ely- 
trisque rufo-testaceis, his antice triangulariter ad latera 
lineatim et apicem versus confuse infuscatis, abdomine 
piceo ; antennis sat elongatis ; prothorace transverso cana- 
liculate postice angustato, angulis posticis subrectis ; 
elytris valde depressis subquadratis ; stria suturali leviter 
ceteris tribus vix evidenter impressis ; stria recurva leviter 
arcuata. Long., 2f mm. 
Allied to the preceding, but differing in colour and in struc- 
tural characters. The lateral infuscation consists of an almost 
black line just before the margin, commencing about the middle 
of the length, and running into the apical infuscation, T. senilis 
is a shorter, broader, and more depressed insect than T. infus- 
catus ; the striae of the elytra are somewhat fainter, and with 
less appearance of puncturation ; the hinder angles of the 
thorax though obtuse are not far from being right angles ; the 
recurved stria is only very slightly arched. The marginal 
furrow of the elytra is not much different from that of 
T. infuscatus. The punctures on the elytra bearing setse are 
present in this species as in the preceding. 

A few specimens occurred on the margin of the " Big 
Swamp," about twelve miles from Port Lincoln, running with 
extreme rapidity. 

T. Lindi, sp. nov. Sat elongatus ; convexus ; nitidus ; piceus ; 
palpis mandibulis antennarum basi pedibus prothorace et 
elytrorum maculis obscuris, testaceis vel rufescentibus ; 
antennis sat elongatis ; prothorace transverso, vix evi- 
denter canaliculato, postice parum angustato, angulis 
posticis fere rectis ; elytris subparallelis convexis ; striis 
vix evidenter punctatis binis prope suturam distincte, 
tertia leviter, impressis, ceteris obsoletis ; stria recurva 
arcuata, fortitsr impressa. Long., 3 mm. 
The pale markings on the elytra are very cloudy and difficult 
to describe. They consist of an ill-defined spot occupying the 
anterior external portion, a spot on the disc a little before the 
apex, and another at the apex, but they all merge into the 



40 

darker ground colour so gradually tliat it is difficult to say 
where they end. This insect resembles the preceding in the 
possession of similar setiferous tubercles, but its strong con 
vexity, thorax much less narrowed behind, strongly marked 
strife on either side of the elytral suture, different colour, and 
larger size, make it appear almost generically distinct. 

It is found about 40 miles north of Port Lincoln on damp 
ground. 

T. AdeIaidcp,S'p.i\OY. Elongatus ; sat convexus ; nitidus; piceus, 

sub-iridescens ; antennis palpis labro pedibus et elytrorum 

apice testaceis, prothorace rufescenti ; antennis sat elon- 

gatis ; prothorace canaliculato, postice parum angustato, 

lateribus post medium distincte sinuatis, angulis posticis 

subrectis; elytris subparallelis, sat convexis ; striis trinis 

prope suturam distincte impressis, ceteris obsoletis ; stria 

recurva minus arcuata minus for titer impressa. Long., 

2f mm. 

This species has the setiferous punctures on the elytra as in 

the preceding species, except that the anterior one is much 

nearer the base. It resembles T. Lindi rather strongly, but 

differs in its iridescence, in the absence of pale markings on 

the elytra, except obscurely at the extreme apex; in the decided 

(though delicate) sinuation of the sides of the thorax close to 

the base, in the three stri^ of the elytra being nearly of equal 

sculpture (though they are all fainter than those nearest to the 

suture in T. Lindi), in the recurved stria on the elytra being 

less strongly impressed and less arched, and its more elongate 

form, which is scarcely so convex, &c. 

I have taken a single specimen at Woodville, near Adelaide. 
It was flying in the evening. 

T. uiiiformis, sp. nov. Elongatus; minus convexus; nitidus; 
rufo-piceus, palpis mandibulis antennarum basi pedibusque 
sordide-rufis, elytrorum sutura plus minusve rufescenti; 
antennis gracilibus minus elongatis ; prothorace canali- 
culato antice parum angustato ; lateribus prope basin sat 
f ortiter sinuatis, angulis posticis prominulis obtusis ; 
elytris sat parallelis minus convexis ; striis binis prope 
suturam distincte impressis, ceteris obsoletis ; stria re- 
curva arcuata impressa. Long., 2i mm. 
The setiferous punctures on the elytra are not very con- 
spicuous in this species unless the set» are present, it bears 
a good deal of resemblance to the preceding, but is much 
smaller, and of a dark uniform colour in general appearance, 
the reddening of the suture being never very conspicuous, and 
in some examples scarcely traceable. The thorax, as in the 
preceding two species, is strongly transverse, and only mode- 



41 

rately narrowed behind, tliougli pretty strongly rounded on the 
sides. The basal angles, though strictly speaking obtuse, have 
a sharp appearance, being somewhat prominent, or almost sub- 
dentiform. The antennae are very slender, and not quite so 
long as in the preceding insects. 

A few specimens occurred on the banks of a small creek 
about 35 miles north of Port Lincoln. I have also taken it 
near Adelaide. 

T. semistriatics, sp. nov. Minus elongatus ; convexus ; nitidus- 
piceus, antennarum basi mandibulis capite prothorace 
pedibus et elytrorum macula subapicali obscura ruf escenti- 
bus; anfcennis crassiusculis, capite prothoraceque conjunc- 
tis vix longioribus ; prothorace minus fortiter transverso 
canaliculato, postice fortiter angustato, trans basin punc- 
tulato, lateribus antice fortiter rotundatis, juxta basin 
sinuatis, angiilis posticis subdentiformibus acute rectis ; 
elytris oblongis, antice fortiter 7-seriatim punctatis, hand 
striatis (stria suturali, postice et breviter recurva fortiter 
impressa excepta). Long., 2i mm. 
I do not observe any setiferous punctures on the elytra of 
this insect, which does not seem to fall naturally into any 
genus known to me. The presence of a recurved stria (which, 
however, is very short) associates it with Tacliys and Tacfiyta, 
and the antennae are suggestive of the latter ; but its strong 
convexity, the coarse serial puncturation of the elytra not ex- 
tending beyond the middle of these organs ; the complete ab- 
sence of striation, with the exception of the very strong sutural 
stria commencing near where the puncturation ceases, and 
briefly recurved a little before the apex, are inconsistent with 
any close alliance with the species of those genera. In many 
respects, especially the form and sculpture of the thorax, 
T. semistriatus bears much resemblance to the European Bem- 
hidium articulatum, Gyll., from which, however, the short 
antennae, well defined recurved stria, &c., separate it rather 
widely. It should be added that the reddish mark on the 
elytra consists of a large obscure spot on the disc, a little be- 
hind the middle. 

A few specimens have occurred to me on swampy ground in 
several places near Port Lincoln. 

T. Mmdersi, sp. nov. Minus elongatus ; sat convexus ; nitidus; 
rufus, antennis (his basi excepta nonnullis exemplis tes- 
taceo-fuscis) palpis mandibulis pedibusque pallidioribus, 
elytrorum disco nonnullis exemplis plus minusve obscure 
infuscato ; antennis crassiusculis, capite prothoraceque 
conjunctis baud longioribus ; prothorace (minus fortiter) 
transverso, hand distincte canaliculato, postice minus for- 



42 

titer angustato, lateribus antice sat fortiter rotundatis 
basin juxta rectis, angulis posticis rectis ; elytris oblongo- 
parallelis, vix striatus (stria suturali postice et stria 
reciirva except is), antice minus fortiter 5-seriatim punctatis. 
Long. 2-2^ mm. 
This is auotber anomalous little species. I cannot discover 
any trace o£ the large setiferous punctures on its elytra. The 
infuscation on the elytra when present is very obscure. I 
possess one example in which there is a little infuscation round 
the scutellum. This insect bears much resemblance to the pre- 
ceding, but has fewer lines of punctures on the elytra (the 
punctures themselves being considerably finer), the recurved 
stria much longer, the elytra more parallel, and the thorax 
differently shaped. The basal margin of the thorax is scarcely 
narrower than the apical, the sides are regularly and rather 
strongly rounded from the front nearly to the base where they 
become quite straight and parallel to each other, and there is 
no trace of puncturation across the base. 

I have found this insect in several places in the Port Lincoln 
district, on swampy ground, and also on the banks of the 
Torrens, near Adelaide. 

T. captus, sp. nov. Sat elongatus ; subdepressus ; nitidus ; 
lividus, capite obscuriore, pedibus (nonnulis exemplis 
prothorace etiam) dilutioribus ; antennis crassiusculis, 
capite prothoraceque conjunctis paullo longioribus ; pro- 
thorace sat fortiter transverso, postice evidenter angustato, 
subtiliter canaliculate, lateribus rotundatis ante basin vix 
sinuatis, angulis posticis distinctis obtusis ; elytris ob- 
longis, stria suturali leviter ceteris obsolete notatis, stria 
recurva nulla; utroque elytrorum punctis setiferis 2 in 
disco et 4 juxta marginem notato. Long., 1^ mm. 
This minute insect is no less anomalous than the preceding. 
I cannot find any character to separate it from TacJiys (of 
which it has all the facies) except that I fail to discover any 
trace of a recurved stria ; at the same time I must admit having 
failed to dissect the mouth organs satisfactorily. In colour 
and size it must be very like Tachyta livida, Bates (described 
from an Adelaide specimen, but quite unknown to me in 
nature), but the structural characters are very different. In 
one of my specimens there is a little infuscation about the 
front of the thorax. 

I have taken this species in the Port Lincoln district and 
also near Adelaide. One of the specimens from the latter 
locality with the upper surface pitchy black, the elytra ap- 
parently a little less depressed, and the antennae scarcely so 
long as in the type, may possibly represent a closely allied 
distinct species. 



43 

BEMBIDIUM. 

B. propriwn, sp. nov. IN'igro-piceum ; nitidum ; antennarum 
brevium apicem versus infuscatarum basi, pedibusque tes- 
taceis; elytris plus minusve testaceo maculatis ; prothorace 
leviter transverse subtiliter canaliculato, cordato, utrinque 
ad angulos posticos rectos foveolato, lateribus fortiter 
rotundatis ; elytris vix striatis, longe sparsim setosis, for- 
titer seriatim punctatis, punctis apicem versus obsoletis. 
Long., 31- mm. 

This species bears a great resemblance to the European 
B. (Leja) Normannwn, Dej., though the closeness of the basal 
foveae on the thorax to the lateral margin would seem to asso- 
ciate it with the subgenus Loplia, as also the brevity and thick- 
ness of the antennae, those organs being scarcely longer ihan 
the head and thorax together ; the whole insect is a little less 
elongate, especially in respect of the thorax, than B. JSForman- 
oium, and the puncturation of the elytra scarcely differs from 
what it is in that species, consisting of rows of strong punc- 
tures in scarcely marked strise, which become obsolete in the 
posterior one-third of the elytra, the rows nearer the suture 
extending further than those nearer the sides. The testaceous 
markings of the elytra vary a good deal, in some specimens 
consisting merely of a blotch on the lateral margin a little 
before the apex, Avhile in others the shoulders and nearly the 
apical half of the elytra are testaceous. 

I have not met with this insect except in the Port Lincoln 
district, where it is not rare. 

B. cluliuon, sp. nov. Atrum ; nitidum ; antennis sat elongatis 
palpis piceis basidilutioribus, pedibus rufescentibus, elytris 
apicem versus ruf o maculatis ; prothorace leviter trans- 
verso subtiliter canaliculato, cordato, utrinque ad angulos 
posticos subrectos foveolato, lateribus fortiter rotundatis ; 
elytris vix striatis minus fortiter seriatim punctatis, 
punctis apicem versus obsoletis. Long., 4-4i mm. 
Yery closely allied to the preceding, but undoubtedly dis- 
tinct. It is larger and a little more elongate and parallel, with 
the ground colour black, the antennae considerably longer than 
the head and thorax together, of a pitchy black colour except 
at the extreme base, the basal angles of the thorax gently 
obtuse and the elytra more finely punctate, with an obscure 
impression on each of them near the front, and no trace of the 
long thinly-dispersed setae which exist on fresh specimens of 
B. proprium. I think that this species also should be referred 
to Lopha. 

I have taken this insect in the Port Lincoln district, also on 
the banks of the Eiver Murray. There are specimens in the 



44 

Soutli Australian Museum from the Finnis Eiver, wliicli seem 
to have tlie elytra a little more finel}' punctured, but do not 
differ otherwise. 

B. errans, sp. no v. Nigro-piceum ; plus minusve senescens ; sat 
elongatum; minus nitidum ; antennis palpis pedibusque 
sordide testaceis ; elvtris plus minusve testaceo-maculatis ; 
antennis capite prothoraceque conjunctis sat longioribus ; 
protborace fortius transverso, baud cordate, subtiliter 
canaliculato, postice quam antice vix angustiori, postice 
marginem juxta utrinque foveolato, lateribus fortiter ro- 
tundatis ; angulis posticis minutis, subrectis ; elytris 
leviter striatis, striis sat subtiliter puncturatis marginem 
apicemque versus deficientibus, interstitio tertio bi-im- 
presso. Long., 5 mm. 
This species is very difficult to place among the named sub- 
genera of JBemhidium. It has very much the general appearance 
of a Leja (the European Bruxellense, Wessmael, for instance) 
with a thorax much of the Lojylia type (though not at all cor- 
date), with the basal corners not at all explanate, and the basal 
fovea not separated by a keel from the lateral margin. The 
elytra vary a good deal in colour and marking, being in some 
specimens almost entirely of a dirty testaceous hue, and in 
others blackish, or almost green, with the shoulders and ex- 
ternal apical portion, or even the latter only, suffused or 
spotted with testaceous. The sculpture of the elytra is very 
similar to that of B. Bruxellense^ with the striae a little finer 
and more finely punctured. 

Eather a common species and widely distributed in South 
Australia, possibly occurring only near the coast. I have the 
following localities noted for it : — Adelaide, Port Lincoln, 
Mouth of the Murray. 

B. ocellatum, sp. nov. -3Eneum ; sat nitidum ; minus elongatum ; 
antennis (apice infuscato excepto) mandibulis pedibusque 
testaceis, elytris, apicem versus testaceo-maculatis ; an- 
tennis capite prothoraceque conjunctis longioribus ; oculis 
permagnis ; prothorace fortiter transverso hand cordato, 
postice quam antice hand angustiori, subtiliter canalicu- 
lato, utrinque angulos posticos subrectos versus foveolato, 
margiuibus lateralibus sat fortiter rotundatis postice sat 
deplanatis ; elytris striatis, striis subtiliter puncturatis 
marginem apicemque versus deficientibus, interstitio tertio 
bi-impresso. Long., 3^-4 mm. 
This little species would not be much out of place in the sub- 
genus P/z^'/oc/zf/^z^s; compared with the European species it is 
' not so convex, has much larger and more prominent eyes, and 
the thorax is proportionally larger, and especially wider. Com- 



45 

pared with JB. MannerTieimi, Satlb., of that group, besides the- 
difference already named, it is more elongate and parallel, not 
so shining, has no keel within the posterior angles of the 
thorax, and the punctures in the striae of the elytra are very 
much finer. The testaceous markings on the elytra consist 
of two somewhat crescent-shaped spots connected on the 
margin, the front of the anterior one being at a distance of 
about a quarter of the elytron from the apex, and the hinder one 
extending to the apex ; in strongly-marked specimens the 
hinder is curved up the suture, and the anterior is curved 
almost to meet it, a dark portion being enclosed, so that the 
whole resembles an ocellus ; in some specimens, however, these 
markings are very obscure indeed. 

This is a common insect on the margins of fresh-water nools, 
rivers, &c. I have it from the Port Lincoln district, and from 
various places near Adelaide, but not from the interior, though 
probably it will be found there. Mr. Pulleine informs me thlit 
he has taken it actually under water. 

STAPHYLINID^. 
ALEOCHAEA. 

A. pelagi, sp. noy. Mtida ; nigra ; elytris pedibusque obscure 
piceis ; capite rotundato prothorace multo angustiore 
antice sub-triangulariter deplanato, confuse profunde 
sparsim punctato ; antennis prothoracis basin hand 
attingentibus, articubs 5-10 fortiter transversis, 11° conico 
10° plus duplo longiore; prothorace transverso antice an- 
gustato postice rotundato ad latera sparsim fortiter sub- 
seriatim panctulato, disco profunde biseriatim foveolato, 
spatio inlermedio lato ; elytris prothorace vix longioribus, 
parce fortiter apice marginibusque densius subtiliusque 
puuctulatis spatio discoidale sat lato humeris lineaque 
subhumerali Isevibus ; abdominis seginentis 1-4 sub- 
Isevibus, 5-7 fortius sat crebre punctulatis. Long., 4 mm. 
This species is closely allied to A. s'peculifera, Er., from which 
it differs inter alia as follows : — The lateral punctures of the 
thorax are very much less numerous, consisting chiefly of a 
well-defined row near the margin, and the discal series are not 
placed in striae, but consist each of about three very large 
f ovese, the space between the series being very wide ; on the 
elytra the apical and marginal punctures are much less con- 
fused, and the discal puncturation is stronger and more dis- 
tinct ; the basal three segments of the hind body have only a 
few obscure punctures which are near the margins, while on 
the fourth segment the lateral punctures are very little more 
noticeable, and a narrow punctured space crosses the base. 

This insect occurs rarely under decaying seaweed near Port 
Lincoln. 



46 

A. Icpta, sp. nov. Nitida ; nigra ; pedibus piceis, elytris et 
abdominis apice \sete rufis ; antennis elonfijatis, capite pro- 
tboraceque conjunctis vix brevioribus, articulis 7-10 minus 
fortiter transversis ; capite supra late concavo, fortiter 
nee crebre (disco subtilius), punctulato prothorace multo 
angustiori; hoc transverso antice fortiter angustato, postice 
rotundato, ad latera crasse sat crebre punctulato, disco 
profunde bisulcato, sulcis confuse biseriatim punctulato, 
spatio intermedio angusto convexo ; elytris protborace 
baudlongioribus, profunde nee crebre punctatis; abdominis 
segmentis singulis antice subtiliter postice fortiter punc- 
tatis. Long., 4 J mai. 

The puncturation of the abdomen (which is moderately close 
and regular, and gradually passes on each segment from fine at 
the base to very coarse near the apex) is a very distinctive 
feature of this pretty species. It seems to be somewhat like 
A. bisulcata, Eedt., but its long antennae, as well as the 
abdominal puncturation, clearly distinguish it. 

A single specimen occurred under decaying seaweed near 
Port Lincoln. 

A. occidentalis, sp. nov. Sat nitida ; piceo-nigra ; ore antennis 
palpis elytris et abdominis apice brunneis ; antennis capiti 
prothoracique conjunctis subsequalibus, articulis 5-10 
transversis; capite supra sat depresso, fortiter subaequaliter 
(disco longitudinaliter laevi excepto) punctulato prothorace, 
multo angustiori ; hoc transverso antice fortiter angustato 
jDOstice rotundato, ad latera crasse punctate, disco irregu- 
lariter profunde bisculcato, sulcis profunde punctulatis, 
spatio intermedio lato vix convexo ; elytris sparsim pubes- 
centibus, prothorace baud longioribus, profunde sat 
crebre punctulatis, abdomine confuse punctate. Long,, 
5 mm. 

This species is closely allied to the preceding one, but I think 
it is really distinct. Apart from strong difference in colour, 
the subapical joints of the antennas are more strongly trans- 
verse, the head is not concave (though it is much flattened), the 
puncturation of the head is uniformly strong, though entirely 
absent along a longitudinal middle line (while in Iceta it be- 
comes much finer, but does not cease in the middle) ; the 
thoracic furrows are not continuous, but consist each of two or 
three elongate f oves placed in a line, the puncturation in which 
is very coarse, confused, and confluent, the intermediate space 
is wide and flat, the puncturation of the elytra is much closer, 
and that of the hind body quite different, consisting of two 
systems, one fine regular and not very sparse, the other 
coarse, sparing, and on each segment not extending to the 



47 

basal quarter ; Lotli systems of punctures are somewliat 
crowded together, and confused near the lateral margins. 
Eoth this species and A. Iceta must be allied to A. hisulcata^ 
E-edt., but the "an tennis thoracis mediam partem vix attin- 
gentibus" of that insect is quite irreconcilable with its being 
identical with either of them, 

I possess a single specimen sent to me from "Western Aus- 
tralia by E. Meyrick, Esq. 

A. insignis, sp. nov. Nitida ; nigra ; antennis pedibusque 
piceis ; capite prothorace elytrisque ssqualiter subtiliter 
sparsissime punctatis ; abdomine Isevi ; capite convexo 
fortiter transverso ; antennarum articulis basalibus 3 
elongatis, 3° 2° longiore, articulis 4-10 fortiter trans- 
versis, 11° duobus prsecedentibus conjunctis aequali ; pro- 
thorace duplo latiori quam longiori ; elytris transversis 
prothorace vix longioribus. Long., 4<\ mm. 
This insect is utterly unlike any other Aleochara known to 
i^e. Until examined with a strong lens it appears quite devoid 
^f puncturation. The apical segments of my unique specimen 
^re unfortunately too much damaged for accurate investiga- 
tion, but, as far as I can make out, the last segment is slightly 
I'oughened, as with minute granules. The hind margin of each 
Segment of the hind body is a little inclined to reddish. 
Port Lincoln. 

PHILONTHTJS. 

P. ornatus, sp. nov. Niger ; nitidus ; antennarum basi man- 
dibulis palpis pedibusque pallidis, elytris rufis antice et 
postice f usco-umbratis ; antennis capiti prothoracique con- 
junctis longitudine subaqualibus, articulis 7-10 leviter 
transversis ; capite prothorace paullo angustiori, puuctis 
interocularibus postocularibusque sat sparsim (ut in P. 
sanguinicolli, Fauv.) positis ; prothorace tertia parte lon- 
giore quam latiore, seriebus dorsalibus (puncto ad mar- 
ginem anticam excepto) 4 punctatis, punctis 3 aliis extus 
medio aliis que 2 parum obliquis prope augulum anticum 
positis, lateribus parum rotundatis subparallelis ; scutello 
sparsius subtilius, elytris parum dense fortius, abdomine 
subtilius nee crebre, punctatis; elytris prothorace sat 
longioribus. Long., 4t mm. 
Considerably smaller than P. sanguinicollis, Eauv. (which, 
according to my , measurements, varies from 4f to 6f mm, in 
length) ; also narrower and more parallel than that insect, with 
the thorax differently punctured, and the elytra much more 
coarsely and the hind body much more sparingly punctured. 
The infuscation on the elytra fills up the humeral and external 
apical corners, the two spots being very obscurely united along 



48 

the lateral margin, and also obscurely extending along tlie 

basal and hind margins to the suture. 

A single specimen is in the collection of Mr. R. H. Pulleine. 

It was found in South Australia. 

P. ventralis, Grav. I do not think that the occurrence in Aus- 
tralia of this European species has been hitherto recorded. 
I have before me two specimens taken by Mr. Pulleine, 
which appear quite identical with European types. 

LITHOCHAEIS. 

Z. Lindi, sp. nov. Minus nitida ; piceo-nigra, antennis pedi- 
busque paullo dilutioribus, illis apice testaceis ; corpore 
toto subtilissime creberrime vix rugulose punctulato 
antennis gracilibus sat elongatis ; capite subquadrato 
prothorace hoc vix latiore, paullo longiore quam latiore 
ely tris prothorace sat longioribus latioribusque, longioribus 
quam conjunctim latioribus. Long, 4J mm. 
In size and build this species resembles L. ocliracea, Gr. 
The colour, however, is totally different, the antennae are more 
slender (their length being about the same), as of those of 
i. ochracea, the thorax is considerably longer in proportion to its 
width, and the punctaration of the whole insect is less smooth, 
though scarcely less fine and dense. I have two specimens of 
this insect (apparently females), both taken on swampy ground 
near Port Lincoln. 

CArirs. 
C. occidentalis, sp. nov. Kiger ; elytris abdomineque plus 
minusve nigro-piceis, his apice dilutioribus ; ore antennis 
pedibusque rufis vel piceo-iufis; antennis capiti protho- 
racique conjunctis longitudine sub?equalibus sat gracilibus ; 
capite antice medio longitudinaliter sulcato, utrinque 
crasse seriatim punctulato ; prothorace sat elongate, disco 
subtilius biseriatim punctulato, spatio intermedio lato 
convexo, lateribus punctis sat crebris subseriatim in- 
structis ; elytris creberrime subtilissime subrugulose 
punctulatis, prothorace sat longioribus, parce sericeo- 
pubescentibus ; abdomine minus opaco, alutaceo, sericeo- 
pubescenti. Long., 4|-5i mm. 

In size, build, and colour this species is extremely like a 
large highly-coloured example of C. sericeus, Holme, from 
which it differs as follows: — It is slightly less opaque, the 
puncturation of the elytra is less smooth, and the antennas 
are less stout. The head and thorax are quite different. 
The former is quadrate in one of my specimens, elongate 
in the other (apparently male and female), with a strong 
longitudinal furrow running down the anterior two-thirds, on 



49 

either side o£ wkich coarse punctures run in two lines, tlie 
puncturation outside tliese being confused. On the thorax the 
smooth convex discal space is very broad, and the lines of 
punctures on either side of it consist of about 15 fine but 
strong punctures, and are scarcely eonfused with the lateral 
puncturation, which is strong, moderately close, uniform, and 
sublinear in its distribution. Although my specimens appear 
to be male and female, I cannot detect any sexual characters 
apart from the shape of the head. 

Taken by E. Meyrick, Esq., in Western Australia. 

TEOGOPHLiEFS. 

T. paludicola,si^.iioy. Elongatus; gracilis; sat nitidus; minus 

pubescens ; piceus ; antennis (basin versus) pedibus 

elytrisque obscure rufescentibus ; antennis sat elongatis 

(capiti prothoracique conjunctis longitudine aequalibus) 

apicem versus paullo incrassatis ; capite prothoraceque 

alutaceis ; hoc subquadrato, postice leviter angustato, 

disco subinaequali ; elytris abdomineque subtilissime con- 

fertissirae punctulatis ; illis prothorace multo longioribus. 

Long., lf-2 mm. 

This species closely resembles the European T. tenellus, Er. 

Compared with it the colour of the elytra and legs is much 

darker, the head wider, and the thorax less narrowed behind 

and considerably less distinctly punctured, the puncturation 

being so fine and close that the punctures are individually 

scarcely distinguishable, and hence the thorax has a much 

duller appearance than that of tenellus. 

A few specimens occurred at the "Big Swamp," twelve miles 
west of Port Lincoln. 

ELEDIUS. 

B. Adelaides, sp. nov. Eobustus ; sat nitidus; minus pubes- 
cens ; niger ; prothorace et elytris rufo-piceis, his apice 
antennis pedibusque rufis ; antennis brevibus apicem 
versus fortius incrassatis ; oculis magnis capitis basin 
attingentibus ; capite prothoraceque alutaceis ; hoc f ortiter 
convexo subcirculari, postice angustato, disco obscure bi- 
impresso ; elytris subtiliter crebre, abdomine subtilissime 
creberrime, punctatis ; illis prothorace sat longioribus. 
Long., 2-2-2t mm. 
The antenna of this species are almost exactly like those of 
JB.phy to sinus, Eauv. The puncturation of its elytra very closely 
resembles that of the same part in TrocjopliJcEus corticimts, Er., 
but is slightly finer and smoother. The well-marked red apical 
margin of the elytra is a very distinctive character. 

Taken in the neighbourhood of Adelaide by Mr. E. H. Pul- 
leine. 



50 

LAMELLICORNES. 
LIPAKETRUS. 

L. Sedajii, sp. nov. Ovatus ; nitidus ; niger, elytris (margini- 
bus anticis, et lateralibus post medium, inf uscatis exceptis) 
rufis, autennis (clava excepta) palpis tarsisque plus minusve 
rufescentibus ; clypeo antice rotundato- truncate reflexo et 
capite obsolete bituberculato confertim rugosius, pro- 
tborace late leviter canaliculato longe nigro-piloso sparsim 
subtiliter, elytris sparsim fortius, pygidio propygidioque 
longe albido-hirsutis (illo vix evidenter carinato) confuse 
sparsim, punctatis ; striis gemiuatis minus evidenter im- 
pressis ; tibiis anticis (? alter utrius sexus solum) obtuse 
bidentatis ; antennis 9-articulatis ; tarsorum posticorum 
articulo primo secundo subaequali; subtus albido-pubescens. 
Long., 8 mm. 
Just above tbe upper of the two teeth on one of the anterior 
tibiae in the specimen described there is a rather distinct sinua- 
tion, suggestive of a very rudimentary third tooth, which is 
probably a deformity, as I cannot trace it on the other front 
tibia. The insect is closely allied to my oiigrouinhratus, from 
which it differs in having a well defined and broad — though 
shallow — longitudinal furrow on the thorax, in having the 
thorax and pygidium very finely instead of coarsely sculptured, 
and the latter clothed with white pilosity. A single specimen 
has been presented to me by Mr. Eothe, of Sedan. 
L. perplexus, ^^.noY. Ovatus; minus nitidus ; rufo-brunneus, 
capite prothorace tibiisque nigrescentibus, antennis pal- 
pisque testaceis, elytris antice subinfuscatis ; clypeo 
antice reflexo subtruncato capite et prothorace pilis longis 
nigris erectis instructis crasse sat crebre punctatis, hoc 
pilis albidis adpressis instructo et ad latera basinque pilis 
longis albidis fimbriato ; elytris confuse fortius sat crebre 
punctatis, pilis erectis (antice longis postice brevioribus) 
nigrescentibus instructis, striis geminatis nullis ; pygidio 
propygidioque sat crasse punctatis, pilis albidis adpressis 
crebre, et pilis longissimis cinereis erectis sat sparsim, in- 
structis ; tibiis anticis (? alterutrius sexus solum) fortiter 
tridentatis ; antennis 8-articulatis ; tarsorum posticorum 
articulo primo secundo sat longiore ; tarsis omnibus gra- 
cillimis ; subtus cinereo-pilosus. Long., 7 mm. 
I do not think this remarkable insect has any near ally. 
Probably its place in the genus should be next to L. ferrugineus, 
Blanch, in common with which it possesses eight-jointed antennae, 
and a large exposed propygidium ; but the remarkable erect 
pilosity of the elytra, very long in front and gradually decreas- 
ing in length till it is very short behind, and the double 



51 

pilosity of the pygidium and propygidium (the long hairs are 
nearly as long as the hind tibiae) characterise it very strongly. 
The second joint of the hind tarsi is about two-thirds the 
length of the first. 

Also presented to me by Mr. Eothe, of Sedan. 

PANSCHizus, gen. nov. 
Mentum sub quadrat um, antice sat late productum ; palpis 
maxillaribus modicis, articulo ultimo sat magno supra 
excavate ; labrum medio f ortiter productum ; clypeum trans- 
versum, reflexum, rotundatum; oculi magni sat prominuli ; 
prothorax transversus, basi parum lobatus ; scutellum 
triangulariter rotundatum ; elytra oblonga ; pedes ro- 
busti f ortiter punctulati ; tibiae anticae tridentatae ; inter- 
mediae et posticae bicarinatae, tarsi tibiis breviores ; ungui- 
culi inaequales, externi apice sat f ortiter divisi ; 
mesosternum baud productum ; elytra margine mem- 
branaceo insfcructa. 
The insect for which I propose this generic name seems to 
be very close to some of the species included by Lacordaire in 
Anoplostethus, but differs in having the external claw of all 
the tarsi deeply bifid at the apex. I feel considerable doubt as 
to the value of this character as a generic distinction ; at the 
same time, as Anoplostethus stands at present, the insect I am 
describing cannot rightly be attributed to it. 
P. pallidus, sp. nov. Oblongus ; nitidus ; supra glaber ; tes- 
taceus viridi-micans ; antennis, palpis, mandibulis, clypeo 
subtus, labro et pedibus testaceis, his aeneo micantibus, 
pygidio pallide viridi ; clypeo crebre subtiliter, capite 
prothorace canaliculate scutelloque subtiliter minus 
crebre, elytris xortiter sparsim subseriatim, pygidio 
creberrime subtiliter, punctulatis ; subtus viridis longe 
albo-pilosus, sterno (medio excepto) subtiliter creberrime, 
abdomine crasse sparsim punctulatis; pedibus f ortiter 
punctulatis, intermediis et posticis longe albo-pilosis. 
Long., 32 mm. 
A single specimen of this insect was sent to me from "Wes- 
tern Australia by E. Meyrick, Esq. There is also a much 
broken example in the South Australian Museum, of the cap- 
ture of which there is no record. I am doubtful of the sex 
of these specimens, but believe them both to be females. The 
nearest allies of P. pallidus are no doubt Anoplostethus opalinus 
and roseus, which differ entirely from it in colour as well as in 
the structure of the claws. 



52 



Further Notes on Australian Coleoptera, 
^wiTH Descriptions of New Species. 

By Eev. T. Blackbuex, B.A. 
[Bead September 6, 1887.] 

In tliis paper I offer to tlie Eoyal Society descriptions of 
thirteen species of Soutli Australian Coleoptera that appear to 
Lave hitherto escaped notice, together with the redescription of 
an insect previously insufficiently described by me, and a note 
on the capture by Mr. J. J. East of a species doubtless intro- 
duced through the agency of commerce, but which has not, I 
believe, been previously recorded as Australian. I have also 
furnished some remarks on the structural characters of the 
front tibise o£ the Scaritidce, pointing out the importance in 
determining the limits of genera and species of one of those 
characters that does not appear to have been observed by 
describers hitherto. 

SCAEITID.E. 
ETJTOMA. 
JE. Adelaidce, sp.nov, Angustum ; parallel um ; nitidum; supra 
nigrum, elytris splendide caeruleis, antennis palpis mandi- 
bulorum basi pedibusque plus minusve rufis ; subtus 
nigrum, coxis abdomineque picescentibus ; capite pro- 
thoraci latitudine sequali for titer lougitudinaliter utrinqiie 
sulcato, sulcis postice hand transversim productis, antice 
leviter convergentibus, supra frontem breviter profunda 
divergentibus ; juxta oculos 2 punctis setiferis positis ; 
prothorace subquadrato profunde canaliculato (canalicula 
marginem anticam hand attingente), intra augulos posticos 
transversim depresso, basi utrinque foveolato marginibus 
lateralibus leviter sinuatis; elytris laevibus secundum 
suturam depressis, postice utrinque puncto magno notatis ; 
tibiis anticis externe fortiter bidentatis. Long., 14|- mm. 
This species does not appear to resemble closely any yet 
described except E. Icevis, Cast., from which it appears to differ 
as follows : — It is smaller, the furrows on the head end pos- 
teriorly quite abruptly without any indication of a transverse 
impression (in Icevis there is stated by M. Casteluau to be a 
line connecting the apices of the frontal furrows with the eye) , 
the thorax is not at all longer than wide, but when measured 
carefully is found to be a minute fraction of a millimetre wider 
than long ; there is no impression on the humeral angle of the 



53 

elytra. I cannot help so far participating in tbe views expressed 
by the Hon. W. Macleay (Trans. Eut. Soc, N.S.W., 1869, II., 
pp. 58, &c.) touching the accuracy of Count Castelnau's obser- 
vations as to feel some misgivings in distinguishing this species 
from his E. Icevis, but nevertheless it is certain that if the 
description of Tl. Icsvis is accurate, the present insect is not 
identical with it, and if it is inaccurate a new description is re- 
quired even at the risk of supplying a name that will not stand. 
It will be observed also that the location of this species in 
Eutoma is inconsistent with the thoracic characters attributed to 
that genus, but nevertheless it is certain that E. Adelaidce can- 
not be generically separated from the species previously attri- 
buted to Eutoma. I should, perhaps, add that the serial mar- 
ginal punctures of the elytra are placed in E. Adelaiclcd as 
follows on each elytron : — Two on the external portion of the 
anterior margin, six on the anterior third part of the lateral 
margin, two close to the apex, and three at wide intervals on 
the intermediate portion; exterior ridge of anterior tibiae with 
two teeth above the large apical ones, neither of which is visible 
when the tibia is viewed from perpendicula-rly above it ; the lower 
one is small, and placed on the hinder declivity of the upper 
large tooth ; the upper one is scarcely discernible except by 
its seta ; the inferior ridge bears three small teeth. 

Eecently added to the South Australian Museum ; taken at 
Ashton, near Adelaide, by Mr. Co]oeland. 

A recent study of the anterior tibia of a number of the 
species forming this genus has satisfied me that some of the 
expressions ordinarily used in describing the denticulation of 
that limb are wanting in accuracy, and that a thorough in- 
vestigation of the matter might be of great assistance in deter- 
mining the limits of closely allied species, or even in the 
arrangement of genera. Unfortunately the material at my 
command is not sufficient for such a purpose, but I am per- 
suaded it would be well worthy the attention of some specialist 
in the genus who was in a position to examine a long series of 
species. If the p^nterior tibia of a Carenum be carefully 
examined it will be found that the central apical portion of the 
under surface consists of a flattened or concave space which 
terminates in a point of various shapes, the said pointed por- 
tion forming the lower portion of the cavity into which the 
tarsus is inserted. I shall call this the "apical plate" of the 
tibia. The inner edge of this plate if followed is seen to con- 
sist of a smooth ridge {i.e., smooth in all the species I have 
examined), which passes up the tibia, encircles the upper in- 
ternal spine of the tibia, and then turns downwards towards 



54 

the apical internal spine. The external edge of the '• apical 
plate" runs backward (i e., up the tibia) for a length varying 
with the species as a smooth ridge and then becomes serrated, 
each serration bearing a long seta. This ridge I shall call the 
"inferior ridge." From the anterior external corner of the 
"apical plate" there rises a line, which can be traced as a 
distinct rib or ridge along the following course, viz., around 
the whole contour of the under surface of the two large apical 
external spines of the tibia, and then backwards (i.e., up the 
tibia), at first forming the external margin of the tibia and 
then (higher up) passing to the under side until it joins the 
" inferior ridge " of the tibia at a variable distance (but never 
very far) from the apex of the femur. The portion of this 
ridge above the two large apical spines, like the " inferior 
ridge," is cut into a series of denticulations, of which those on 
the part where it forms the external edge of the tibia are, if 
they are present at all, pointed outwards, while those on the 
portion that is underneath the tibia are pointed downwards. 
Each of the denticulations of this " exterior ridge " (as I shall 
call it) bears a long stiff seta. 

I was led to make this exact observation of the structural 
characters in the front tibia of Carenum by experiencing the 
unsatisfactory nature of the expressions " bidentate " and 
" tridentate " as applied to the external margin of those limbs. 
I found, for example, that two specimens of the same insect 
might appear to oscillate between being "bi" or "tri" dentate 
in that respect, according to the position in which the anterior 
legs were set ; and further, comparing (7. Icsvigatum, Macl., and 
C. Odewalini, Cast, (placed by Mr. Macleay in different genera 
mainly on this character), I failed to discover any difference 
in the dentation of their anterior tibiae. 

As far as I have been able to examine the species of Carenum 
I find that the "exterior ridge" in them all possesses either 
three or four distinct denticulations in the upper portion {i.e.., 
the portion above the two large apical teeth), and that the size 
and position o£ the denticulations varies considerably, but is 
tolerably constant in examples of the same species. In some 
species they are larger than in others ; in some the lowest or 
the lowest two are a good deal directed outwards (because the 
exterior ridge limits the tibia externally for a certain distance 
before passing to the under surface), so as to be partially 
visible when viewed from directly above, but in all that I have 
examined there are at least three teeth to be seen above the 
apical two if the tibia be viewed from a point a little outside 
that from which it would be looked down upon perpendicularly. 
Thus the distinctions founded on the dentation of the " exterior 
ridge " are for the most part distinctions of degree, and by no 



55 

means exact. I find, However, that more satisfactory results 
are arrived at in respect of the species I have studied by an 
examination of the setiferous teeth on the " inferior ridge." 

I will now proceed by way of illustration to mention the 
characters of the external and inferior ridges in several species 
of Oarenum, remarking, however, that C. antJiracinum, Macl., 
and C. Icevigatum, Macl., are the only species of which I have 
been able to examine a long series. 

C. ajithracimcm, Macl. — Exterior ridge with four teeth, all 
feeble — the topmost extremely so ; all invisible when the tibia 
is looked down upon quite perpendicularly. Inferior ridge 
bearing six or seven well-defined teeth, which commence far 
back from the tarsus. 

C. IcBvigatum, Macl. — Exterior ridge with four very well- 
defined teeth, the lowest two of which are more or less visible 
when the tibia is looked down upon perpendicularly. Inferior 
ridge with ten well-defined teeth, which commence far back 
from the tarsus. 

C. Oclewahni, Cast. — ^Exterior ridge with only three distinct 
teeth, of which the lowest is a little visible when the tibia is 
looked down upon perpendicularly ; a fourth is barely discover- 
able, but is indicated by the presence of its seta. Inferior 
ridge with twelve teeth, which commence close to the tarsus. 

C. ineditum, Macl. — Exterior ridge very similar to that of C. 
anthracinum. Inferior ridge with nine teeth, which commence 
far back from the tarsus, the topmost barely traceable except 
by its seta. 

These examples will be quite sufficient to illustrate what I 
conceive to be the advantage of giving more attention than 
has been given hitherto to an accurate study of the anterior 
tibia in Carenum, and I have not access, unfortunately, to so 
large a series of species as would render an exhaustive and 
complete study of the genus possible for me. 

Before leaving the subject I will jusfc add a few notes on the 
application of the characters of the anterior tibia to the dis- 
tinction of the Australian genera of ScaritidcB. 

Monocentrum is a genus of which I have no example, but 
probably its tibial structure is peculiar. 

In Oonopterum (two species only have been examined) the 
exterior ridge seems to contain two teeth and an obsolete indi- 
cation of a third, while the inferior ridge commences as in 
Carenum, but contains only about three teeth, and is non- 
serrate in its upper half. 

In Garenidmm I have been able to examine only a single 
species, but it has the exterior ridge very ill-defined, and quite 
devoid of teeth above the apical large teeth, and six blunt 
obscure teeth on the inferior ridge. 



56 

In Eiitoma the tibiae, so far as I liave been able to observe, 
resemble tliose of Carenum, although I have not seen any species 
in which the inferior ridge is so well defined as in Carenum, or 
has more than four teeth. 

I do not find that the tibial characters of Neocarenum differ 
in a manner likely to be generic from those of Conopterum. 

My very limited opportunities of examining anterior tibise in 
Mr. Macleay's new genera Carenoscaphiis and Calliscapterus 
point to the probability that the former differs from Carenum 
in this respect only by the feebler development of the inferior 
ridge, and the latter by the exceedingly strong development of 
the same, together with the commencement of its serration 
nearer to the apex of the tibia. 

In Laccopterum the " apical plate" of the tibia is not pro- 
duced in the middle as in the preceding genera, and the serra- 
tion of the inferior ridge does not extend above its apical half. 

Teratidium is unknown to me. 

The structure of the anterior tibiae in Euryscaplius does not 
appear to distinguish that genus from Carenum. 

In Scaraphites the structure of the anterior tibia differs en- 
tirely, the exterior ridge not passing to the underside of the 
tibia, and the inferior ridge (instead of the external edge of 
the apical plate) passing round the upper internal spine. 

The tibial structure in Geoscaptus is very like that of 
Cwrenum, except that the apical plate is differently shaped. 

In Scolyptus and Glivina the structure is so different as to be 
hardly capable of comparison with that of Carenum. 

I must again remark that my observations are founded on so 
small a series of specimens that it is quite likely an examina- 
tion of species I have not seen may considerably modify the 
conclusions to be arrived at, but I think my observations 
thoroughly establish the importance of a study of the characters 
I have discussed. 

Another character of Carenum that appears to me capable of 
being used to advantage in the discrimination of species is to 
be found in the form of the elytral margin at the shoulder, 
which varies to some extent, but appears constant in individuals 
of the same species. In every Carenum known to me the lateral 
margin of the elytra is conspicuously thickened (or increased) 
at the humeral angle, but not always in the same way. In the 
majority of species there is ?^mere thickening in a vertical direc- 
tion (as in C. antliracinum, MacL), generally more or less 
pointed at the apex, and having somewhat the appearance of an 
ill-defined erect tooth, while in others (e.g., C. lcsvigafu}n,^Ln.cl.) 
the thickened part is bent over, with its point directed more or 
less towards the middle of the suture, as though the shoulder 
of the elytron were " dog's-eared." This distinction is unques- 



57 

tionably a fine one, but in a genus so difficult as Caremim any- 
tangible character is of importance. 

I shall uow proceed to furnish detailed descriptions of the 
two species of this genus that are most commonly found in 
South Australia, and to add descriptions of several new species 
that have come under my notice. 

0. antliracinum, Macleay. This appears to be the most abun- 
dant and widely-distributed Carenum in South Australia. I 
have the following localities noted for it, viz., Adelaide, 
Mallala, Sedan, Port Lincoln, Eucla. As I have examined, and 
have before me, a large number of specimens, it will perhaps 
be interesting to South Australian collectors to possess a some- 
what fuller description than the original one. A typical speci- 
men is as follows : — Deep black, with the palpi pitchy, except 
at their apex, where they are yellowish, the antennae often 
pitchy at the base, and more or less ferruginous in the apical 
part (or even wholly dull ferruginous), and the tarsi pitchy 
red ; the lateral margins of the elytra of a violet colour (often 
only very faintly, sometimes not at all), which in some speci- 
mens suffuses the whole epipleurae. Head with the frontal fur- 
rows well marked, diverging from about their middle strongly 
forward, and more or less gently backward, and ending pos- 
teriorly considerably in front of the level of the back of the 
eye. Considerably behind the termination of the furrows the 
head is traversed by an obscure transverse impression. The 
thorax at its widest part (which is about the middle) is about 
one-third as wide again as its greatest length (i.e., as eight to 
six), is widely and gently emarginate in front, has the sides 
very gently rounded from the front to behind the middle, and 
then converging in a sinuate manner to the base, which is gently 
emarginate (not at all lobed), and a little more than half as 
wide as the anterior margin. It has a longitudinal channel, 
tolerably well marked, which does not quite reach either the 
apex or base, and is limited in front of the base by a somewhat 
arched transverse impression, this transverse impression form- 
ing the anterior boundary of a narrow flattened space which 
runs across the whole base of the thorax. It has a very narrow 
reflexed margin, generally a few quite obscure transverse 
wrinkles on the disc, posterior angles quite rounded off, and an 
extremely obscure longitudinal impression on either side near 
the base. The elytra are just twice the length of the thorax, 
and are less than half again as long as together wide, their 
length being to their width as eleven to eight ; across their 
shoulders they are (compared with their greatest width) as five 
to eight. Their anterior margin is but little emarginate ; the 
thickened humeral portion of the elytral margin erect but 
feeble, the shoulders almost rounded in outline, sides gently 



58 

arcbed, and reflexed margins narrow. Their surface is regu- 
larly convex, shining, and quite devoid of sculpture, except the 
following on each, viz. : — On the disc a large puncture near the 
humeral angle, and another not far from the apex ; on the front 
margin two or three punctures placed close together ; along 
the lateral margin a row of from 18 to 20 punctures. On the 
anterior tibiae the exterior ridge has four teeth above the 
apical large teeth, none of which are visible from a point per- 
pendicularly above the upper surface of the tibia, and the top- 
most is in many examples so minute as to require for its detec- 
tion careful examination with a strong lens ; the inferior ridge 
bears six or seven fairly sharp and strong teeth, the lowest of 
which is placed some distance from the apex of the tibia, being 
a little further off from it than is the front base of the upper 
of the two large apical teeth. Length, 22-25 mm. ; width, 
7t-8 mm. 

I have the following forms which at present must be regarded 
as varieties of C. anthracinum. Although one or two of them 
may very possibly prove to be distinct closely allied species, I 
have not yet discovered any satisfactory character on which to 
separate them : — 

A. Much smaller than the type. Length, 17-20 mm. The 
front tibiae are reddish; there are never more than six teeth on 
the inferior ridge of the same, and I have not been able to de- 
tect any trace of a fourth (topmost) tooth on the exterior ridge. 
This insect I have never seen except from Port Lincoln. It 
varies in colour as the type. 

B. Larger than the type ; measures 26i mm. The sides of 
the elytra appear a little straighter, and these organs are de- 
cidedly more than twice the length of the thorax. I possess a 
single specimen taken in South Australia, but I know not 
exactly where. The violet bordering of its elytra is scarcely 
discernible. 

Besides the above I have a specimen in which the anterior 
large puncture is exceptionally close to the shoulder on one 
elytron, a specimen in which it is altogether wanting on one 
elytron, and several in which there are faint appearances of a 
system of wavy longitudinal lines scratched on the elytra. 

I am not able to say whether any of these last-named forms 
are identical with C. cyanipenne, Mad. Judging by the brief 
descriptions of that insect and C. anthracimun, I should think 
it quite possible that the form I have called var. a is what Mr. 
Macleay described nnder the name cyanipenne, but Mr. Macleay 
himself tells me it is his antliracinum. To confuse matters 
still more I have received the name cyanipenne from Europe for 
one of the large forms described above, cyanipenne being, accord- 
ing to the original description, " of less size (fii^iiC. anthra- 



59 

cinum and C. eheninum) and more brilliancy." On tlie wHole I 
am led to the conclusion, with a long series of specimens before- 
me, that anthracinum, Macl., is a species which varies greatly in 
size and colouring, and also a little in respect of the depth and 
curvature of the frontal foveas. 

C. inconspicimm, s]y. nov. Nitidum ; sat angustum ; subdepres- 
sum; nigrum; prothorace elytrisque violaceo-marginatis ; 
capite minus transverse ; sulcis longitudinalibus prof undis, 
antice fortiter postice parum dirergentibus, postice fovea 
obscura transversa conjunctis ; antennis sat gracilibus ; 
prothorace vix tertia parte latiori quam longiori, canalicu- 
lato, tenuiter marginato, basi utrinque vix evidenter im- 
presso, antice late leviter emarginato, postice baud lobato, 
lateribus parum rotundatis postice fortiter angustatis, 
angulis posticis rotundato-obtusis, basi subtruncata; 
elytris dimidio longioribus quam conjunctim latioribus, 
prothorace paullo plus duplo longioribus nonnihil latiori- 
bus, antice minus angustatis, tenuiter marginatis, obscure- 
seriatim punctulatis, interstitiis sparsim subtiliter punctu- 
latis, antice posticeque bipunctatis, antice subtruncatis, 
humeris refiexis parum prominulis, lateribus minus rotun- 
datis ; tibiis anticis externe bidentatis.'* Long., 20 mm. ; 
lat., 6f mm. 
This insect is of very average proportions by measurement, 
although the slightness of the curvature of the sides of the 
elytra give it a rather elongate appearance. The sculpture of 
the elytra, though very faint, is highly complicated, consisting 
of a system of fine sparing puncturation rather unevenly dis- 
tributed, thinly interspersed with short transverse scratches, 
and traversed by about seven longitudinal rows of larger (but 
not deeper) punctures placed close together in the rows, and 
failing altogether near the base and apex. On the anterior 
tibiae the exterior ridge seems to have only three teeth above 
the apical large teeth, although (my specimen being an abraded 
one) it is probable that the identification of some rudiment of 
a fourth tooth is prevented merely by the loss of its seta. The 
apex of the tooth next above the lame apical ones is scarcely 
invisible when the tibiae is looked at from a point perpendicu- 
larly above its upper face. The inferior ridge has seven well- 
defined teeth commencing well back from the apex of the tibia. 
The tibial structure does not seem to differ from that of 

* I continue to characterise the tibiae in the accustomed lanp;uage, but it 
must be remembered that I mean by "bidentatae," having all the teeth of 
the exterior ridge above the apical large ones (and by " tridentata" having all 
hut the lowest of the same) invisible xohen the tibia is viewed from a point 
perpendicularhj above its upper surface. 



60 

■C. antlirac ilium, MacL, except in tlie lowest tootli of the exterior 
Tidge beiug less concealed under the tibia. I think, on the 
whole, that the alliance of this insect is with C. anthracinum, 
Macl., its head and thorax, as well as its anterior tibiae, being 
formed very similarly, but the thorax is less transverse, and 
has the posterior converging portion of its sides non-sinuate. 
"The thickened humeral portion of the elytral margin is erect. 

I have a single specimen from the neighbourhood of Powler's 
Bay. 

C. IcEvlgatum, Macl. This and C. anthracinum, Macl., are, I feel 
satisfied, the only species of Carenum that can rightly be called 
•common and widely distributed in South Australia, this being 
the less common of the two so far as I can judge, nor have I 
evidence of its being so widely distributed. I have it, or have 
seen it, from Port Lincoln, Moonta, Wallaroo, and near Adelaide, 
l3ut not from the far west, though the meagreness of the collec- 
tions that have come under my notice from Fowler's Bay and 
Eucla prevent the evidence from being more than negative. As 
I am not aware of its having been described more fully than in 
the comparatively brief original notice from the pen of Mr. 
Macleay, the following detailed description will not be out of 
place : — 

The colour is scarcely different from that of (7. antliracinum, 
Macl., in any respect except that there is often a little more 
tendenc}^ of the marginal violet tint to suffuse the anterior por- 
tion of the elytra. On the head the frontal furrows are deep 
and well defined, diverging from the front of the forehead 
strongly forward and gently (in some examples scarcely) back- 
ward, their posterior limit being quite or nearly level with the 
back of the eye ; in many examples the f ove» are a little turned 
Tound posteriorly towards the eye. I have even one example 
in which the left fovea is evidently more bent than that on the 
Tight, and they are always united behind by a vague shallow 
arched impression that is scarcely perceptibly continued to- 
wards the sides of the head, although in some examples there 
are vague indications of a curved continuation of the line of the 
foveae in the direction of the hind corners of the head. The 
thorax at its widest part (which is about the middle) is half 
again as wide as its greatest length {i.e., as seven to four and 
two-thirds), is widely marginate in front with the anterior 
angles a little produced ; the reflexed margins are moderately 
broad ; the sides are rounded rather evenly in their anterior 
two-thirds, behind which they converge with a gentle sinuation 
to the base, which is also sinuate. There cannot be said to be 
posterior angles, inasmuch as the basal third of the thorax is 
outlined by a tri- sinuate curve, of which the middle sinuation 
is a little stronger than the others. The central channel of the 



61 

tliorax does not very nearly toncli the anterior margin, but- 
nearly reaches the base, the flattened transverse basal space 
being very narrow. On either side of the central channel at 
the base is a fairly defined oblique elongate impression. The 
elytra are more than twice the length of the thorax (being as- 
eleven to four and two-thirds), but they are not wider than it ; 
across their shoulders they are (to their greatest width) as f our- 
and a half to seven ; their front margin is very little emargi- 
nate, and their anterior declivity very little hollowed out. The 
thickened humeral portion of the elytral margin is very small,. 
and is not erect, but laid back flat on the surface of the elytron ;; 
the sides are gently arched, and the reflexed margins are not 
particularly narrow ; the surface is regularly convex, moder- 
ately shining, and quite devoid of sculpture (some examples 
have the faintest possible indication of wavy longitudinal lines), 
except the following on each, viz., on the disc a large puncture- 
not far from the apex, a row all across the anterior declivity of 
about six smallish punctures, along the lateral margin a row of 
from eighteen to twenty punctures. On the anterior tibi» the- 
four teeth of the exterior ridge are all well-defined, of which the 
lowest is distinctly, and the next faintly discernible from b, 
point perpendicularly above the upper face of the tibia ; the- 
inferior ridge has nine well-defined teeth commencing well 
back from the apex of the tibia, but scarcely behind the front 
base of the upper of the two large apical teeth. Length, 21-27' 
mm. ; width, 7-9 mm. 

This species does not seem to vary much except in respect of 
size. 

0. fugitimim, sp. nov. Nitidum ; violaceo-nigrum ; prothorace^ 
elytrisque laete csBruleo-marginatis ; capite transverso ; 
sulcis longitudinalibus profundis, antice fortiter postice 
leviter divergentibus, postice fortiter collum versus cur- 
vatis, ante partem postremam linea curvata fortiter con- 
junctis; antennis sat robustis ; prothorace dimidia parte 
latiori quam longiori, canaliculato, marginato, basi utrinque 
sat evidenter oblique impresso, antice late emarginato,. 
lateribus antice leviter rotundatis postice sinuatis basi sat. 
fortiter sinuatis, angulis posticis vix perspicuis ; elytris 
vix dimidio longioribus quam conjuuctim latioribus, pro- 
thorace paullo plus duplo longioribus nonnihil latioribus, 
autice minus angustatis subtruncatis, marginatis, postice 
bipunctatis, humeris subrotundatis, lateribus sat fortiter 
arcuatis; tibiis anticis externe bidentatis. Long., 20 mm.;, 
lat., 7i mm. 

This species is allied to G. IcBvigafum, Macl. It differs in 
colour, the thorax and elytra having a bright blue border and 



02 

i.he whole surface of tlie latter being more or less violaceous, 
very brightly so along the front. The frontal canals are very 
-distinct, also, from those of any specimen of C. Icevigatum that 
I have seen ; from the front of the forehead they diverge ior- 
-svard very strongly (as usual in Carenum), and backward only 
moderately at first ; they are very deep and run back pretty 
■evenly to about the level of the back of the eye, and there they 
-curve outward and run obliquely for a short distance towards 
the sides of the neck with scarcely any diminution of depth, 
finally merging into a shallow ill-defined depression which 
fades away before reaching the margin; just at the point 
where they begin to curve outward they are connected, not by 
Si vague depression, but by a clearly cut fine arched line. The 
thorax differs very little from that of IcBvigatum except that 
ihe base is less strongly sinuate, but the proportion of the 
thorax and el^'-tra is different, the former being distinctly 
narrower than the latter (as seven to seven three-quarters) 
whereas in all the Icevigatum I have measured there is no differ- 
ence between those parts in width. The thickened part of the 
humeral margin of the elytra is turned over exactly as in 
IcEvigatum, but is smaller, otherwise the margins are very 
similar ; on the anterior tibiae the lowest tooth in the exterior 
ridge above the apical large ones is less visible from a point 
perpendicular to the upper surface of the tibia than in Icevigatum^ 
and the topmost tooth is less defined, while the inferior ridge 
has only seven teeth, which commence at about the same place 
iis in Icevigatum. I took a single specimen of this insect at 
"Wallaroo. 

C. rugatiun, sp. nov. Nitidum ; subelongatum ; subdepressum > 
nigrum ; prothorace elytrisque violaceo marginatis ; capite 
sat transverso, sulcis longitudinalibus profundis antice 
posticeque divergentibus postice fovea obscura transversa 
conjunctis ; antennis gracilibus ; prothorace dimidio latiore 
quam longiore, canaliculato, marginato, basi obsolete bi- 
impresso, antice late emarginato, postice lobato, lateribus 
rotundatis, angulis posticis vix evidenter notatis ; elytris 
ovalibus prothorace parum latioribus, subparallelis, antice 
parum augustatis, marginatis, striis undulatis tenuiter 
notatis, postice bipunctatis, humeris reflexis subacutis ; 
tibiis anticis externe tridentatis. Long., 22 mm. ; lat., 
7 mm. 

A well-marked species. Its elongate elytra (half again as 
long as together wide), somewhat concave dorsally, point to 
the probability of its being allied to C. suhplanatum. Bates, 
which, however, has bidentate anterior tibiae and uusculptured 
-elytra. The frontal foveae are well defined, and diverge 



63 

gently backward and very strongly forward from the 
front of the forehead. The width of the thorax is to 
the length as seven to four and a half, and its posterior 
angles, though very little marked, are not quite rounded 
off. The surface of the elytra is slightly dulled by an exces- 
sively fine system of puncturation, which becomes visible under 
a strong lens, and it is traversed longitudinally by a series of 
about half a dozen fine wavy scratches or wrinkles ; there are 
also some short transverse wrinkles, especially about the 
middle of the disc ; the length of the elytra is considerably 
more than twice that of the thorax, and the thickened humeral 
portion is erect ; on the anterior tibiae the exterior ridge has 
(above the apical two large teeth) four smaller ones, of which 
the lowest is entirely visible when the tibiae is looked at from 
perpendicularly above its upper surface, and the topmost is 
more strongly marked than is usual in the genus ; on the in- 
ferior ridge there are nine strong teeth, which commence so 
close to the front of the apical plate that the anterior projec- 
tion of the plate appears to be merely one of the series of teeth, 
which thus seem to number ten. 

I possess a single specimen ; it is from Fowler's Bay. 

C. cupreo -marginatum, sp. nov. Nitidum ; Iseve ; nigrum ; 
elytris obscure cupreo-marginatis ; capite sat transverse, 
sulcis longitudinalibus parallelis antice vix evidenter im- 
pressis ; antennis gracilibus ; prothorace fere duplo latiore 
quam longiore, marginato, canaliculate, basi leviter biim- 
presso, pone medium quam antice latiori, antice late emar- 
ginato, postice sat anguste lobato, angulis posticis rotun- 
datis ; elytris ovatis, prothorace angustioribus, antice 
j)aulo angustatis vix excavatis, marginatis, obsolete subtiliter 
seriatim punctulatis, punctis 2 subapicalibus majoribus in- 
structis, humeris reflexis vix prominulis ; tibiis anticis tri- 
dentatis ; subtus nigrum. Long., 22 mm. ; lat., 8-3- mm. 

This is another very distinct species, which Mr. Macleay 
would probably place in his new genus Calliscapterus, although 
the width of the elytra in front give it a facies very different 
from that of C. Odeioahii, Cast., &c. Its colour is peculiar, the 
black of the upper surface having a slight coppery tone (which 
becomes quite well defined in the rather broad marginal fur- 
rows of the elytra, much less on the thoracic margins) very 
different from the genuine black of the underside. The frontal 
furrows commence a little in front of the level of the back of the 
eye, and run forward parallel to each other to about the usual dis- 
tance from the labrum, but the portion diverging apically is very 
faint. A faintly-impressed transverse groove runs completely 
across the back of the head. The width of the thorax is very 



64 

nearly twice the length (being as eight and a half to four and a- 
half), and the greatest width is very near the base. The basal 
lobe of the thorax is rather narrow, very short, and slightly 
raised up and emarginate in the middle. The elytra are just a 
hair's breadth narrower at their widest part than the thorax. 
There are about seven rows of very fiue and faint punctures on 
each elytron, and the sub-apical larger puncture on each is of 
only moderate size. The thickened humeral portion of the 
elytral margin is erect, and very abrupt. There are about 
seven punctures placed confusedly on the anterior margin of 
each elytron, and each lateral marginal row contains about 
twenty-two punctures, which, however, become faint and diffi- 
cult to count near the apex. The exterior ridge of the anterior 
tibise has four teeth above the apical two large ones, of which 
the lowest is distinctly, and the next scarcely visible when the 
tibia is viewed from a point perpendicular to the upper surface 
of the tibia, while the topmost is hardly discoverable except by 
its seta ; the inferior ridge has nine teeth, commencing some 
distance back from the apex of the tibia. 

I have a single specimen in my collection. It was taken at 
Powler's Bay. 

C. Made ai/i, s]).noy. Nitidum ; laeve ; nigrum; pedibus picei& 

antennis palpisque ferrugineis, prothorace virid - mar- 

ginato, elytris violaceo et viridi micantibus, splendide 

viridi marginatis ; capite fortiter transverse, sulcis lougi- 

tudinalibus profunde impressis haud curvatis postice an- 

ticeque divergentibus, antennis gracilibus sat elongatis ; 

prothorace dimidio latiore qiiam longiore, sat anguste mar- 

ginato, canaliculate, basi biimpresso antice subtruncato^ 

postice late sublobato, angulis posticis obtusis subreflexis ; 

elytris ovatis antice paulo angustatis, sat late marginatis, 

antice medio subexcavatis, secundum suturam depressis 

obsolete seriatim foveolatis (? exemplo deformato), antice 

et disco IsBvibus, marginibus lateralibus seriatim punctu- 

latis, humeris reflexis parum prominulis ; *tibiis anticis- 

tridentatis ; subtus nigrum, elytrorum epipleuris splendide 

micantibus. Long., 17 mm. ; lat., 6 mm. 

This is an extremely distinct species. In different lights the 

elytra display all shades of blue, violet, and green. The absence 

of large discal elytral punctures in conjunction with the visibility 

of three external spines on the front tibi?e seems to distinguish it 

from all other species of the genus. It seems to occupy an in- 

*0n the right tibia of the specimen described one of the teeth in the in 
ferior ridge is biiid, so that there appear to be ten teeth, but the accidental 
character of this formation is evrdent, as the additional pseudo-tooth bears 
no seta. 



65 

termediate position between Carenum and Mr. Macleay's new 
genus Calliscapterus. The following are strongly marked cha- 
racters in this insect, viz., the very transverse head and slender 
antennae, the narrow lateral margin of the thorax suddenly 
dilated and turned upwards at the hind angles, the peculiar 
basal area of the elytra, the middle portion only of which is 
abruptly declivous and quite devoid of puncturation, and the 
remarkable series of rather large faintly-impressed pits along 
either side of the suture, which, however, may possibly be a 
deformity, more particularly as they are more strongly defined 
on the right than on the left elytron. On the anterior tibiae 
the external ridge has four teeth above the apical two large 
ones, of which the lowest is visible when the tibia is viewed 
from a point perpendicular to its upper surface, the topmost 
tooth being a mere indentation scarcely noticeable but by its 
seta ; the inferior ridge bears eight blunt teeth, commencing 
well back from the tarsus. The thickened humeral portion of 
the elytral margin is erect. 

I think this species must resemble (7. ^oZ^Vw7/^, Westw., which, 
however, would seem to be a broader insect with only two 
visible external teeth on the front tibiae, and the elytra 
differently coloured. 

I found a single specimen under a log of wood at Wallaroo 
in September, 1886. 

DYTISCID^. 
HTDEOCANTHTJS. 

H. Waterhousei, sp. nov. Oblongo-ovalis, posterius acuminatus, 
transversim sat convexus, minus latus, nitidus, testaceo- 
rufus, elytris antice seriatim obscure, postice fortius con- 
fuse, puuctulatis ; prosterni pectorisque medio et coxarum 
laminis fortius minus crebre punctulatis. Long., 6 mm. 
This species is entirely different in colour from H. Aitstra- 
lasice, Wehncke (the only Australian Sydrocantlius hitherto 
described), and seems also to differ considerably in respect of 
its puncturation. Each elytron has about four rows of lightly 
impressed small punctures commencing close to the base and 
extending about three quarters the distance to the apex. These 
rows contain about 24< j^^^^^^^'^^ each, which are placed at 
irregular intervals, three or four being close together and 
followed by a space in which the rows seem interrupted, then a 
few more punctures, and so on. The apical quarter of the 
elytra is occupied by some sparing confused puncturation of a 
rather coarser character. In addition to the above a strong 
Coddington lens reveals a much finer system of punctures 
spread tolerably evenly over the surface. The coarser 
puncturation of the apical area extends a little forward on the 



66 

elytra along the sutural aud marginal portions. In order to 
define the nature of the puncturation of this insect it may be 
noted that its largest and coarsest punctures are very similar 
to the finest of the punctures (occurring near the base) on the 
elytra of the widely distributed European Noterus clavicornis, 
De G-eer. The eighth joint of the antennae is considerably 
dilated. The condition of the specimen before me, apparently 
a male, does not allow of a satisfactory examination of the 
tarsi. 

A single specimen, from the collection of Mr. F. AVaterhouse, 
is in the South Australian Museum. 

STAPHYLINID^. 

QUEDIUS. 

Q.ferox, sp. nov. Xiger ; nitidus ; antennis palpisque piceis, 
tarsis piceo-rufis, elytris subaeneis ; antennarum articulo 
3^ 4i° paullo longiore, 4-10 subaequalibus minus elongatis ; 
capite fortiter transverso (dimidia parte latiori quam lon- 
giori), utrinque punctis 8 (2 in margine ipso oculi), 2 aliis 
utrinque basi, aliis prope angulos posticos subtilissimis, 
notato ; prothorace capite quarta parte latiori, quarta 
parte latiori quam longiori, tertia parte disci antica 
punctis 2 sat approximatis notato, antice minus angustato, 
marginibus seriatim punctulatis ; elytris prothorace fere 
tertia parte longioribus, quarta parte latioribus, cum 
scutello fortius sat crebre punctulatis ; abdomiue squamosa 
nee crebre punctulato. Long, Gf mm. 
This is a very distinct species of Quedius. Its excessively 
transverse head, which is a good deal narrowed behind, long 
antennae, in w^hich none of the joints are distinctl}'- transverse, 
and rather strongly closely punctured elytra form a combina- 
tion of characters that differentiate it from all its congeners of 
similar size and colour. 

I have a single specimen taken near Adelaide in flood refuse. 

LATHEOBirM. 

L. exiguum, sp. nov. Sat nitidum ; piceum ; anteunis (basi 
pallida excepta), palpis, mandibulis, pedibusque sordide 
testaceis ; capite a basi ad oculos parum angustato, basi 
truncate, sparsim fortiter (disco laevi excepto) punctulato ; 
prothorace capite vix angustiori, tertia parte longiori 
quam latiori, capite vix subtilius disco liueatim a lateribus 
confuse punctulato, lateribus subparallelis ; elytris pro- 
thorace fere dimidia parte longioribus, subtilius liueatim 
punctulatis ; abdomine subtilissime crebre punctulato. 
Long., 3-3i mm. 

Maris segmento ventrali 6° depresso tuberculo basali 
instructo, segmento 7° apice breviter arcuatim inciso. 



I 



67 

The smallest species of the genus known to me. A few- 
specimens have occurred in flood refuse near the G-range. 

CRTPTOBIUM. 

The recent acquisition of a number of specimens belonging 
to this genus from various parts of South Australia has enabled 
me to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion concerning one or two 
species that I have not hitherto felt justified in dealing with, 
and has revealed errors into which I had fallen concerning two 
species. In a paper entitled " Descriptions of Twenty New 
Species of South Australian Coleoptera," which I read before 
the Eoyal Society last December, I described a new species of 
the genus under the name C. delicatulum, and the examination 
of more specimens has satisfied me that at that time I confused 
two closely allied species under the name. I was in error also 
in my supposed identification of C. fractum, Eauv., which I al- 
luded to in my remarks on C. delicatulum ; the insect I took for 
that species, of which I had not seen the female, being distinct 
from it. The last-named error does not materially affect the 
correctness of what I wrote, but inasmuch as I incorporated 
into my description of C. delicatulum the mention of a varia- 
bility in colour and sculpture, which was really founded on 
unother insect, I think that it will be well in this present paper 
to re-describe it. 

It is worthy of note that, so far as I have observed, the 
Australian species attributed to this genus differ structurally 
from the European G. fracticorne^ Payk., inasmuch as the 
lateral declivous portion of the elytra is larger, is more turned 
under the body, and has its margin sinuate, while the metatho- 
racic episterna are distinctly visible along their whole length. 

Besides C delicatulum there have been described up to the 
present time four Australian species of Gri/ptohium, two of 
which are much larger species than any that I have seen from 
South Australia. Of the remaining two, G. apicale, Macl., is 
distinguished (from all those I am about to describe) inter alia 
by its colour, the elytra being red, with the base black, and the 
sixth segment of the hind body being red. G. fractum, Fauv. 
(from Melbourne), was unfortunately described from a female 
only, the antennae of which were broken off, so that it is im- 
possible to feel very certain regarding it ; but it would seem 
to resemble in colour my G. varicorne, differing, however, from 
the female of that insect in several particulars, especially in 
the sparing puncturation of its head. 

As the following species are all closely allied intcQ' se the fol- 
lowing table may be useful to assist in their identification : — 
1. Antennas unicclorous, pallid ... ... ... 3 

Antennae pitchy, with the base and apex testaceous. 

G. varicorne. 



68 

2. Prothorax gently uarrowed from the apex to the base ... 3 

Sides of prothorax parallel ... C. Adelaides. 

»3. Second and third joints of antenna? scarcely differing in 

length ; joints, six to ten, scarcely longer than wide. 

C. delicatulum. 

4. Third joint of autenure evidently longer than second ; 

joints, six to ten, longer than wide ... C. elegans, 

C. varicorne, sp. nov. (mas.) Nitidum ; sat robnstum ; nigrum ; 
palpis, mandibnlis, elytris (propter basin iufuscatam) non- 
nullis exemplis, et antennarum basi apiceqne rufis; pedibus 
(tibiis infuscatis exceptis) testaceis ; antennarum articulo 
1° maxime elongato, ceteris multo minoribus, 2° et 3° sub- 
sequalibus, 5°-I0° hand longioribus quam latoribus ; capita 
subquadrato, subcTqualiter (disco Isevi excepto) sparsim sat 
fortiter punctulato, fronte vix depressa ; prothorace sub- 
cylindrico, tertia parte longiori quam latiori, capite quinta 
parte angustiori, subseriatim punctulato, spatio medio 
longitudinal! lato alteroque utrinque angustiori laevibus- 
elytris prothoraci lougitudine ^equalibus, capite vix 
latioribus, crasse nee profunde nee crebre subseriatim 
punctulatis ; abdomine subtiliter nee crebre punctulato, 
segmentis apicalibus 2 (nonnullis exemplis) apicepiceolis ; 
segmento ventrali penultimo postice medio fortiter de- 
presso, spatio depresso la?vi postice emarginato antice 
tuberculo instructo segmento ventrali ultimo longitudi- 
naliter depresso, postice profunde triangulariter inciso. 
Long., 7-7i mm. 

Eem. capite postice confluenter rugoso-punctulato, 
abdomine supra crassius (quam maris) punctulato, segmentis 
ventralibus simplicibus. 

I do not think that the mutilated specimen on which M. 
Tauvel founded his O.fractum can be identical with the above 
insect, although it is probably allied to it. The following 
appear to be points of difference : — Fractum has the third joint 
of the antennae very evidently longer than the second, the 
thorax evenly punctured outside the smooth discal space, the- 
elytra longer than the thorax and wider than the head, while 
in varicorne the second and thix'd joints of the antenUcT scarcely 
differ from each other in length, the puncturation of the thorax 
runs in tolerably regular lines separated by smooth spaces, 
and the elytra are (by measurement under a lens) equal in 
width to the head and in length to the thorax. Supposing the 
single female specimen in my possession to be not abnormally 
punctured (which it is just possible it may be), the punctura- 
tion of its head is totally different from that of fractum. 

I have taken this species at Port Lincoln. 



69 

C Adelaides, sp. nov. Miuus robiistum ; nitidum ; nigrum ; 
antennis, palpis, mandibulis et pedibus (tibiis infuscatis 
exceptis) testaceis ; antennarum articulo 1° maxime elon- 
gato, ceteris multo minoribus, 2° et 3° sub^qualibus, 
6°-10° baud longioribus quam latioribus ; capite longiore 
quam latiore, sat aequaliter (disco laevi excepto) sparsim 
fortiter punctulato, fronte vix depressa ; prothorace sub- 
cylindrico, plus tertia parte longiore quam latiore, capite 
parum angustiori, subseriatim punctulato, spatio medio 
longitudinali lato alteroque utrinque angustiori Isevibus ; 
elytris prothorace paullo brevioribus, capiti latitudiue 
sequalibus, disco crasse subseriatim lateribus subtiliter 
confuse punctulatis ; abdomine subtiliter nee crebre punc- 
tulato, segmentis apicalibus 2 apice piceolis. Long., -if 
mm. 

Mas. latet. 

Tbe distinctive characters of this small species lie in its an- 
tennae, with its second and third joints not or scarcely differing 
in length, while the five joints preceding tte apical one are 
transverse or nearly so, in its parallel-sided thorax, and elytra 
a little shorter than the thorax. I think its nearest ally is 
C. varicorne, which it resembles in being of more robust build 
than the species that follow, though it differs widely in 
respect of size and colour, and has shorter elytra. 

1 possess a single specimen (a female), which was taken in 
the neighbourhood of Adelaide. 

C. delicatulum, mihi. Sat augustum ; nitidum ; nigrum ; an- 
tennis, palpis, mandibulis, pedibusque testaceis ; anten- 
narum articulo 1° sat elongato, ceteris multo minoribus, 
2° et 3° subaequalibus, 7-10 vix longioribus quam latioribus ; 
capite longiori quam latiori sat aequaliter sparsim fortiter 
punctulato ; prothorace fere duplo longiore quam latiore, 
postice angustato, capite angustiori, subtiliter subseriatim 
punctulato, spatio medio longitudinali lato alteroque 
utrinque angustiori l?evibus ; elytris capiti latitudine pro- 
thoraci vix longitudine sequalibus, disco crasse obsolete 
lateribus vix evidenter punctulatis ; abdomine obsolete nee 
crebre punctulatis, segmentis apicalibus 2 apice piceolis. 
Long., 6\ mm. 
Mas. latet. 

This species is closely allied to C. Adelaides, with which until 
lately I confused it. Its facies is narrower and more slender, 
its thorax distinctly longer in proportion to the width, and 
evidently narrowed backwards from the front to the base ; the 
disc of the elytra is much more faintly (though scarcely less 
coarsely) punctured, and the punctures do not run in traceable 



70 

rows ; also tlie punctures on the thorax are finer, and the head 
is more elongate and depressed, without any defined puncture- 
less space (in G. Adelaides n distinct though small central space 
is devoid of puncturation). The elytra by measurement are 
scarcely so long as the thorax. [It should be noted that 
(owing no doubt to their greater width) they appear to the 
eye considerably shorter in proportion than they really are.] 
An unfortunate accident caused the destruction of the male 
specimen alluded to in my former description, and I know not 
to which species it appertained. 

Port Lincoln. 
C. elegans, sp. nov. Gracile ; nitidum ; capite prothorace et 
elytris (nonnullis exemplis) plus minusve piceis vel rufo- 
piceis, antennis palpis mandibulis pedibusque testaceis 
antennarum articulo 1° maxime elongate, ceteris multo 
minoribus (tamen sat longioribus quamlatioribus), 3° 2° 
evidenter longiori, capite minus elongato, sat sequaliter 
(disco fere Isevi excepto) sparsim sat fortiter puuctulato ; 
prothorace tertia parte longiore quam latiore, postice 
angustato, capite minus augustiori, disco seriatim lateribus 
confuse punctulatis, spatio medio longitudinali lato 
alteroque utrinque angu-stiori IcTvibus ; elytris capite sat 
latioribus prothorace sat longioribus, crasse leviter sat 
crebre vix seriatim punctulatis ; abdomine obsolete sat 
crebre punctulato, segmentis 6-7 piceolis. Long., 6^-7 mm. 
Maris segmento apicali subtus late profunde inciso. 
This species is very probably allied to C. fractum, Fauv., 
-^hich it resembles in having the third joint of the antennae 
longer than the second, but besides difference in colour (the 
tibiae and palpi are quite clear testaceous) it has the sub- 
apical joints of the antenna:' exceptionally elongate, and I 
do not think so keen an observer as M. Fauvel could have 
failed to notice the evident contraction backwards of the 
thorax, of which there is no mention in the description of 
C. fr actum. 

The colour of the head, thorax, and elytra vary considerably ; 
in the darkest specimen I luive seen the head and elytra are 
nearly black, and the thorax is of a pitchy colour ; in the 
lightest all these segments are dull pitchy red with the suture 
still paler. 

The apical ventral segment of the male is very deeply incised, 
the sides of the incision nearly parallel and meeting behind 
not in an angle but in a gentle curve. 

I have taken this insect several times near Port Lincoln, and 
I also possess a specimen of which I have no record of capture, 
but I think it was taken in the Adelaide district. 



S. latehncola, sp. nov. Sublinearis ; minus depressus ; piibe 
subtili sericans; subtilissime pimctulatus ; piceus; antennis 
(basi apiceque pallidis exceptis) piceo-testaceis ; palpis 
(apice piceo exeepto) pedibusque testaceis ; capite sub- 
quadrato longiore quam latiore ; protborace longiori quam 
latiori, capite angustiori, postice minus angustato, 
lateribus minus rotundatis ; elytris capite vix latioribus, 
protborace paullo longioribus ; antennarum articulo 1° 2° 
et 3"^ conjunctis longitudine sequali, ceteris subaequalibus. 
Loug., vix. 3 mm. 
Mas, latet. 
As I bave only a single specimen of tbis small insect, it bas 
not been practicable to examine tbe organs of tbe moutb satis- 
factorily, but it bas all tbe facies of Scopceus, except tbat tbe 
bind margin of tbe elytra is not straigbt, but, taking tbe two 
elytra togetber, is gently emarginate. It differs from 
S. rujlcollis, Fauv., inter alia in tbe colour of tbe tborax, and 
from S. digitalis, Fauv., in tbe colour of tbe antennae and tibiae, 
and in tbe sub-a]3ical joints of tbe antennae not being trans- 
verse, &c. 

A single specimen occurred in flood refuse near tbe Grange. 

TENEBRIONID^. 
ALPHITOBirS. 

A. Mauritanicus, Luc. I bave not met witb any record of 
tbe occurrence of tbis insect in Australia. I bave a specimen 
of it, bowever, wbicb was taken by Mr. J. J. East at Prospect. 
Tbere can be little doubt tbat, like its congener, A. diaperinus, 
Panz., (wbicb is recorded as Australian by Mr. Masters, of 
Sydney, and a Soutb Australian specimen of wbicb bas been 
submitted to me lately by Mr. Eotbe), tbis species bas been 
introduced witb mercbandise into tbe colony. 



72 



Notes on the Colouring Matter of Drosera 
Whittakeri. 

By Edwakd H. Een^nie, M.A., D.Sc. 

[Eead February 1, 1887.] 

The little carnivorous plant known by the name Drosera 
Whittakeri grows plentifully on the hills in the neighbourhood 
of Adelaide. At the termination of the underground stem, 
some three or four inches long, is found a tuber which contains 
a considerable quantity of red colouring matter. My attention 
was first called to it by Professor Tate, who informed me that 
Mr. Gr. Francis had partially examined the red substance. The 
latter gentleman was good enough to show me the specimen he 
had prepared, and also some pieces of silk which he had dyed 
by means of it, but he did not carry out a complete investiga- 
tion. As the matter seemed to me of some interest from a 
chemical point of view, I collected a quantity of the tubers 
with a view of examining the colouring matter more closely. 

An examination of the tubers shows that they all consist of a 
soft nucleus full of a reddish juice, surrounded by a series of 
more or less dried layers. Between these layers is collected a 
red substance, which appears in irregular patches. 

The tubers were crushed as a whole and treated with strong 
rectified spirit till the latter extracted no more colour. The 
spirit was then almost entirely distilled off and the residue 
mixed with a little water and allowed to stand for a few hours. 
A deep red solution remained, but by far the greater part of 
the red matter was found as a granular sediment at the bottom 
of the liquid. This was filtered off and dried. 

A preliminary experiment having shown that it was volatile, 
it was sublimed, the subliming apparatus consisting simply of 
an ordinary saucepan, with a shallow iron dish for lid, a large 
glass funnel (the neck closed with a cork) being inverted over 
the latter. In this manner a crystalline mass was obtained of 
a brilliant scarlet colour, which, on close examination, appeared 
to consist of at least two substances, for on dissolving a little 
in ether and evaporating a few drops on a slide, the residue 
was seen under the microscope to consist of two kinds of 
crystals, some yellower and longer than the others. 

A few trials soon showed that one of these substances is 
much more soluble in glacial acetic acid, and indeed in most 
solvents, than the other. By repeated crystallization from 



73 

glacial acetic acid, therefore, a substance was obtained appa- 
rently pure and bomogeneous, the more soluble matter remain- 
ing in the motber liquor. Tbe red colouring matter tbus 
obtained crystallises in small scarlet plates, magnificently 
brilliant in sunlight. It melts at about 192°-193° C, is soluble 
in boiling alcohol and glacial acetic acid, but sparingly soluble 
in tbe cold liquids, and almost completely precipitated by 
-water. It dissolves in solutions o£ tbe caustic alkalies, forming 
a deep violet-red solution, but is immediately precipitated from 
these solutions by acids. Analysis shows it to possess the for- 
mula CnHgOg, and its chemical characteristics point to its 
bearing a somewhat similar relation to the hydrocarbon metJiyl- 
oiapJithalene, as purpurin does to anthracene — in fact, it resem- 
bles purpurin in some respects. On oxidation it yields acetic 
acid and carbonic anhydride, and is probably a metJiyl-trihy- 
droxy-Qiaplithaquinone. On reduction with a strong solution of 
stannous chloride it yields a pale yellow crystalline substance 
containing two atoms more hydrogen than the original. 

The second substance can be obtained from the mother 
liquors by first precipitating with water, and then submitting 
the precipitate to special treatment with strong (not glacial) 
acetic acid. The quantity obtained was small, and not suf- 
ficient to make sure of its purity ; but it crystallises quite dif- 
ferently from its fellow, is much more soluble in all solvents 
tried, and gives a red solution with caustic alkalies, without 
any tinge of violet. Its melting point is nearly 30° lower — 
about 165°. Its analysis points to the formula CnHgO^; that 
is, it contains an atom less oxygen than the substance first des- 
cribed, but is closely related to it. 

I hope to obtain a further supply of material next spring, 
and to further investigate these interesting substances. 



74 



Caroona Hill (Lake Gilles). 

By W. L. Clelakd, M.B., Edin. 

[Bead June 7, 1887.1 

LocaJHy. — Caroona Hill is the southern extremity of a range 
about seven miles in length running a little west of north. It 
is forty-five miles due west of Port Augusta, and twelve miles- 
east of the head of Lake Gilles. 

There are two points of interest in connection with the 
locality — (1) The existence of polished rock-sarfaces on the 
highest elevations of Caroona Hill ; (2) The scanty but definite 
distribution of the subterranean water fit for consumption. 

Geological Surroundings. — To the eastward an undulating 
plain of Tertiary age (H. T. L. Brown, Eeport, June, 1885) 
extends for twenty-four miles to the nearest hill of the " Lin- 
coln Grap" formation. To the westward a similar plain ex- 
tends for upwards of seven miles to various outcrops of granite. 
The plains are formed of a decomposed granite mixed with 
sand and quartz and ironstone pebbles, the whole strongly im- 
pregnated with gypsum. 

To the southward is a range composed of red haematite and 
manganese ore, stretching away towards Mount Middleback, 
distant some thirty miles. The northern extremity of this 
range presents a remarkable appearance, and is known as the 
"Iron Knob." The rocks are in rectangular blocks of many 
tons in weight, and piled confusedly upon one another. In size 
and shape they bear a forcible resemblance to the blocks of 
stone of which the pyramids near Cairo, in Egypt, are built. 
The structure of the ore is crystalline, and presents a steel- 
like fracture. 

To the northward are hills of quartzitic porphyrite and 
granite, reaching as far as the Gawler Eanges. 

Physical Features of Caroona Sill Hange. — The western side 
rises abruptly and almost perpendicularly from the plain to a 
height of from four to five hundred feet. It consists of a red 
sandstone, with well-marked stratification. The dip of the 
strata is 30 deg. and eastward. The strike is also well- 
defined, running almost due north and south, the range trending 
in the same direction. 

Abutting unconformably against this sandstone on the 



75 

eastern side is a thick deposit of conglomerate. This con- 
glomerate is composed of water-worn pebbles of a more or less 
subangular form, and range in size from half an inch to eight 
inches in diameter. According to Mr. H. T. L. Brown (Eeport 
June, 1885), the constituents are chiefly " quartzite, jasper, 
flint, chert, quartz, iron ore, grit, and sand, cemented with 
silicious matter." 

This conglomerate forms the eastern portion or side of the 
range, and, compared with the abrupt western side, it may be 
described as sloping gradually to the level of the plain." A 
section of this conglomerate, 500 feet high, forming the 
southern end of the range, shows no appearance of stratifica- 
tion. The face of this cliff is studded with shallow cavernous- 
depressions formed by the breaking off of huge masses of the 
conglomerate, which now form a long slope. 

The conglomerate forms the highest point of the Caroona 
Hill, and is the site of a trigonometrical station, estimated to 
be 1,200 feet above sea-level. This elevated portion forms a 
ridge extending northwards, on either shoulder of which dis- 
tinct patches of polished conglomerate may be traced for 
upwards of two miles. 

As wells have been dug in close proximity to both sides of 
the range aud to its southern extremity, some additional infor- 
mation has been obtained as to the nature of the rocks below 
the surface. The stratum on the western and eastern sides was. 
after passing through the alluvium, a hard sandstone grit ; and 
this notwithstanding that on the eastern side the deposit of 
the conglomerate was within a few hundred yards. On the 
southern side, however, the sinking was entirely in the con- 
glomerate, which was not pierced through at a depth of 60 feet^ 
thus showing that at a former period the cliff had extended 
further to the southward, but was gradually becoming weathered 
back northwards. On the north-west corner of the range a 
well was sunk to a depth of 120 feet, and bottomed on lime- 
stone and a very hard quartzitic porphyrite, containing distinct 
crystals of feldspar. On the eastern plain, between the 
Caroona Hill Eange and the " Lincoln G-ap" hills, two wells 
have been sunk through the alluvium, and both bottomed on a 
blue clay-slate. The situation of one was six miles from 
Caroona Hill ; that of the other 22 miles. It is noteworthy 
that no sandstone was met with in either. 

Mr. Brown, in his report (1885) refers to the existence of a 
valley or basin between Port Augusta and the nearest " Lincoln 
Gap" hills, now filled with Tertiary material ; and he hints at 
underlying " Cretaceous" rocks. He also speaks of a similar 
valley or basin on the western side of the " Lincoln Gap" hills. 

There seems then to be evidence of the existence at one time- 



76 

'Of a cbaiu of granite and other igneous rocks running in a nortli- 
westerl}^ direction from the extremity of Eyre Peninsula 
to the Gawler Eanges ; also of another chain of Palaeozoic 
rocks — the present Flinders Eange — running nearly parallel to 
the eastward. Between the two is the " Lincoln Gap" forma- 
■tion, resting probably on a Palaeozoic blue clay-slate. If this 
*' Lincoln Gap" formation at one time extended between the 
i;wo ranges, it would have formed an effectual barrier to dam 
back the waters to the north, and thus convert the present 
Lakes Gairdner, Torrens, and Eyre into one continuous shallow 
sea of several hundred feet deep. It would also have sufficed 
to submerge the beds of fossil leaves found at Mount Eba to 
-the west and Bottle Hill to the east. In such a case Caroona 
Hill Eange most probably formed a portion of the western 
margin of the " Lincoln Gap" formation. The presence of the 
i;hick deposit of conglomerate suggests that at that time the 
natural outlet for the waters was at this point, the sub- 
angular character of the pebbles forming the conglomerate, 
pointing rather to a fluviatile than to a littoral origin. Subse- 
quently to this there was probably the upheaval of the land 
-during the Pliocene period, to which Prof. Tate refers in his 
Presidential Address (1879), when the land was elevated into 
" regions of perpetual snow." If on the subsequent subsidence 
of the southern boundaries of the continent this took place 
unequally, as might very possibly be the case in the proximity 
■of the igneous formation of the Gawler Eanges, the sandstones 
abutting against it would become tilted ; and the ancient river, 
being thrown more to the eastward, would find an outlet in the 
valleys referred to by Mr. Brown. The ancient river-bed at 
Caroona Hill would then for a longer period form possibly an 
outlet for some glacier from the adjoining granite mountains. 
This theory would also account for this particular remnant of 
the Caroona Hill Eange being higher than the "Lincoln Gap" 
Tiills to the east. 

The absence of organic remains in the " Lincoln Gap" for- 
mation makes it difficult to determine its geological age, which 
at present can only be inferred. Considering the proximity of 
the Palaeozoic clay-slate of the Flinders Eange to the eastward, 
and the occurrence of a clay- slate in the two wells sunk on the 
plain to the westward, an inference might be drawn that this 
■clay-slate forms the bed-rock of the " Lincoln Gap" sandstone. 
If this be correct it would make this sandstone somewhat 
analogous in position to the sandstone capping of Mount 
Brown. It would also make it probably different in geological 
.age to the " desert sandstone" to the north, which is underlain 
by a formation proved to be of Mesozoic age. 

JPoJislied Swfaces. — These are limited to the conglomerate 



77 

forming the top of Caroona Hill, and are consequently at an. 
elevation above sea-level of from ten to twelve hundred feet. 
The polishing is not confined to any particular constituent of 
the conglomerate, but passes indifferently and uniformly 
through matrix and pebble, leaving a smooth and glistening 
surface. The exposed faces of many of the embedded pebbles, 
have evidently been ground flat, whilst the portions fixed in the 
silicious cement have retained their original water-worn rounded 
form. 

"Where flaws or joints occur in this polished conglomerate- 
they do not correspond with the direction of the smooth sur- 
faces, but are generally at a considerable angle to them. 
Lying as these surfaces do, exposed to the fierce alternations 
of heat and cold, and scarcely at all protected by any debris, 
it is a matter of surprise that they do not present a more- 
weathered aspect. Many of the surfaces have a somewhat con- 
vex face, and are square yards in extent, and can be easily 
traced for upwards of two miles. The long diameter of the 
patches is invariably in the direction of the range — that is 
north and south. ]N"o striae or scratches were discovered by 
me, but this might be due to the hardness of the material. 

Water Stopply. — This in the neighbourhood of Caroona Hill 
seems to be of a purely local nature, and much influenced by 
passing rains. The wells containing potable water are strictly 
limited to the western side of this range. This may be 
accounted for on the supposition that the conglomerate forms 
an impervious barrier to the water falling on the western por- 
tion of the range, which consequently finds its way into the 
wells sunk at the foot of the hills. The fair quality of the 
water may be explained by its not having percolated through the 
gypsiferous soil, but having come direct from the rock. On the 
eastern side of Caroona Hill Range there is an entire absence 
of any water at all in the wells, the result in all probability of 
the absence of any retaining barrier to present it from becoming 
absorbed by the dry alluvium of the eastern plain. The 
geological structure of Caroona Hill Eange being unique in 
this part of the country, it has been found that the occurrence 
of subterranean supplies of good water are strictly limited to 
its western side. With respect to the other hill-ranges, the 
rain flows at once into the plains and never passes from the 
condition of storm-water to the more equably distributing 
character of a spring. 

From a utilitarian stand-point the future out-look of this 
locality is unpromising, unless, indeed, some rich mineral 
deposits are found. The Grovernment G-eologist thinks this is- 
not at all improbable. 



•8 



List of PLA^'TS (Gtawler Eanges) 

As compiled from the Flora Australiensis of Bentham, the Fragmekta 
Phytogeaphi^ of F. v. Mueller, and as contained in the Herbarium of the 
Adelaide University. 

Names of plants marked with (*) were collected at Caroona by the writer, 
a,nd determined by Prof. K. Tate. 

Arranged after Baron v. Mueller's Systematic Census of Australian 

Plants. 



Eanunculace.i;. 
Kanunculus parviflorus 

Laurine.e. 
Cassytha melantha 

CRUCIFERiE. 

* Sisymbrium nasturtioides 

V10LACE.E. 
Hjbanthus floribundus 

Steeculiace.e. 
Lasiopetalum discolor 

Malvaceje. 
*Sida petrophila 
*Lavatera plebeia 
Hibiscus WrayaB 
" bakeifolius 

Urticace.i:. 
*Parietaria debilis 

Euphorbiaceje. 
Euphorbia erythrantha 
" Drummondi 

" eremophila 

Sapindace.^. 
*DodonfEa lobulata 
Heterodendron oleifolium 

Eutace.^. 

*Erio8temon difformis 
" capitatus 

" lepidotus 

Boronia clavellifolia 
" cferulescens 

Zygophylle.5:. 
Zygophyllum glaucescens 

Amaraktace.i;. 
"Ptilotus obovatus 

" var. grandiflorus 

" alopecuroideus 

" hemesteirus 

" esaltatus 

" spathulatus 



Chenopodiace.e. 
Ehagodia Gaudichaudiana 

" spinescens 

Atriplex stipitatum 

* " vesicarium 
*Kochia aphylla 

* " brevifolia 

* " ciliata 

* " villosa 
Bassia diacantha 

* " paradoxa 

Ficoide.e. 
Mollugo Cerviana 

Polygonace.e. 
Muhlenbeckia adpressa 

Leguminosje. 
Bossiasa Walkeri 
Psoralea patens 
Goodia medicaginea 
Templetonia retusa 

" egena 

*Cliaiithus Dampieri 
Swainsona microphylla 

" colutoides 

* Acacia calamifolia (?) 

" continua 

" colletioides 

" Burkitti 

" aneura 

Crassulace-5:. 
Tillaea verticillaris 

Halorageje. 
Haloragis elata 
Loudonia aurea 

Myrtacejs. 
Bffickea Behrii 

Ehamnace.5:. 
*Cryptandra tomentosa 
" leucophracta 

Thymele.?:. 
Pimelea simplex 
" microcephala 
" petrrea 



79 



Pboteace^. 
Orevillea aspera 
Hakea multilineata 

LOKANTHACE^. 

*Loranthus pendulus 

EUBIACE^. 

Pomax umbellata 

Composite. 

Aster Stuartii 
" Muelleri 

Minuria leptophylla 

Calotis cymbacantha 
*Brachycome pachyptera 

Polycalymma Stuartii 

Gnephosis Burkitti 

Chthonocepbalus pseudevax 
*Cassinia laevis 

Helichrysum Cassinianum 

* " semipapposum 
" polyga.lifolium 

Waitzia corymbosa 
Helipterum floribundum 
" strictum 

" hyalospermum 

" pterochffitum 

" exiguum 

*Senecio Gregorii 

* " Cunninghami 

CAMPANULACEiE. 

Isotoma petrffia 
Wahlenbergia gracilis 

GOODENOVI^. 

Yelleia connata 
Goodenia calcarata 

" cycloptera. 
Sc^evola spinescens 

" ovalifolia 

" aemula 
Dampiera rosmarinifolia 

ASCLEPIAD^. 

Sarcostemma australe 



SCEOPHULAKIN^. 

Euphrasia Brownii 

SOLANACE^. 

*Solanum fasciculatum 
Sturtii 

* " lacunarium 
" ellipticum 

*Lycium australe 
Nicotiana suaveolens 
Anthocercis anisantha 

BORAGINE^. 

*Halgania cyanea 
Labiate. 
Prostanthera striatiflora 
Teucrium ccrymbosum 
Westringia Dampieri 

Myopoeine^. 
Myoporum platycarpum 
*Eremopbila scoparia 
" Paisleyi 

* *' oppositifolia 
" McDonnelli 
" Brownii 

* " maculata 

* " latifolia 

" alternifolia 

* *' longifolia 

Epackide^. 
Stypbelia Sonderi 

" cordifolia 

Liliace^. 
Xerotes leucocepbala 
" glauca 

Gkamineje. 
Ampbipogon strictus 

Filices. 
*Cbeilantbes vellea 

* " tenuifolia 
" distans 

Clelandi 
*Gramnites rutsfolia 
*Adiantum iEfcbiopicum 



80 



Definitions of Two New Australian Plants. 

By Baeox Feed, tox Mueller, K.CM.G., M.D., F.E.S., &c.,, 
and Peofessoe Ea.lph Tate, P.G-.S., P.L.S., &c. 

[Read October 2, 1887.] 

Cheilanthes Clelandi. 

Dwarf, stipes sliiniug, dark -brown, almost glabrous; fronds- 
small, semilanceolar-deltoid in outline, bipinnate, greyish-green ; 
rliacliis beset witli very short, spreading, somewhat glandular 
hairs ; segments of frond broadly linear, sessile, almost blunt, 
flat, minutely crenate-serrulate, glabrous, the terminal segment 
somewhat elongate ; indusium membranous, extending broadly 
and uninterruptedly along the whole lower margin of the fer- 
tile segments ; sori minute, dispersed, one at the upper end of 
each of the prominent pinnately divergent veins, each separ- 
ately lodged in a sinus of the serrature. 

On Caroona Hill in the Gawler Eanges, 45 miles due west 
from the head of Spencer Gulf ; D)\ Cleland. 

The only specimen available for examination is devoid of its 
rhizome ; the stipes is about as long as the frond ; the latter 
reaches a breadth of two inches and a length of three and a 
half, it is remarkably pale, particularly so in contrast to the 
dark-brown rhachis ; the segments are nearly one-eighth inch 
broad, the indusium covering in close appression the greater 
portion of the soriferous segments ; sporangia very few in each 
sorus, almost unprovided with stalklets. 

This singular fern combines the indusium of a Uteris with 
the disposition of the sori of a Cheilanthes, no threadlike 
receptacle uniting the sporangia into continuity, the latter 
being perfectly concealed. A close approach is offered by this 
plant also to Cryptogramme with which genus Prantl (in 
Engler's Botanische Jahrbiicher, III., 413), unites Onychium 
and Llavea. "Whether our new fern, which is preferentially 
placed under Cheilanthes but just as well referable to Crypto- 
gramme, has the generally dimorphous fronds of the last men- 
tioned genus, remains to be ascertained. 

In habit this fern closely resembles Pellcsa i^ilosa, P. Soje^'i, 
P. densa, and Cheilanthes pulchella. The generic position, 
assigned to it, is rendered all the more justified, as Cheilanthes 
suhvillosa has also a continuous equally wide and rather ample 
indusium. Moreover the general similarity of C. Clelandi to 



81 

C. JPrenticei is very remarkable, tHougli tlie latter, wliicli as yet 
is only known from Thursday Island in Torres Straits, con- 
forms with the ordinary type in the genus as regards narrow 
irregular and somewhat crenulate reflection of the frond- 
margin for forming indusia over crowded sporangia, while the 
underside of the fronds is clothed with short hairs and the 
veins are much less prominent. Finally it may be added that 
C JPrenticei is closely allied to Cfragillima. 

Newcastlia Dixoni. 

An erect undershrub, moderately branched, attaining to two 
feet, densely tomentose ; leaves from rhomboid to cordate-ovate, 
sessile rather short, flat, thinly tomentose on both sides with 
whitish branched hairs ; lobes of the calyx narrow semilanceolar, 
considerably longer than the tube ; corolla about thrice as long 
as the calyx, slightly bearded inside near the base, otherwise 
almost glabrous ; corolla-lobes narrow semilanceolar, nearly as 
long as the tube ; stamens hardly half as long as the corolla- 
tube, inserted near the base ; anthers cordate-orbicular ; style 
short, as well as the ovary glabrous. 

On sand-ridges at Ral-ral on the Eiver Murray, 30 miles 
from the Victorian border ; also at Crystal Brook ; Mr. Samuel 
Dixon. 

Leaves from one-third to two-thirds of an inch long and 
nearly as broad. Calyces thinly tomentose outside. Corolla 
almost half an inch long. Ovary longer than broad, attenuated 
into the style. 

Nearest to N. spodiotricJia as regards form of corolla and 
anthers, but in other respects very different. 



The two following species are also additional to the flora of 
extratropical South Australia : — 

STEi^opETALrM CROCEUM, Buuge (emended by F. v. M. in 
Frag. Phyt. xi. 8), at Innaminka on Cooper Creek (Mr. James 
McLeod !) ; the trisect petals are yellow. This plant has 
hitherto been known only from the western districts of West 
Australia. 

G-EiJERA SALiciEOLiA. — This graceful tree has now been 
traced by Mr. Samuel Dixon from the Eiver Darling district 
into South Australian territory to Eal-ral on the Eiver 
Murray. 



82 



Notes on the Geological Features of the 
Teetulpa Goldfields. 

By H. Y. L. Beow.>^ F.a.S. 

;Kead Aprils, 1887.1 

These fields are situated in the north-east district of the pro- 
vince, and are about 200 miles from Adelaide in a direct line. 
In its general appearance the country is uninteresting. The 
hills are low and undulating, aud but few trees of any kind 
grow upon their slopes. They are covered, together with the 
flats and plains that lie between, with saltbush and bluebush. 
The few trees growing in the neighbourhood are, for the most 
part, sandalwood, and occasionally mallee. 

The country is covered with a yellow loamy clay of varying 
thickness, and quartz fragments. The quartz is derived from 
the reefs and blows, with which the neighbourhood abounds. 

The Primary rocks consist principall}^ of undulating faulted 
strata of clay- slate, calcareous clay-slate, limestone, and clay- 
slate conglomerate. Their strike is, for the most part, east 
and west, and they are much jointed and cleaved in the same 
direction. 

The cleavage is at vertical and high angles, and almost entirely 
obliterates the bedding This makes the rocks appear to dip at 
high angles. The bedding, may, however, be generally detected 
by the different colours and hardness of the rock. 

]S'o fossils have been found, but the age of the rocks is the 
same as those of which the main ranges to the southward are 
composed. They are, in fact, a continuation of those ranges. 

In places the clay-slate is a conglomerate, for boulders and 
pebbles of granite, quartzite, sandstone, and other silicious 
rocks are scattered through it in greater or less numbers. 

There are no defined dykes of igneous rock visible on the 
surface, but in some places decomposed micaceous veins have 
been met with. It is probable that as the country is underlaid 
by granitic and gneissic rocks, the igneous rocks occur to a 
greater extent at lower depths. 

Quartzite and sandstone beds are interstratified in places, 
but, comparatively speaking, they are not so frequent and per- 
sistent as in other parts of the surrounding districts. 

Eastward, towards the Weekeroo and Bumbumbie Eanges, 
these strata are underlaid by gneissic rocks, quartzites, mica 
.schists, and metamorphic granite. These have a more or less 



83 

vertical dip, and au easterly strike, and have had dykes and 
masses of granite intruded into them. 

In the first-mentioned set of beds there arc numerous quartz 
reefs and veins. Their general strike is in an east and west 
direction, but they also intersect the country more or less 
ineridionally. 

Xorth of Brady's Grully there are gravel and boulder drifts, 
<3omposed chiefly of quartz. These occupy a raised tableland 
adjoining the flats of Salt Creek. They exactly resemble the 
Pliocene auriferous gravels of Barossa and Echunga, but so far 
as they have been tested they have not been proved to be pay- 
^bly auriferous. 

The gold in Brady's, Groslin's, and other gullies is found in 
the late tertiary and recent alluvial drifts and surfacing. In 
Brady's Gully the auriferous deposit is spread widely over the 
'flat, the depth of sinking varying in accordance with the thick- 
ness of the alluvium, the most shallow parts being where the 
present watercourse has eroded its upper portions. 

Owing to the prevalence of limestone and calcareous slate 
beds, there is an abundance of travertine limestone in the soil, 
•and found coating the rocks. In numbers of places this also 
cements the gravel, and forms a calcareous conglomerate or 
cement. This is frequently found to carry gold. 

"With regard to the origin of the gold, there is no doubt but 
that many of the nuggets and the greater part of the finer 
alluvial gold has been derived from quartz reefs. Specimens 
have been found combining quartz and gold. It is also found 
in iron oxide, but a matrix of ferruginous and travertine lime- 
stone is most frequent. It is possible that from these vein- 
stones the largest nuggets have been derived. 

These veins, being small and irregular, were probably diflS- 
cult to discover. In many instances, possibly, they had been, 
-entirely eroded at the same time as the formerly-existing 
superincumbent strata which supplied the gullies with gold. 

Good reports have recently been received from the men 
working the reefs, and rich specimens of gold have been 
shown. 

In one reef — the Ironclad — carbonate of bismuth and lead 
has been found associated with the veinstone and gold. Bis- 
muth is a good indication of the presence of gold. 



84 



The Underground Waters of South Aus- 
tralia, AND Suggestions as to Mode of 
THEIR Utilization. 

By TnoiiAS Parker, C.E. 
[Read May 3, 1887.1 

The existence o£ large quantities of undergTOund water in 
South Australia has long been recognised, and they have been 
utilised to a considerable extent to the great advantas^e of the 
country, both by the ordinary method of wells, as also by 
means of bore-holes into artesian waters. There are, however, 
some drawbacks to these methods of obtaining water arising 
from the cost of lifting it to the surface, and also in the case oi 
artesian waters rising to the surface, in most cases, in small 
quantities, and at a low elevation not convenient for distribu- 
tion over any great extent of country. Por these reasons I 
have been led to enter into the inquiry during recent years as 
to whether it is not possible to avail ourselves of these subter- 
ranean waters by means of tunnels in the hills, and thus obtain 
larger supplies at much less cost, and at levels more convenient 
for distribution to our cities and towns or for irrigating our' 
plains. I am now inclined to think the answer can be given 
in the affirmative, and my object in these notes is to give a few 
data and reasons in support of that conclusion, and to endea- 
vour to reduce to a scientific form our present data respecting 
the underground waters. 

I had an opportunity some time ago of examining the large 
district and extensive basin through which the AYillochra 
Creek has its course, with numerous branch creeks from the 
hills, and I obtained particulars over a wide district of the 
general position of the underground waters. From the depths 
at which the water stands in a large number of wells on the- 
sloping country on the eastern face of the Flinders Range, I 
ascertained that on a line running about two miles below the 
lop of the range the water in the wells was pretty uniformly at 
a depth of from 90 to 100 feet from the surface or creek level, 
and the water generally free from salt, and useful for domestic 
purposes and for irrigation. On a line lower down, about two 
miles, and near and parallel to the main road from Quorn to 
"Wilmington, the wells were found to be about 150 feet in depth,, 
and generally slightly brackish. 



85 

rrom these data and from levels taken witli the aneroid 
barometer, I laid down last year a hydro-geological section of 
-the country from the Coonatto Eange, past the township of 
Bruce, across the Willochra Valley, and the Flinders Range 
referred to, as far as the next valley of the Capoivie Creek. 
On this section I showed the line of surface, and underneath 
and nearly parallel to it the line of saturation or underground 
water line on the slope of the hills where my data extended, 
and then projected this latter line under the plain at the town- 
ship of Bruce at a depth of about 190 feet from the surface. I 
notice whilst writing that a boring party under the Conser- 
vator of AYater (J. "W". Jones, Esq.) have just struck good water 
near Bruce at a depth of 215 feet, which is artesian, and rising 
to the surface, flows over at the rate of 10,000 gallons per day. 
The water is found in a bed of white sand two feet six inches 
thick, which has a bed of white clay above it three feet in 
thickness, and a similar bed below it two feet in thickness. 
These beds of clay seem to act as a channel enclosing and 
-conveying the water from its source, which is most probably 
from percolation into the alluvial beds from the creek at some 
j)oint below the anticlinal axis. 

The conclusions I am inclined to draw from these and other 
similar data are the following, viz. : — (L) The underground 
waters coming from the hills in that district are flowing below 
in the same general direction as the fall of the surface of the 
country, and on a line nearly parallel to it. It is most probable 
that the same conditions prevail generally throughout the 
Minders Eanges, of which this is a part. The underground 
waters from the Mount Lofty Range seem also to pass under 
'the plain in a similar position. 

At Grlen Osmond, where the surface is 469 feet above sea 
level, the line of saturation is about 26 feet to 40 feet from the 
surface. This line passes under and nearly parallel to the sur- 
face to Adelaide, where it is about 70 feet below the City level. 
In the bore at Kent Towd, according to the notes by Professor 
Tate, E.G-.S., &c., published in the Society's Proceedings, the 
depth of water is also 70 feet. Proceeding westward to Kil- 
kenny, the main body of water is at depths varying from 76 
feet to 118 feet ; in addition to this, at the latter place, water 
is found at a little less depth. At Port Adelaide the only deep 
boring record I have been able to obtain shows that down to a 
depth of 100 feet from the surface this main stream of water 
is not reached. 

On the plain of the River Wakefield, which I examined last 
year, there is a remarkable peculiarity in the underground 
waters, which there appear to be divided into two streams 
junning parallel to each other, one of which is quite salt 



86 

and the other fresli and useful for all purposes. I notice that 
in the bore put down at Port Wakefield by the Eugiireer-in- 
Chief to a depth of 550 feet, described in the Society's Pro- 
ceediugs in 1881, the water, found at depths varying from 
about -40 feet to 230 feet from the surface, was very salt, and 
the bore was abandoned, as there was no sign that the expen- 
diture would result in a supply of water suitable for locomotive 
engines or any other purpose. I think it would be worth 
inquiring as to whether this bore was not in the line of this- 
stream of underground salt water just referred to, and, by 
taking the lines of fresli water wells across the plain from 
near Balaklava westwards, endeavour to ascertain, if possible, 
the localitv of this underground fresh water near Port A\^ake- 
field. 

(2). The source of these imderground waters is percolation 
from the surface. This percolation takes place chiefly under 
the beds of rivers, creeks, and other water-courses m the hills- 
and on the plains, in a vertical direction, and also laterally on 
each side of the river. 

In South Australia that portion of the rainfall is much the 
larger which never reaches our rivers and creeks, but enters 
the ground on or near the spot where it falls, and goes to 
swell the volume of the subterranean streams. This proportion 
of the rainfall thus sinking into the ground varies very much 
in different countries and from various causes. 

This subject of the proportion of our rainfall lost by percola- 
tion and other causes is a very difficult one, and also of the 
greatest practical importance. In taking gaugings of the 
water flowing in the Eiver Wakefield during a part of the year 
1886, I found that out of an average rainfall over tbe catch- 
ment area of that river of 2 If inches, the quantity flowing in the 
river would only amount to y\fy of an inch per annum. As the 
gaugings were only taken for three months, the quantity per 
annum is only approximately estimated. I find that the gaug- 
ings of the Para Eiver at Barossa in 188-4 show about five inches 
discharged in the river out of an annual rainfall of 2H inches, 
and at Beetaloo in 1885 only y% inch out of a rainfall of 25-^ 
inches. These data show an enormous loss by percolation and 
evaporation and absorption, especially in the years 1885 and 
1S8G. The loss from these causes is about as follows, viz. : — 
At Barossa, in 1884, 16^ inches loss out of a total rainfall of 
2H inches ; at Beetaloo, in 1885, 24yV inches loss out of a total 
rainfall oE 25-^^ inches, and at the Eiver Wakefield, in 1886-, 
21| inches out of a total of 2 If inches annual rainfall. Assum- 
ing the loss by evaporation and absorption to be half the above 
total quantities lost from all causes, the annual loss due alone 
to percolation underground will be as follows, viz. : — At the 



87 

Earossa catcliment area annually a loss o£ 8i inclies in ISSi, 
and 5 inclies flowing in the river in the hills ; at Beetaloo, in 
1885, Joss by percolation 12y'^o inches, and flowing in the river 
3% inch; and at the Eiver Wakefiel, in 1886, loss by percolation 
lOf inches, and flowing in the river in the hills where the river 
gauge was fixed, yVo ot* an inch. 

It will be seen by these calculations from the river gaugings 
that as the rainfall decreases, as in the years 1885 and 1886 in 
this colony, the proportion of water percolating underground 
largely increases. The same takes place in other countries. 
Eor instance, at the gathering ground of the Liverpool "Water- 
works it was observed that with a rainfall of 48 inches the 
water lost by percolation was only 18 per cent., whilst during 
a year with a rainfall of only 34 inches the loss from this cause 
was 33 per cent, of the rainfall. I have not noticed the differ- 
ences of the geological features of the catchment areas of our 
rivers, as probably not much variation is due to this cause. 

3. The next conclusion I draw is that in South Australia 
generally the waters passing underground are much larger in 
quantity than those flowing on the surface. It will be seen 
that the amount of loss by percolation in the mountain gather- 
ing grounds of the rivers referred to is very much larger than the 
portion flowing in the rivers. The comparative account is as 
follows, viz. : — In 1881, a year with about the average rainfall 
of the previous 20 years, the water lost by percolation in the 
hills is one-aud-a half times the quantity flowing in the rivers 
at that point. In 1885 the percolation is twenty times the flow 
in the rivers, and in 1886 the loss by percolation is no less 
than about sixty times the flow in the rivers. Some of these 
waters reappear in the beds of our rivers in the hills in the 
form of springs more or less permanent, but only in small 
quantities compared to the water that has gone permanently 
underground, and, in most cases, this spring water, after flow- 
ing a short distance, is again lost by percolation. This is seen 
in Mount Brown and Spring Creeks, Willochra district ; the 
Saunders Creek and South Ehine Eiver ; the Elvers Torrens, 
Wakefield, and Broughton ; in some of the creeks in Baroota 
and other localities on the western slopes of the Elinders 
Eanges ; also in many other districts that might be named. 

In addition to this loss in the hills we have also to consider 
the further great loss of water in the beds of the rivers and 
creeks after they debouch upon the plains, which, as is well 
known, sometimes amounts to a total disappearance of the 
stream into underground channels. 

In August, 1886, I observed the flood waters of the Eiver 
"Wakefield coming down after a long continuance of dry 
weather, and the progress in its channel across the plain near 



88 

Balaklava was onlj at about tlie rate of half a mile in 24 liours, 
and frequently the head of the flood remained stationary for 
half an hour whilst it poured into one of the many large 
fissures in the river bed. Two years ago it was noticed that 
the E-iver Avoca, in Victoria, required a period of ten days to 
flow along one of its lower reaches about 27 miles in length, or 
only a speed of about two and three-quarter miles per day. 

This water, lost by our rivers on the plains, enters the 
ground and percolates vertically, and laterally to a greater or 
less distance, according to the permeability of the beds under- 
neath or the existence of old river channels, which, in some 
instances, allow of lateral percolation to a still greater distance 
from the river. 

This lateral percolation, and the gradual increase of depth 
from the surface of the line of saturation, may sometimes be 
traced with considerable distinctness ; as, for instance, on the 
plain of Adelaide, the Kiver Torrens appears to percolate 
laterally under the city of Adelaide, and it was noticed a few 
years ago, after the Torrens dam was filled, the water supply 
in wells in Adelaide at or below the river level was much larger 
than before. The Eiver Torrens also percolates through Fin- 
don as far as AYoodville, about two miles, and, most probably, 
in one or more old river beds ; but, on crossing the Port-road, 
about one mile farther we come into dry country, which seems 
to be outside the limit of percolation. In the hills it is most 
probable that the lateral percolations from the creeks and 
s?maller watercourses in the numerous gullies almost intersect 
each other ; and if this is so, the area of underground water 
below the lines of saturation will be almost continuous. In 
all cases, however, the hydrogeological features of each locality 
will require to be carefully examined and studied before explo- 
rations for underground waters are undertaken. 

In the alluvial deposits of our plains these subterranean 
waters generally saturate the permeable beds, and then collect 
and flow in the beds of sand and gravel overlying the clays or 
other impermeable beds. In the ranges they are found in 
small streams in the fissures of the quartzites and other harder 
rocks, and saturating the sandstones, and passing through the 
bedding and, I think, the cleavages of the shales and clay 
slates, and are met with by boring or sinking in the form of 
small feeders rushing out in spray form, or in considerable 
streams, according to the size of the fissures and the height of 
the source above the point of outlet. 

Assuming these deductions as to the great loss by percolation 
in the hills to be correct, we may conclude that the strata 
underneath our numerous and extensive mountain ranges below 
the lines of saturation form one almost continuous under- 



89 

•ground reservoir o£ water, from ^YhicIl we could draw perma- 
nent and large supplies, and wMcli could be brought out by 
gravitation at levels suitable for distribution over our plains 
wbere required. 

Such underground water supplies in many other countries 
have been turned to practical account. Eor instance, in Cali- 
fornia, where tunnelling has been carried out under some of 
ihe rivers ; at Seville, in Spain, where the water supply is 
obtained by a tunnel into water-bearing strata, consisting of 
permeable calcareous rocks resting on impermeable clay. The 
springs rise and flow away through the tunnel to the city. 
Some parts of these tunnelling works are said to have been 
carried out by the ancient Romans. Explorations also were 
made by tunnels in the hills in the neighbourhood of Lisbon, 
resulting in obtaining a supply of about 120 million gallons 
per annum ; also the city of Florence has obtained water by 
similar means. A tunnel has been driven into the valley of 
the Eiver Arno, and the supply of water, which is of an extra 
I)ure quality for domestic purposes, is no less than l,734i million 
gallons per annum, or about twice the capacity of the city of 
Adelaide waterworks, and the total cost of these Italian works 
was only £268,000, or not quite one-third the cost of the Ade- 
laide waterworks ! 

As, however, our conditions are different from those of the 
countries just named, it appeared to me necessary to examine 
the question «5 initio, and entirely from the standpoint of our 
own climatic and geological conditions. In some of these coun- 
tries the rainfall is much larger than here, and in others, though 
the rainfall is no greater than our own, yet the rivers are fed 
by the melting of snow on the mountains. ISTotwithstanding 
these climatic differences, I have no reason to, doubt the con- 
clusion that our underground supply of water thus available 
in the hills is of such a great extent as to make the question of 
its utilization one of the most important questions for our own 
country, as well as the various other colonies of Australasia. 

In collecting data for my investigations I have been indebted 
to the kindness of the following gentlemen, which I beg to ac- 
knowledge with thanks, namely :— Messrs. Erancis Clark and 
Sons, Adelaide, for particulars of bores at Kilkenny and 
Port Adelaide ; Mr. Burnell, for borings at Hindmarsh ; J. 
"W. Jones, Esq., Conservator of Water, for borings at Bruce, 
and levels and depths of water near Adelaide ; R. L. Mesteyer, 
Esq., E.M.S.E., Hydraulic Engineer, for river gaugings at 
Earossa and Eeetaloo. 

The method of drawing supplies from these underground 
water storages in the hills, as I have already indicated, is 
usually by means of tunnels and branch galleries into the 



90 

liUls. I would, liovrever, recommend some improvements upon 
that of simple tunnelling; but as engineering details would be- 
out of the province of this paper, I need not deal with this part 
of the subject at present except to point out that from the sec- 
tion across the Adelaide plain, already referred to, it is most 
probable that a convenient place in the Mount Loft}'^ Eange,. 
near Adelaide, being selected at or about the level of G-len 
Osmond, a comparatively short tunnel into the hill would be 
required to reach the subterranean waters, and convey them to- 
the surface by gravitation at a height of at least 800 feet above 
the cit}^, or about lOU feet higher than the highest storage 
reservoir of the Adelaide Waterworks. 

There would be many great advantages in obtaining supplies 
of water by this method ; amongst others I may note the fol- 
lowing, namely : — (1) An immense saving of cost as compared 
with the construction of storage reservoirs on the surface. The 
water being already naturally stored, the expenditure is only 
required for tunnels and similar works, which may be regarded 
as corresponding to those parts of the works for conveyance of 
the water in other schemes, namely, the works of distribution^ 
and the cost of the usual storage reservoirs which would be in 
great part saved by this method. (2) This means of obtaining 
water may also be used with advantage as a supplementary source 
of supply in connection with storage reservoirs, which are liable 
to either give out in extra dry seasons or be run down to such 
a low level that the water at the bottom, containing an extra 
quantity of solid and organic matters in suspension and other- 
wise ready to engender impurities, is liable to become injuri- 
ous to the public health when used for domestic purposes. (3) 
In the case of water supplies for our cities and towns, this 
method would avoid the danger of contamination of the water 
in the gathering ground likely to arise from the increase of 
cultivation, the use of manures, and the pasturing of cattle, as 
in most cases these underground waters are very pure on ac- 
count of having passed through the natural filtering beds of 
stone, gravel, or sand, and also not having been rendered salt 
by passing a long distance underground, as in the case of many 
of our waters obtained in wells and borings on the plains 

I will only further add that, in view of the very great im- 
portance to South Australia of obtaining additional supplies 
of water for our cities and towns, as well as for irrigation pur- 
poses throughout the country, and at a moderate cost — espe- 
cially for irrigation — I hope these notes may lead to inquiry, 
which, I trust, may eventually result in steps being taken tO' 
further utilise our underground water supplies in our numer- 
ous mountain ranges, which, in my opinion, are so extensive 
and valuable. 



01 



The Gastropods of the Older Tertiary or 
Australia. (Paet I.) 

By Professor Ealph Tate, P.G.S., P.L.S., &c. 

[Read October 4, 1887.] 

Plates I.-XIII. 

[Note. — All measurements are in French millimetres. The direction of 
the ornament or sculpture is termed spiral, or encircling when it follows the 
spiral curvature of the shell ; when coinciding with the lines of growth 
transverse as regards the whorls, or axial with respect to the length of the- 

shell.J 

FAMILY MURICID^. 
G-ENFs Typhis. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

Varices spinous. 

Upper whorls angular ; varix simple. 

1. T. McCoyii. 
Upper wliorls squarely rounded ; varix double. 

2. T. aoantlio])terns\. 
Yarices foliar, adpressed, laciniated. 

Shell four times as long as wide ; whorls almost dis- 
joined, posteriorly sloping inwards. 

3. T. disjunctus^ 
Shell stouter ; whorls quadrate, posteriorly flat. 

4. T. laciniatus. 
Yarices angular ; whorls subangulated. 5. T. fripterus. 
Yarices absent ; tubular projections compressed, adpressed 

to the spire. 6. T. evaricosus. 

1. Typhis McCoyii, T. Woods. 

Typliis McCoyii, T. Woods, Proe. lioy. Soc, Tasmania, for- 
1875, p. 22, t. i., fig. 5. 

Typhis liehetatus, Hutton, Trans., ]N".Z. Inst., yoI. ix., t. xvi., 
fig. 1, 1877. 

Shell ovately fusiform ; whorls seven and a-half, the two^ 
and a-half embryonic whorls small, smooth, and rounded ; the 
next one or two squarely rounded and medially keeled ; the- 
rest subangularly convex, the keel close to the anterior suture. 
Body whorl somewhat quadrately convex, with four spinous 
varices which end posteriorly on the blunt posterior keel in a 
strong spine, anteriorly they are flatly expanded. There are 
five or six spines on each varix, which diminish in size towards; 



92 

the canal; tlie spines on the varices of the second posterior 
whorl are sometimes connected by a faint spiral ridge. Be- 
tween each varix is a tubular spine. The posterior whorls, 
with alternating conical spines and tubular projections. Sur- 
face marked with striae of growth, otherwise smooth. Aperture 
•ovate ; peristome continuous, thick, erect ; canal closed, com- 
pressed, of moderate length, curved to the right ; anterior 
varix decurrent on the outer face of the canal. The three other 
varices terminate in imbricating spines spirally arranged on 
the canal. 

Length, 38 ; breadth, 22. 

Localities. — Table Cape (Sobart Mus., R. 21. Johnston!'); 
lower beds at Muddy Creek ; Eiver Murray Cliffs, near 
Morgan. Also in the Pareora Series at Mount Harris, &c., 
N. Zealand (Wellington dlus. .'). 

The identification of T. hehetatus with the Australian 
T. IfcCoyii rests upon the comparison of authentic specimens. 

This fossil is somewhat related to T. pungens of the European 
Eocene ; but it has a shorter spire, different shaped whorls, 
^nd more spines on the varices. 

2. Typhis acanthopterus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 2. 

Shell ovately fusiform ; whorls seven and a half ; the one 
^nd a half embryonic whorls, small, rounded, and smooth ; the 
rest of the spire of gradated whorls, the posterior one-third of 
each whorl flattened or slightly sloping ; the ornament con- 
sists of a row of relatively large spines on the shoulder of the 
whorl and of two rows of smaller spines between the former 
and the anterior suture. The body whorl is squarely rounded, 
ornamented with four spinous varices, each of which is sub- 
ordinated anteriorly by a similar but smaller varix ; there are 
about eight slender recurved spines on each varix ; between 
each varix there is a stout, long, and tubular spine on the 
shoulder of the whorl. Aperture and canal as in T. McCoy ii. 

The surface is striated with growth-lines, and is obliquely 
ridged coincident with the variceal spines. 

Length, 23 ; breadth within the spines, 10 ; length of aper- 
ture and canal, 14. 

Locality. — In the blue clavs at Schnapper Point, Port Philip 

This species differs from T. JMcCoyii by its sub-quadrate 
whorls, more spines on the varices, by the duplication of the 
varices, and by the oblique ridges between the varices. 

3. Typhis disjunctus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. li. 
Shell narrowly elongated ; whorls four and a half, sloping 
inward at the suture, almost disjoined ; from the keel there 



93 

proceed four laraelliform varices with serrately dentate mar^ 
gins, and on the last whorl are continued on to the canal- 
there terminating in spiniform squamae ; alternating with the 
varices of each whorl are four tubular spines, long and back- 
ward directed. The surface of the shell is ornamented with 
faint spiral ridges and transverse folds and striations. Canal 
very long, flattened, pointed and slightly recurved at the end ;: 
aperture circular or nearly so ; peristome continuous. 

Length, 20 ; breadth, 5 ; length of aperture and canal, 12. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek, Hamilton ; and 
blue clays at Schnapper Point, Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. 

4. Typhis laciniatus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 10. 

Shell elongately fusiform ; whorls five and a half, the one 
and a half embryonic whorls small and rounded ; spire- whorls 
gradated, narrow, and flattened posteriorly, crowned at the 
shoulder with one row of spines. Body-whorl sub-angulated 
in front of the suture, attenuated anteriorly ; ornamented with 
four lamelliform adpressed varices, their edges jagged but 
developed into a spiniform scale on the shoulder of the whorl ;, 
a long, slender tubular spine alternates with the varices. Sur- 
face striated with growth-lines. 

Length, 11 ; breadth, 4"5 ; length of aperture and canal, 7. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek, near Hamilton, 
'Victoria. 

This species differs from T. disjitnctus by its smaller size, but 
greater proportionate breadth, and its more compact whorls. 

5. Typhis tripterus, sjyec. nov. Plate ill., fig. 14. 

Shell fusiform ; whorls six, the two and a half apical ones 
smooth and rounded ; the rest of the spire whorls medially 
subangulated, bearing a row of tubulations which are slightly 
posterior to the keel and alternate with a row of short conical 
projections situated nearer to the anterior suture. Body 
whorl subquadrately convex posteriorly, attenuated in front ; 
ornamented with three angular varices, which terminate at the 
posterior angulation of the whorl in an ill-defined tubercle,, 
and with three tubulations, each of which is closer to the varix 
in front of it than to the one behind. 

Surface of the whorls finely striated with growth-lines, and 
at the bases of the tubulations obliquely striated. Canal long, 
broad, nearly straight, not closed. 

Length, 9"5 ; breadth, 45 ; length of canal and aperture,. 
5"5. An incomplete specimen measures, length 13, breadth 6. 

Locality. — Clayey green sands, Adelaide bore (two examples).. 



94 

6. Typhis evaricosus, spec. nov. Plate i., lig. 6.* 

Shell acuminately ovate ; whorls six and a half, of which 
the two and a half apical ones are rounded and smooth ; the 
rest of the spire whorls are convex, flattened at the suture, 
beariuof tubulations at the shoulder which are broad, com- 
pressed, and prolonged backward ; the posterior margin of 
-each whorls is undulate. Body Avhorl with four tubulations, 
which are broad at the base, compressed, slightly bent to the 
left, and adpressed to the spire ; the tubulations are continued 
•on the anterior portion of the whorl as broad, curved, medially 
depressed undulations. There are no varices between the 
tubulations. 

Aperture oval ; peristome continuous ; canal closed, com- 
pressed, broad, and abruptly tapering to a short hardly re- 
<3urved point. 

Surface smooth and shining, marked with striae of growth 
and faint spiral lines, and faintly obliquely ridged on the 
tubulations. 

Length, 7 ; breadth, 3 ; length of aperture and canal 3. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

T. evaricosus agrees with the recent species T. duplicatus. 
Sow., and T. arcuatus, Hinds., in having the tubulations bent 
back, and the varices obliterated by confluence therewith ; from 
the first, to which it is more allied, it differs by its smaller size 
and adpressed tubulations. 

Genus Murex. 
synopsis oe subgeneea. 
Varices three, wing-like Fteronotus. 

Varices three, foliar Chicoreus. 

Varices more than three 

Canal long, nearly straight ; spire very short. 

Uliinocantlia. 
Canal short. 

Avarices spinose. Plii/Uonotus. 

Avarices foliated or simple Ocinelra. 

SuBGExrs Pteronotus. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

I. Varices three on each whorl, continuous from whorl to 
whorl. 

* The figure, which was drawu from a worn specimen, though fairly repre- 
senting the shape and position of the tubulations. does not show the tubula- 
tions applied to the spire in the manner exhibited by subsequently acquired 
examples. 



95 

«. Last yarix broadly expanded. 

A. No nodules between the varices. 

Distantly finely lirate ; finely striated transversely. 

M. velificus. 

Strongly lirate, with arcbed discontinuous threads 

between. 2. J/, rliysus. 

B. One inter variceal nodule. 

Upper wborls inornate ; shell ovate. 

3. M. calvus. 
Upper whorls lirate ; shell narrower. 

1. M. velificus, var. 
h. Last varix narrowly winged ; extended into a spine. 
Spine long ; no nodules between the varices. 

4. 21. manuhriatus. 
Spine inconspicuous ; three intervariceal nodules. 

5. 3£. trinodosus. 
II. Varices three on body whorl, increasing posteriorly ; 

discontinuous ; outer lip denticulate. 

Spiral threads, about 20, slender. 6. M. lifrons. 

Spiral threads, about 8, stout. 7. M, clidymus. 

1. Murex velificus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 8. 

Shell trigonal elongated, very thin. "Whorls seven, o£ which 
the one and half apical whorls are small, smooth, and rounded. 
The rest of the shell is provided with three varices. Whorls 
flatly convex, ornamented with fine spiral ridges on the 
anterior half (four on the penultimate whorl) and transverse 
striae and threads. The varices are widely foliaceous, erect, 
axial, and regular ; ornamented with radial ridges continued 
from the lirse of the whorls, and arched transverse striae and 
threads ; the margin of the varices is entire or inconspicuously 
serrated. 

Aperture small, oval ; peristome continuous, thick- 
ened ; the outer lip crenulated on the margin. Canal long, 
nearly closed, slightly oblique, tapering to a slender recurved 
point. 

Some individuals from the Kiver Murray cliffs possess an 
intervariceal tuberculation. 

Total length, 28 ; breadth, 7 ; length of aperture and 
canal, 18. 

Localities. — Lower flats at Muddy Creek ; blue clays at 
Schnapper Point, Port Philip ; Eiver Murray cliffs. 

2. Murex rhysus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 7. 

Shell trigonal elongated, thin ; whorls seven (apex wanting), 

somewhat convex ; varices three, widely foliaceous, erect, 

slightly obliquely directed, somewhat f alcately reflexed ; margin 

entire. Surface ornamented with stoutish, narrow, angular. 



96 

equidistant threads (15 on tlie penultimate wliorl), tlie mucb 
wider intervening furrows, with subremote, curved, discon- 
nected raised lines, as in the recent M. triformis. Aperture 
oval ; peristome continuous, its margin thin and plain ; canal 
unknown. 

Length, excluding canal, 32 ; breadth, li ; height of aper- 
ture, 11. 

Locality. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point, Port Philip. 

This species is distinguished from 31. velificus by its rounded 
whorls, equally ornamented with spiral threads, by its peculiar 
interstitial sculpture, and by the shape of its last varix. 

3. Murex calvus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 11. 

Shell ovately fusiform ; whorls seven ; varices three, oblique, 
narrowly foliaceous, margin entire ; one iutervariceal small 
nodulation. Surface of anterior whorls with distant faint 
spiral threads, crossed by distant faint ridges and striae ; upper 
whorls transversely striated. Canal open, curved to the left, 
apparently short; aperture large, ovately-oblong, inner lip 
dentate. 

Length (incomplete), 22; breadth, 9; height of aperture, 7. 

Localities. — Clayey sands, Adelaide bore ; and Turritella- 
clays, Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay. 

This species resembles M. ruhHclentatus, Eeeve, in shape and 
obliquity of varices, but it has only one iutervariceal nodula- 
tion. In all the above characters it is related to M. pinnatus , 
"Wood, but the variceal wings are not interrupted as in that 
species. 

4. Murex xnanubriatus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 9. 

Shell elongately fusiform ; whorls seven, somewhat convex,, 
subangulated medially, faintly and distantly spirally lirate, 
and closely striated, transversely faintly ridged ; spire rather 
obtuse, of one and a half smooth rounded whorls. Varices 
slightly oblique, narrowly foliated, each ending in a posterior 
slightly recurved long spine ; margin of varix entire. 

Aperture ovate ; peristome continuous, outer lip slightly 
thickened, edentulous. Canal closed, long, nearly straight^ 
and slightly recurved. 

Length, 24 ; breadth, 8 ; length of apertures and canal, 16. 

Localities. — Clayey sands, Adelaide bore ; and Turritella- 
clays at Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay. 

5. Murex trinodosus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 4. 

Shell trigonal elongated ; whorls six or more, somewhat 

convex, with three stout iutervariceal nodulations ; last whorl 

inconspicuously biangulated. Varices oblique, very narrowly 

winged, each ending posteriorly in a short spine. Aperture 



97 

large, ovate, peristome continuous, outer lip edentulous ; canal 
straight and short. 

Length, 20 ; breadth, 8-5 ; length o£ aperture and canal, 7. 

Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek. 

Murex trinodosus is separable from the recent M. Angasi, 
Crosse, by being broader across the posterior part o£ the body 
whorl, by the variceal spine not hooked, by the less angulated 
whorls, longer canal, and by having three stout intervariceal 
nodulations instead o£ two inconspicuous ones. 

6. Murex bifrons, sipec. nov. Plate i., fig. 12. 

Shell ovately trigonal, stoutish ; whorls six, convex, spirally 
equally ridged ; apex obtuse, of one and a half smooth whorls. 
Varices foliaceous, moderately broad, erect, oblique, and 
irregular ; there are three on the body whorl, but six on each 
of the posterior whorls. Body whorl with about 20 equi- 
distant slender, spiral threads, transversely striated ; margin 
of the anterior varix slightly crenulated between the lirse. 
Aperture large, subquadrate ; peristome entire ; outer lip 
tuberculated on the thickened margin ; canal short, open, 
curved. 

Length, 15"5 ; breadth, 6 ; length of aperture and canal, 9. 

Localities. — Adelaide bore and "Turritella clays" at Blanche 
Point, Aldinga Bay. 

7. Murex didymus, spec. nov. Plate iv., fig. 13. 

This species is similar to the last, but has few (eight) and 
stouter spiral ridges on the body whorl, whorls flatly convex, 
the canal is proportionately longer, and the margin of the 
anterior varix is entire. 

Length, 17-5 ; breadth, G'S ; length of aperture and canal, 
11"5. 

Locality. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point, Port Phillip. 

SuBaEis-us Chicoreus. 

SYJS^OPSIS OF SPECIES. 

I. Shell ovate ; varices on anterior whorls crenately spinu- 
lose. 8. M. toplitessus. 

II. Shell fusiform ; varices spiniferous, regular. 

A. Posterior spine short and broad. 

Whorls rounded, penultimate whorl, equally lirate. 

9. M. Dennanti. 

"Whorls subquadrate, penultimate whorl with three 

strong lirse. 10. M. Adelaidensis. 

B. Posterior spine long. 

a Two intervariceal cost?e. 11. M. hasicinctus. 



h No intervariceal nodulations 

Posterior spine very long and attenuated. 

12. 31. tenuicornis. 
Posterior spine stout, somewliafc upward 

dilated and truncated. 

13. M. amhjyceras. 
III. Shell fusiform ; varices simple, irregular. 

Varices three on last whorl, increasing in number pos- 
teriorly ; apex small acute. 15. ilZ". irregularis. 

Varices three to each whorl ; apex large obtuse ; 
lamellae closer. 14. JSI. Hamilton en sis. 

8. Murex lophoessus, spec. nov. Plate ii., fig. 5. 

Shell ovate, conical ; whorls eight, including two small 
smooth rounded turbinated apical ones ; the rest of the whorls 
ventricose, rounded, ornamented with compressed spiral ribs, 
and transverse lamellae of growth. Varices, three to each 
whorl, those on the anterior whorls more or less regular, 
narrow, thin, and pectinated ; the varices of the posterior 
whorls are simply crenulated by the lirae which pass over 
them. 

The spiral ribs, which are from six to eight in number ou 
the penultimate whorl, are very narrow, the broad concave 
intervening furrows usually having a medial slender thread ; 
they are traversed by rather crowded lamellae of growth, which 
form inconspicuous scales on the lirae. There are usually 
three or four intervariceal costae, w^hich are never very promi- 
nent — not at all developed on the posterior five or six whorls. 

Last whorl with from 12-1'! principal lir« which are con- 
tinued on to the varices, there projecting as small serratures. 
Aperture oval ; peristome continuous ; inner lip faintly lirate 
within ; outer lip stoutly lirate within, its margin serrated. 
Canal closed, depressed, short, sinistrally bent tind slightly 
recurved. 

Length, 40; breadth within the varices, 23 ; height of aper- 
ture, 13'5 ; length of canal, 12. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point, Port Philip ; 
lower beds at Mudd}^ Creek. 

9. Murex Dennanti, sj^ec. nov. Plate ii., tig. 7. 
Shell elongate-fusiform ; whorls eight, including two small, 
rounded, smooth apical ones ; the rest of the spire whorls con- 
vex, slightly depressed at the posterior suture. Varices three, 
more or less regular compressed, each bearing at the angulation 
of the whorl a short, broad, erect spine. The fourth, fifth, and 
sixth whorls with tessellated ornament, more or less "rauulated 



99 

•at the intersections, produced by the intercrossing of trans- 
verse and from four to six spiral threads — there is one spiral 
thread on the posterior slope. On the anterior whorls the 
spiral lir?e increase in number, and are of unequal dimensions, 
whilst the transverse threads become indistinct, or are reduced 
ijO striae. On the penultimate whorl there are ten unequal 
lirse in front of the angulation, which pass over the varices, 
producing crenations on their margins ; whilst on the posterior 
slope there are five very slender threads. Aperture ovate, 
peristome continuous ; outer lip thin, smooth within ; canal 
longer than the aperture, contorted and slightly reverted. 

Length, 30 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture and canal, 17. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

10. Murex Adelaidensis, sine. nov. Plate ii., fig. 4. 

Shell elongate-fusiform; whorls nine, including two small, 
rounded, smooth, turbinated apical ones ; the rest of the spire 
whorls subquadrate. 

Varices on the three anterior whorls more or less regular, 
three to each whorl, compressed foliar, each bearing at the 
posterior shoulder of the whorl a short, broad, erect spine. 
•On the posterior whorls the varices are eight to each whorl, 
foliar and fimbriated, graduating posteriorly into vaulted 
■scales. 

"Whorls of the spire, excluding the apical ones, ornamented 
on the medial portion with three strong spiral liras, or two 
strong ones with one or two smaller intervening ones ; the 
posterior slope with one, two, or three slender spiral threads ; 
and there are usually two next to the anterior suture. The 
whole surface finely striated in a spiral direction, and crossed 
by rather distant imbricating lamellae of growth. 

Last whorl quadrately-convex, with three or four spiral 
threads on the depressed area next the suture, the anterior 
portion with about 15 strong equidistant spiral liras alternating 
with slender ones, crossed by subdistant transverse threads less 
prominent than the principal lir?e. 

Aperture ovately-oblong ; inner lip crenulated on the margin 
and lirate within ; canal not exceeding in length that of the 
aperture, open, and sinistrally curved. 

Length, 20 ; breadth, 9 ; length of canal and aperture, 11. 

Localities. — Adelaide bore ; and " Turritella clays," Aldinga. 



11. Murex basicinctus, spec. nov. Plate ii., fig. 9. 
Shell elongate, fusiform, with a high gradated spire, termi- 
nating in a small blunt mamillate apex. Whorls eight, includ- 
ing two smooth apical ones ; the next two are rounded, but 



100 

flattened at tlie suture, with four, increasing to six, spiral 
threads, and about 12 costa3 to each whorl ; the rest of the- 
spire-whorls medially augulate, ornamented with minutely- 
scaly spiral lir^e, each whorl with three varices and two unin- 
terrupted, prominent, intervariceal costie. The varices are- 
simple, regular, slightly oblique, each bearing medially a stout, 
somewhat frondosely expanded spine. 

Last whorl with about 15 narrow lirae on the posterior slope ;; 
there is a strong revolving rib in alignment with the posterior 
angle of the aperture bearing a short spine on each varix. 
Between the basal rib and the shoulder there are about 20 lir?e,. 
and about an equal number anterior to it. The lira? are crossed 
by moderately distant stride, which produce minute scale-like- 
serratures at the junctions. 

Aperture oval ; outer lip thin, crenulated on the margin. 
Canal longer than the aperture, nearly straight and closed. 

Length, 37 ; breadth, 15 ; length of aperture, 9 ; and of 
canal, 13. 

Locality. — "Gastropod-bed" of the Eiver Murray Cliffs,. 
near Morgan. 

This fossil has some resemblance to the recent M. crocaiusy 
Eeeve. 

12. Murex tenuicornis, spec. nov. Plate ii., fig. 6. 

Shell elongately fusiform, with a produced sj^ire, terminating 
in a small obtuse apex consisting of one and a half smooth 
rounded whorls ; the rest of the spire whorls are at first convex^ 
but afterwards becoming increasingly angulated in the middle, 
each with three thin varices bearing a long slender spine. The- 
ornament consists of one or two faint spiral threads on the an- 
terior half of the whorl, and very fine spiral strife and arched 
growth-lines, the intercrossing of which forms a fine close can- 
cellation. 

Last whorl angulated, ornamented on the anterior portion 
with five spiral ribs which terminate on the last varix as short 
spinous digitations ; the variceal spine is long, slender, and 
slightl}' arched posteriorly. 

Aperture trapezoidal, much longer than wide ; peristome- 
continuous, thin, elevated ; outer lip angulated at the keel, 
with three tubercles within anteriorly situated to the angula- 
tion ; canal long, flat, closed, nearly straight. 

Length, 19 ; breadth, 7 ; length of canal and aperture, 12 ;. 
length of last variceal spine, 9. 

Local it if. — Clayey green sands, Adelaide bore. 

The species makes some approach to the recent JL longicornisy 
Dunker. 



J 



101 

13. Murex amblyceras, spec. nov. Plate ii., fig. 12. 

Shell elongate fusiform, with a high gradated spire, terminat- 
ing in a small blunt mamiliate apex consisting of two smooth 
globose whorls of which the tip is slightly turned down on one 
side and immersed. Whorls seven, excepting the apical ones, 
angulated, spirally lirate and transversely closely striated. 
Varices simple, obliquely continuous from whorl to whorl, each 
bearing a hollow, vaulted, reverted, blunt spine at the keel. 
Last whorl a little tumid, with a rounded base, much contracted 
and produced ; ornamented with about eight unequal lirae on 
the upper part and about 20 similar ones in front of the keel, 
the stouter ones ending in small digitations on the last varix. 

Aperture oval, with an elevated, thin, and continous peris- 
tome ; margin of outer lip wrinkled ; canal long, curved, 
aiearly closed. 

Length, 25 ; breadth, 10 ; length of aperture and canal, 16. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek ; blue clays at 
Schnapper Point, Victoria. 

Has considerable resemblance to M. lasicinctus, but has no 
intervariceal co stations or basal rib. 

14. Murex Hamiltonensis, spec. nov. Plate iii, fig. 6. 

Shell fusiform, somewhat thin, with a high spine of gradate 
whorls terminating in a blunt, rather large apex (1"5 mills, in 
diameter), consisting of two globose, faintly spirally striated 
whorls, the extremity of which is immersed. "Whorls six, 
those of the spire, excepting the nuclear ones, ventricose, sub- 
quadrate, excavated at the suture, ornamented with four prin- 
cipal rounded, slightly elevated, spiral threads (one of which 
occupies the flat posterior area) and by rather distant fim- 
briated laminae of growth and transverse striae. 

Last whorl somewhat tumid, narrowly flattened in front of 
ihe suture, and rather abruptly attenuated into the beak ; 
ornamented with spiral lirae and three varices. The spiral 
lirae, of which two are on the posterior area and about ten on 
ihe rest of the whorl, are equidistant, sometimes with a slender 
interstitial thread, and raised into small arched scales as the 
transverse laminae pass over them. 

Varices of thin adpressed foliations, three to each whorl, very 
irregularly disposed and not continuous from whorl to whorl. 

xlperture oval-quadrate ; peristome continuous, thin, and 
slightly reflected on the columella ; outer lip lirate within. 
Canal shorter than the aperture, moderately arched to the left, 
iind reverted. 

Length, 20 ; breadth, 9 ; length of aperture and canal, 11. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

This Murex very closely resembles young examples of Bapana 
aculeata. 



102 

15. Murex irregularis, spec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 3. 
Similar to M. Ilamiltonensis, witli eiglit whorls, apex con- 
siderably smaller, the whorls abruptly truncated medially, the- 
transverse lamina^ closer together and inconspicuously raised 
into scales, the varices irregular, three on the last whorl, in- 
creasing to four or six on the next whorls. The fifth and sixth 
whorls bicarinate and multicostate. 

Length, 27 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture, 7 ; length of 
canal, 7 ; breadth of aperture, 5. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

Subgenus Eni^^ocAis^TnA. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

Spire whorls subquadrate, conspicuously lirate ; varices- 
compressed, elevated. 16. M. asteriscus. 

Spire whorls angular, faintly lirate ; varices thick and de- 
pressed. 17. M. p achy stir us. 

16. Murex asteriscus, spec. nov. Plate ii., fig. 10. 

Shell pyriform, with a low, somewhat trochiform spire, ter- 
minating in a small blunt mamillate apex of one and a half 
globose whorls. Whorls six and a half, the anterior ones sub- 
quadrate with a deeply impressed suture, graduating to flat- 
sided in the most posterior one. Penultimate whorl bicarin- 
ated, with a third angulated thread on the anterior slope, 
faintly ridged in a spiral and transverse direction. 

Last whorl tumid, flattened posteriorly and abruptly attenu- 
ated anteriorly ; ornamented with five spiral ribs in front of" 
the shoulder, the interstitial spaces with spiral threads and 
transverse stride. 

Varices, six on each whorl, obliquely continuous from whorl 
to whorl, simple, narrow, elevated, crenately-nodulose coninci- 
dent with the lirse. Aperture large, ovately-obloug ; outer lip 
lirate within ; columella curved, thickened at its junction with 
the canal which is shorter than the aperture, nearly straight. 

Length, 27 ; breadth, 19 ; length of aperture, 11 ; of canal,. 
9 ; breadth of aperture, 7. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

17. Murex pachystirus, spec. nov. Plate ii., fig. 11. 
Shell resembling M. asteriscus with a higher and flatter spire. 
"Whorls six and a half, angulated next to the anterior suture ;. 
striated spirally, and each provided with six broad, depressed 
varicif orm plications, those of one whorl more or less alter- 
nating with those of the next, undulose between the varices. 
Last whorl ornamented with six equidistant spiral ribs, which 



103 

pass over the varices, and with about three slender threads in 
the shallow concave interspaces. 

Aperture large, trapezoidal ; outer lip faintly lirate within ; 
canal nearly as long as the aperture, slightly curved. 

Length, 24i ; breadth, 15'5 ; length of aperture, 9 ; of canal, 
7 ; breadth of aperture, 7. 

Localities. — " Grastropod-bed," Eiver Murray Cliffs, near 
Morgan ; lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

Subgenus Phyllonotus. 
synopsis of species. 
■ "Whorls quadrate, posterior slope lirate. 18. 3f. Eyrei. 

"Whorls convexly angular, posterior slope without lirse. 

19. M. suhlcBvis. 
Whorls bicarinate on the anterior half. 20. M. Legrandi. 

18. Murex Eyrei, T.-Woods. Plate iv., fi?. 8. 

M. Eyrei, Tenison-Woods., Proc. Eoy. Soc, Tas., for 1876, 
p. 93. 

Shell fusiformly ovate, with a somewhat high scalar spire, 
terminating in a small obtuse apex consisting of two smooth 
whorls. Whorls seven, of which those of the spire, excepting 
the two apical ones, are quadrate, the slightly upward sloping, 
posterior area about equalling in breadth the anterior part ; 
last whorl sharply angulated postmedially. Varices seven to a 
whorl, thinly lamellose, narrow, often obsolete on the posterior 
area, which at the angle project into short hollow, slightly 
backward curved spines ; on the posterior whorls they lose their 
lamellose character and become simple costse, and finally devoid 
of spines. 

The spiral ornament consists of slender equidistant threads, 
on the last whorl six occupy the posterior two-thirds next 
suture, those anterior to the angulation are stouter, nearly as 
wide as the intervening furrows. A rather broad space on 
either side of the angulation is devoid of lirse, but is closely 
finely spirally striated. 

The transverse ornament consists of rather crowded lamellse, 
which are raised into depressed, roundly arched, vaulted 
scales on the lirse. 

Aperture rhomboid-ovate, angulated at the keel, outer lip 
thin with a crenulated edge. Canal open, about as long as the 
aperture, sinistrally arched, and somewhat recurved. 

Length, 22 ; breadth, 10'5 ; length of aperture and canal, 14. 

Localities. — Table Cape, Tasmania {B. 3£. Johnston !) ; lower 
beds at Muddy Creek, and blue clays at Schnapper Point, Vic- 
toria. 



104. 

19. Murex sublaevis, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 3. 

Shell eloDgate-fusiform, with a high scalar spire ; whorls 
seven and a half, convexly angular, equally sloping from the 
medial angulation to the sutures. Otherwise resembling 
31. Eyrei, but also differing by the stouter varices, the absence 
of lirse on the posterior slope of the whorls, fewer lirae on the 
anterior part of the body whorl, which is attenuated less 
abruptly into the beak. Inner lip faintly tuberculated within. 

Length, 25 ; breadth, 12 ; length of aperture and canal, 14i"5. 

Localities. — Adelaide bore ; and " Turritella clays," Blanche 
Point, Aldinga Bay. 

20. Murex Legrandi, Johnston. Plate xi., fig. 8. 

M. Legrandi, E. M. Johnston ; Proc. -Roy. Soc, Tasmania, 
for 1879, p. 32. 

Shell fusiformly turriculate, whorls six (apex wanting), those 
of the spire bicarinate. Last whorl moderately convex, some- 
what angulated in the posterior one-third, anterior to whicb 
are nine angulated spiral carinae ; the transverse ornament 
consists of thick distant threads forming slight granulations 
at points of intersection with the lirae. There are five varices 
on the last whorl, nine on the next, and increasing in number 
posteriorly ; they are squamose, rather broad, irregularly dis- 
posed, and produced into short, vaulted, spiny scales on the 
posterior carination. 

Aperture oval, peristome entire ; outer lip with six stout 
denticulations within, situated anterior to the angulation at 
tbe carination. Canal much shorter than the aperture, open, 
sinistrally curved. 

Length, 18 ; breadth, 8 ; length of aperture and canal, 9"5. 

Locality. — Table Cape, Tasmania (B. M. Johnston'.). 

Has considerable resemblance to M. cristatus, Brocchi, but 
has fewer varices and lirae. 



SUBGEIJTS OciiS^EBRA. 
SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

I. Spire wborls flat, varices squamose. 21. 31. hiconicus. 
II. Spire whorls convex. 

Varices much arched ; dense lamellose ornament. 

22. 31. camplytropis. 
Varices sliglitly arched, spire longer ; squamose lir^e. 

23. 3£. asperulus. 
III. Spire whorls subquadrate. 

A. Embryonic whorls, trochiform, apex acute. 

21;. 31. trocliispira. 



I 



105 

B. Embryouic whorls rounded, apex obtuse. 

a. Varices very foliaceous, raised into spinulose 
^ squamae. 25. J/, prionotus. 

h. Varices bluntly tuberculated at the shoulder. 

26. M. minutus. 
c. Varices without tubercles or elevated squamae. 

* Spiral threads on last whorl, thick, 10. 

27. M. crassiliratus. 
** Spiral threads on last whorl, thin, 20. 

Outer lip not dentate within. 

28. M. alveolatus. 
Outer lip with three tubercles within. 

29. M. tridentatus. 

21. Murex biconicus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 3. 
Shell elongate, triangularly ovate, with a low flat spire ter- 
minating in a small mamillate apex of two whorls. Whorls 
seven. Avarices six, on the last whorl ; lamelliform stout, 
raised into short vaulted scales over the spiral lirae, more con- 
spicuously so on the shoulder of the whorl, posterior to which 
they are suddenly bent forward, and become almost lost in de- 
pressed extended lamellae. The number of varices progressively 
increases posteriorly, at first appearing as nodulations at the 
anterior suture, and with the slightly increasing convexity of 
whorls acquiring the form of short costae, ending posteriorly at 
the carination in blunt tubercles. Last whorl convex, angu- 
lated in the posterior third by the suddenly enlarged varices, 
between which the periphery is deeply undulate. On the rather 
high sloping posterior area there are about eight unequal 
slender spiral lirae ; the shoulder is ridged medially, and finely 
striated on the flanks ; on the anterior part there are about 12 
angular lirae, alternating with an equal number of smaller 
•ones. The furrows between the varices are obscurely trans- 
versely lamellated. The spire whorls are lirate and transversely 
lamellated. 

Aperture large, oval ; inner lip reflected over the columella ; 
outer lip faintly lirate within. Canal wide open, shorter than 
the aperture, nearly straight. 

Length, 34*5 ; breadth, 19 ; length of aperture, 15 ; width of 
aperture, 9 ; length of canal, 10. 

Locality/. — In a well sinking, E,iver Murray desert. 

22. Murex camplytropis, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 2. 
Shell ovate, thick, with a moderately produced spire of some- 
what convex whorls, terminating in a relatively large mamilla- 
ted apex, consisting of one and a half smooth globose whorls. 
-Spire whorls, excepting the apical whorls, varying from convex 



106 

to almost subquadrate, especially so in tlie examples from iher 
Eiver Murray cliffs ; ornameuted with about seven rounded^ 
equidistant spiral lir?e, and transversely by much curved varices 
and imbricating lamell?p o£ growth. Last whorl rather ventri- 
cose, ornamented with numerous spiral lirie, eight foliar 
varices and imbricating frilled lamella^ of growth. 

In some examples the lamellsD are so dense as to conceal the- 
spiral ornament. 

Aperture rotund to oval ; outer lip lirate within ; canal 
shorter than the aperture, sinistrally bent, and somewhat 
recurved. 

Length, 16 ; breadth, 9 ; length of aperture and canal, 11. 

Localities. — Schnapper Point ; lower beds at Muddy Creek ;: 
Eiver Murray cliffs near Morgan ; Table Cape (B. M, 
Jolinston !) 

23. Murex asperulus, sjyec. now Plate iii., fig. 1. 

Shell elongate ovate ; spire produced, terminating in a small 
mamillate apex of one and a half smooth whorls. AVhorls six,, 
convex or slightly shouldered, spirally lirate, and transversely 
varicose-plicate, and lamellose striated. There are about 
twelve thin, similar equidistant lirae on the penultimate whorl, 
which are raised into rather distant squamae ; varices eight tO' 
a whorl. 

Aperture oval ; canal about as long as the aperture, twisted, 
and recurved. 

Length, 19"5 ; breadth, 9*5 ; length of aperture and canal,. 
10-5. 

Localities. — Schnapper Point ; lower beds at Muddy Creek ;. 
Aldinga Cliffs. 

This species differs from M. camplytropis by its elongated 
shape, longer canal, simpler and straighter varices, and by the- 
squamulose threads. 

24. Murex trochispira, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 13. 

Shell elougately ovate, with a rather high gradated spire- 
terminating in an acute trochiform apex consisting of four 
smooth, flat, narrow whorls ; the next three spire whorls quad- 
rate and anteriorly bicarinate. Last whorl with a narrow 
sloping-upward area posterior to the angulation, anterior to 
which are six high angulated spiral carinje, alternating with 
slender threads in the flattish, broad furrows. 

The transverse ornament consists of rather distant lamellae, 
raised into scales on the lirae and striae. The varices are five 
on the last whorl, increasing in number posteriorly ; they are 
lamellose, irregularly disposed, and produced into short, 
vaulted scales on the carina?. Aperture oblong-oval, rather 



107 

abruptly contracted into a slightly curved, open canal, not sc^ 
long as the aperture ; peristome continuous ; outer lip broadly 
crenulated on the margin. 

Length, 10 ; breadth, 4-5 ; length of aperture and canal, 6. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek ; and Eiver Murray 
Cliffs, Morgan. 

The trochiform apex imparts a very distinctive character to 
this little Murex. 

25. Murex prionotus, spec. nov. Plate i., fig. 5. 

Shell ovate, with a moderate gradated spire, terminating in 
a small mamillate apex. "Whorls seven, quadrate, those of the 
spire encircled with two strong erect ribs, which are crossed 
with fimbriated spirally finely striated lamellae. There are 
usually two slender threads on the shoulder, one between the 
two strong ones in the middle of the whorl, and one or two at 
the anterior suture. Varices irregular, very foliaceous, raised 
into spinulose squamae on the spiral ridges ; there are six on 
the last whorl, but are about double in number on each of the 
succeeding whorls. 

Aperture ovate, outer lip smooth within ; canal much shorter- 
than the length of the aperture, slightly recurved. 

Length, 18 ; breadth, 9 ; length of aperture, 9*5. 

Localities. — Adelaide bore ; and Turritella clays, Aldinga 
Bay. 

26. Murex minutus, Johnston. Plate x., fig. 14. 
Mv^rex minutus, E. M. Johnston, Proc. Eoy. Soc, Tasmania^ 

for 1879, p. 32. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, with a moderately high gradated spire 
terminating in a mamillate apex of one and a half smooth 
rather high whorls. Whorls six, the anterior two and a half 
quadrately convex, the posterior ones becoming increasingly 
flatter. Last whorl sharply angled at the shoulder. Varices 
seven, elevated, stout, bluntly tuberculated at the shoulder ; the 
posterior area has no lirae, but there are six stout squarose 
spiral lirae on the anterior portion. On the penultimate whorl 
there are eleven stout oblique rib-like varices, crossed by three 
thick equidistant lirae, one on the angulation and one near to 
the anterior suture. 

Aperture quadrately-oval, abruptly contracted into a sinis- 
trally arched, slightly recurved canal, about half the length of 
the aperture ; outer lip thickened, obscurely dentate within. 

Length, 8'5 ; breadth, 4"d ; length of aperture and canal, 5. 

Locality. — Table Cape, Tasmania (JR,. M. Johnston !) . 

27. Murex crassiliratus, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 5. 
Shell similar to M. alveolatus, but the spiral lirae are thick^. 
of which there are ten on the last whorl ; the varices are more- 



108 

■ elevated, four on the last whorl, obliquely continuous from 
whorl to whorl with an intermediate one on eaeh of the fol- 
lowing whorls. 

Aperture oval, extending into a broad, open, nearly straight, 
slight]}^ recurved canal, which is about as long as the aperture; 
margin of outer lip crenulated. 

Length, 10 ; breadth, 5 ; length of aperture and canal, 6. 

Locality — Tipper beds at Muddy Creek {J. Bennant /) 

28. Murex alveolatus, 8j)ec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 12. 

Shell fusiform, spire moderately high of gradated whorls, 
terminating in a small blunt mamillate apex consisting of one 
and a half smooth whorls. 

Whorls five and a half ; those of the spire, excepting the 
apical ones, subquadrate, excavated at the suture. Varices 
squamose, narrow, except the last, which is moderately ex- 
jDanded, fonr on the last whorl, seven on the next two whorls. 

The ornament consists of equidistant lirse. Tessellated by 
distant laminae, squamosely elevated at the intersections. On 
the last whorl there are two lir?e on the posterior slope, thence 
to the base six stouter ones, with intervening threads. 

Aperture oval, lirate within, terminating in a short, re- 
curved open canal. 

Length, 8*5 ; breadth, 4"5 ; length of aperture and canal, 5. 

Localitij. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

This resembles a diminutive M. irregularis ; but apart from 
the difference in the number of varices, the canal is short and 
the transverse ornament more regular and closer. From young 
examples of M. irregularis it differs by its narrow lanceolate 
outline, short canal, smaller apex, and by its cancellated orna- 
ment. 

29. Murex tridentatus, spec, nov. Plate ii., fig. 2. 

Shell ovate of five and a half whorls, with a mamillate apex 
of one and a half small smooth whorls. Spire whorls ventricose, 
shouldered ; truncated on the periphery by two stout, almost 
contiguous lirae. 

Last whorl convex, ornamented w^ith rounded, depressed, 
spiral lirse, of which there are about six on the posterior slope, 
four stouter ones on the angulation, and ten on the basal area ; 
it has five varices, and is transversely striated with lamellag of 
growth. 

Varices squamosely laminar, obsoletely nodulous, five on the 
last whorl, and eight on the penultimate whorl. 

Aperture rotund ; outer lip thickened, with three stout 
tubercles within ; canal very short, sinistrally curved. 



109 

Length, 10 ; breadth, 6 ; length of aperture, 8-5 ; of canal,. 
2-5. 

Locality. — Turritella clays, Aldinga Bay. 

GrEirrs Teopho^-. 

STXOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

I. Shell small, elongate fusiform. 

Xuclear whorls almost unrolled, tip erect. 

Whorls angulated, transversely lamellate. 

1. T. polypJiyllus.. 
"Whorls angulated, plicate. 2. T. Irevicaiidatus.. 

Whorls ventricose, apical whorls gradated. 

3. T. torguatus. 
Nuclear whorls mamillate. 

Whorls transversely lamellate. 

Whorls convex ; apex turbinate. 

4. T. icosip}iyllu&.. 
Whorls gradated ; apex subcylindrical. 

5. T. hypsellus. 
Whorls transversely plicate. 

Aperture variced ; lir^e on penultimate whorl 
six, unequal. 6. T. ononotropis. 

jS'o marginal varix ; liras 10, equal. 

7. T. mancjelioides, 
II. Shell stout, oblong, purpuroid. 8. T. anceps, 

SPECIES EXCLUDED. 

T. succinctus, T. Woods is transferred to Perisiernia. 

1. Trophon polyphyllus, T. Woods. 

Troplion polypliyllia, T. Woods. Proc. Lin. Soc, K'.S.W.,, 
yol. iv., pi. ii., fig. 1, 1879. 

Shell elongate fusiform, almost turriculate, thin, with a pro- 
duced spire terminating in an acute apex composed of two and 
a half smooth rounded whorls, the extremity of which is erect. 

Spire whorls three, excluding the nuclear ones, medially 
angular, and ornamented by numerous elevated lamelliform 
costae (15 to 20 on the anterior whorl) which are raised into 
vaulted scales on the angulation of the whorl. On the penul- 
timate whorl there is usually a spiral thread midway between 
the keel and the anterior suture, and often one at the suture 
which imparts a quadrate outline to this whorl. 

The body whorl is roundly truncated in the middle, and is- 
encircled with three stout threads; the lamellose costse are 
continued on to the beak, the extremity of which is encircled, 
with two threads. 



110 

Aperture roundly quadriingular ; outer lip varicosely 
iliickeued aud expanded, sometimes tuberculated witliin. Canal 
short, mucli curved to the left and reverted. 

Length, 5"5 ; breadth, 2*5 ; length of aperture and canal, 2. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

2. Trophon brevicaudatus, spec. nov. Plate ix., fig. 9. 

Shell elongate, fusiform, almost tarriculate, stout, with a 
produced spire, terminating in a subacute apex of two and a half 
smooth rounded whorls. AVhorls below the apex, four, angu- 
larly curved in behind the anterior suture, and ornamented by 
narrow, angular, distant, subnodulose costse, about 10 to a 
^vhorl ; and by two strong lir?e at the angulation and a thread 
at the anterior suture. Last whorl bluntly angled, faintly 
spirally lirate on the posterior slope ; seven liras on the rest of 
the surface extending to the beak ; varicosely dilated behind 
the aperture ; base abruptly contracted into a short, broad, 
slightly oblique and reverted beak. Outer lip thin, six-den- 
ticulated within. 

Length, G ; breadth, 2 6 ; length of aperture and canal, 3. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

3. Trophon torquatus, spec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 2. 

Shell elongate, fusiform, witli a produced spire, terminating 
in an apex of two and a half or three smooth gradated, rapidly 
tapering whorls, the extremity of whicli is erect, ; a thin erect 
lamella encircles the carina of the apical whorls. Whorls, 
three or three and a half, excluding the nuclear whorls, ven- 
tricose and shouldered ; the earliest whorl with three spiral 
lirae on the anterior two-thirds, increasing to four on the 
penultimate, equidistant, of which the posterior one is not so 
stout as the rest. Last whorl ventricose, gradually attenuated 
in front, with about 10 encircling threads. On each whorl 
there are about 20 lamelliform costas, which produce square 
depressions by intercrossing witb the lirate, where they are 
slightly squamosely elevated ; on the body whorl, the costa? 
are continued on to the beak. Aperture variced ; canal as long 
as the aperture. 

Length, 8 ; breadth, 3 ; length of aperture aud canal, 4. 

Localities. — Turritella clays, Aldinga; and Adelaide bore. 

4. Trophon icosiphyllus, spec. nov. PI. ii., fig. 3. 

Shell elongate fusiform, with a mamillate apex of one and a 
half whorls. "Whorls four, excluding the embryonic ones, the 
two earlier whorls depressedly convex, costated ; the penulti- 
mate whorl convex ornamented with five spiral lir^e and about 
20 lamelliform costfe, whicli undulate as they pass over the 
lirfe and are sharply bent forward at the posterior suture. 



Ill 

Last whorl convex, gradually attenuated to tlie beak, with 
.•about 12 equidistant and equal encircling lirae, traversed by 
fimbriated lamellcT;. 

Aperture varicosely dilated ; minutely tuberculated within 
the outer lip ; canal shorter than the aperture. 

Length, 7; breadth, 3 ; length o£ aperture and canal, 3"75. 

Locality. — Adelaide bore. 

Among living species this little fossil has considerable 
;analogy with the European T. Barvicensis much more than to 
^ny Australasian species. 

5. Trophon hypsellus, spec. nov. PI. ii. fig. 1. 

Shell elongate-ovate with a high gradated spire terminating 
in an elongate apex consisting of four smooth tumid whorls, 
regularly but rapidly diminishing in size, with a minute papil- 
lary extremity ; whorls eight, those of the spire excluding the 
muclear ones, convexly angular, bicarinate anteriorly. Last 
whorl veutricose with a narrow sloping area posteriorly, 
abruptly contracted into a short beak. 

The spiral ornament consists on the spire whorls of two 
lirse ; on the last whorl of one slender lira on the posterior 
.slope, four stout lirae on the median portion, and four on the 
base. 

The trausverse ornament consists of about 16 lamelliform 
•costse to each whorl, which are raised into vaulted scales on the 
lirse, interstitial spaces between the costso coincidently striated. 
The outer lip is varicosely thickened and expanded, and there 
is usually a second variceal development near to the columella 
margin and rarely a third on the penultimate whorl. 

Aperture rhomboid, entire ; outer lip varicosely thickened, 
£ve-tuberculated within. Canal very short and stout, open 
much curved sinistrally and reverted. 

Length, 6 ; breadth, 3"5 ; length of canal and aperture, 3. 

Localities. — Turritella clays, Aldinga Bay ; and Adelaide 
bore (many examples). 

In this species an approach is made to the genus Triton, 
-through its two or three varices ; but in its regular spire and 
general resemblance to the cohabitant species of Trophon, it 
may be better placed congenerically therewith. Its long sub- 
cylindrical apex is a striking specific mark of distinction, apart 
from the peculiarity of its variceal development. 

6. Trophon monotropis, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 4. 
Shell rather thin, elongate conical, with a high spire ending 
in a blunt rounded apex of two smooth whorls. Whorls four 
•exclusive of the apical ones, convex or obscurely subquadrate ; 
the last slightly tumid, with a rounded contracted base pro- 
duced into a narrow sinistrally bent canal. 



112 

The transverse ornament consists of about 12 sliarj^ly- 
rounded costa^ on each whorl and interstitial threads and striie. 
On the body whorl the costsD are absent for some distance be- 
hind the aperture, and with the marginal varix are about seven 
in number. The spiral ornament consists of unequal threads, 
the more prominent of which rise into low blunt granulations 
in crossing the ribs; there are about five lirse on the penultimate 
w^horl, of which four are more j^rominent than the rest. There 
are no proper varices except the broadly dilated one which 
margins the aperture. 

Aperture oval, entire ; outer lip thin in front of varix, four or 
five dentate within ; inner lip thin, erect, smooth wdthin. Canal 
narrow, bent a little to the left and slightly reverted, nearly as 
long as the aperture, almost closed. 

Length, 9 ; breadth, 3'5 ; length of aperture and canal, 4*5. 

Locality. — Clayey sands with green grains, Adelaide bore. 
(Sixteen examples.) 

This species may not be a Troplion. The thin outer lip, not 
widely margined, removes it from Murex. 

7. Trophon mangelioides, spec. iiov. Plate x., fig. 11. 

Shell thin, ovately fusiform, with a high spire ending in a 
blunt mamillary apex of two smooth whorls. "Whorls fom% 
.exclusive of the apical ones, convex, but somewhat depressed 
round the upper part ; the last somewhat tumid, with a rounded 
attenuated base, produced into a rather wide, long, twisted 
canal. The transverse ornament consists of about 12 stout^ 
rounded, oblique costse on each w^horl ; and the spiral ornament 
of equal and equidistant thin, elevated ridges, which are slightly 
thickened on the transverse ribs ; there are about ten on the 
penultimate whorl, and those on the anterior part of the body 
whorl are broken up into granules. 

Aperture elongate-oval ; canal broad, twisted, and slightly 
reverted. 

Length, 7'5 ; breadth, 3*75 ; length of aperture and canal, 
4-5. 

Locality. — Gastropod-bed of the Eiver Murray Cliffs, near 
Morgan. 

8. Trophon anceps, spec. nov. Plate ix., fig. 6. 
Shell stout, oblong, biconicai, with a high, subgradated spire. 
"Whorls not less than five, posteriorly angulated and narrowly 
bicarinate in front ; last whorl convex, with about 12 rounded 
costa, encircled with about six principal lira*, which are cancel- 
lated with imbricating lamellae. Aperture oval ; outer lip 
regularly arched, its margin thin and wavy ; canal short, some- 
what compressed. 



113 

Length (incomplete), 19; breadth, 11; length of aperture 
and canal, 12. 

Locality. — " Oyster banks," Aldinga Bay. 

This purpuroid fossil is placed under Troplion, because of its 
close resemblance to the living Purpura Flindersi, Ads. and 
Angas, which Tryon has removed to TropJion, of which it has 
the characteristic operculum. From T. Flindersi it is distin- 
guished by its elongate shape and rounded body whorl. 

FAMILY PUF^^UKACEA. 

GrEISTS EaPAI^A. 
1. Rapana aculeate, spec. nov. Plate ii., fig. 8. 

Shell pyriformly ovate, thick ; whorls eight, spire mode- 
rately elevated, terminating in an obtuse apex consisting of 
two smooth globose whorls. 

Whorls angularly convex, anteriorly truncated and bicari- 
nated ; last whorl ventricose, roundly and narrowly truncated 
on the periphery, abruptly attenuated into a short broad beak. 

The transverse ornament consists of plications and closely- 
set appressed lamellae. The number of costse on the body 
whorl is seven, on the median portion of which they are high 
and narrow, but evanescent on the base of whorl, and ante- 
riorly they are ill-defined angular ridges. There are usually 
eight plications on each of the spire whorls (excluding the 
apical ones) . The plications are raised into vaulted scales on 
the posterior angulation, and in young shells the scales are 
elongated, reverted, hollow spines. 

The spiral ornament consists on the spire whorls of slender 
threads much obscured by the transverse lamellae ; but a few 
distant lirie are conspicuous on the medial portion of the body 
whorl . Aperture ovate, peristome continuous ; outer lip some- 
what flatly expanded anteriorly, lirately ridged within anterior 
to the carination of the whorl; inner lip erect, concave medially. 
Umbilical fissure margined by an elevated rounded keel. 

Immature shells of about 30 millimetres are exceedingly 
like Murex Eyrei, and are imperforate ; they may be distin- 
guished by the larger pullus, the higher sloping posterior area 
of the whorls, and the few stouter lirse on the anterior part of 
the body whorl. 

Length, 50; breadth, 34; length and breadth of aperture, 21 
and 14; length of canal, 12. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point and lower beds 
at Muddv Creek, Victoria. 



114 

Genus Purpura. 
1. Purpura (Trochia) abjecta, spec. nov. Plate xii., fig. 8. 

Shell stout, witli a short spire and large ventricose body 
whorl, which is ornamented with linear encircling furrows, 
either crowded or irregularly disposed, or with narrow flat 
sulci as wide or wider than the flat lirae ; at the base the linear 
furrows are increasingly distant. There are also obsolete 
transverse plications and lamellae of growth. The aperture is 
large and oval, with a deep short oblique groove at the front ; 
the outer lip is simple, but stoutly lirate wdthin ; columella 
broadly and deeply patulous. Height of body whorl, 35 ; 
breadth, 26 ; height of aperture, 27. 

Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek (J". Dennant!). 

The material available for description is not only limited, 
but is imperfect; though, nevertheless, indicating a species 
allied to P. fextiliosa, differing from it especially by the fine 
revolving lirse. The species is of interest as the sole repre- 
sentative of the genus in the older tertiary strata of Australia. 

Genus Yitularia. 
1. Vitularia curtansata, S2}ec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 4. 

Shell rather thin, biconical, ventricose, oval. Whorls five, 
rather convex, impressed at the suture. Last whorl ventricose, 
gradually attenuated anteriorly into a short blunt canal. 

Spire whorls ornamented with about six stout, rounded, 
scaly, spiral ribs, that next but one to the anterior suture a 
little stouter than the rest, and producing a slight angulation 
of the whorl ; the alternating furrows are deep, narrower than 
the ribs. The transverse ornament consists of about 10 incon- 
spicuous plications. Body whorl with about 20 unequal spiral 
ribs. 

Aperture pyriform, straight ; peristome thinly continuous ; 
inner lip patulous, slightly arched to the origin of the straight 
pillar, with a thin edge parting the aperture from the umbili- 
cal fissure ; outer lip smooth within. Canal very short, wide, 
and truncated. 

Length, 12 ; breadth, 8 : length of aperture and canal, 7. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

Genus Eicinula. 

1. Ricinula subreticulata, spec. nov. Plate xii., fig. 7. 

Shell small, acutely ovate, biconical, rather thick. Whorls 

:five, those of the spire nearly flat, slightly angular, and nodu- 

late over the anterior suture ; last whorl nodosely cariuated, 

and somewhat narrowly truncated in the middle. 



115 

The ornament consists of stout spiral threads, narrower than 
ihe flat intervening sulcations, and of transverse stout stride, 
which form shallow pitted square interstices by the intercross- 
ing of the lirae. 

The number of nodulations on the body whorl is six, increas- 
ing to eight on the penultimate. The spiral lirae on the pos- 
terior slope of the body whorl are four or five in number, and 
about ten anteriorly. 

Aperture large, oval ; outer lip externally simple and sub- 
angulated medially, internally with seven stout lirae ; canal 
very short, wide, and truncated. 

Length, 9-5 ; breadth, 6 ; length of aperture and canal, 5. 

Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek. 

The living analogue of this species is Purpura reticulata., 
Quoy and G-aimard, inhabiting Southern Australia, from which 
it differs by the stronger spiral costulation, more open cancel- 
lation, stouter tubercles, by the greater breadth of the last 
whorl, which is somewhat abruptly contracted into the beak, 
and consequently by the more angulated aperture. In the 
living species the last whorl gradually tapers anteriorly, and 
the internal lirse on the outer lip are not so strongly developed 
as in the fossil. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED. 

E. purpuroides, Johnston, is transferred to Pisania. 

FAMILY TEITONID^. 

GrENUS EaI^ELLA. 

1. Ranella Prattii, T. Woods. Plate vi., fig. 6. 

Triton Prattii, T. Woods, Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., vol. iii., 
p. 223, t. 21, f. 15, 1878. 

Shell ovate, conical, very contracted at the base into a short, 
recurved, somewhat twisted snout. Apex obtuse, consisting of 
two and a half polished, rounded, rapidly-increasing whorls. 
"Whorls six, exclusive of the embryonic whorls, compressed, 
ventricose, rounded, with a deep narrow undulated suture, of 
regular increase ; but the last is disproportionately large, its 
base is rounded but contracted, and a littld flattened towards 
the beak. Varices in two rows, one on each side, slightly im- 
bricating in each row, almost continuous and axial, convex, 
compressed, and elevated. Posterior whorls tessellated by 
transverse costulae and spiral lirae ; on the anterior whorls the 
inter variceal transverse plications are gradually reduced in 
number, and finally to four. On the body whorl the sjDiral 
ridges are six in number, equal and equidistant, with five or 
more flat threads in the interspaces, cancellated by transverse . 
raised lines. 



116 

Aperture oval, ratlier small, perpendicular ; peristome con- 
tinuous ; outer lip, its nearly semicircular curve angulated by 
the projection of the six stouter lira? ; inner lip slightly but 
narrowly spreading, with two or three inconspicuous callosities 
near its junction with the pillar. 

Length, 29 ; breadth within the varices, 20 ; length of aper- 
ture 9, of canal 7. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek ; blue clays at 
Schnapper Point ; and " Gastropod bed" of the Eiver Murray 
Cliffs, near Morgan. 

Triton Prattii was founded on immature specimens of what 
proves to be a Itanella, belonging to the subgenus Argohuccinum, 
characterised by an elevated spire, short beak, and the absence 
of a posterior canal ; and I have thought it needful to des- 
cribe and figure an adult example. The species is related to 
B. hituhercularis, Lamarck, of the ludo-Pacific region, from 
which it differs by being multicostated and not bi- or tritu- 
berculated between the Yarices. 

Genus Teito:^-. 
srK"OPSis of species. 
I. Body whorl with a sharp keel, crenately- serrated on the 
margin. 

Ovate ; body whorl with an anterior row of serratures. 
Intervariceal serratures, 6 ; posterior slope cancellated. 

1. T. Abbotti. 
Intervariceal serrp.tures, 6 ; posterior slope smooth. 

2. T. radialis. 
Ovate ; body whorl without a second row of serratures. 

Spire whorls flat or slightly imbricating at the suture ; 

lira? smooth. 3. T. gibbus. 

Spire whorls with a narrow anterior slope ; lirae granu- 

lose. 4. T. cyphus. 

Elongate ; body whorl with an anterior row of serratures, 

intervariceal serratures 6, blunt. 5. T. Woodsii. 

Elongate ; body whorl without a second row of serratures, 

intervariceal serratures 5, cuneate. 6. T. textilis. 

II. Body whorl subquadrate, nodulate on the keels ; shell 
ovately fusiform. 

Three rows of tubercles ; posterior rows with slender 

oblique costie. 7. T. intercostalis. 

Two rows of tubercles ; seven intervariceal tubercles on 

the posterior angulation. 8. T. annectans. 

Tubercles of the two rows confluent, four between the 

varices. 9. T. armatus. 



117 

III. Body wliorl convex, without costae, nodulate on the 

periphery. 

Shell ovate, one row of nodulations, moderately ventri- 

cose ; lirae flat, granular. 10. T. ovoideus. 

Gibbous ; lirae elevated, undulous. 11. T. tumulosus. 

Shell ovately fusiform, three rows of nodulations on 

body whorl. 12. T. tortirostris. 

Shell elongate-fusiform, feebly angled and nodulate at 

the periphery. 13. T. ^rotensus. 

lY. Body whorl convex, costated. 

Shell elongate-fusiform, six intervariceal costulations. 

14. T. crihrosus. 

Shell elongate-ovate, five or six stout, high, intervariceal 
costae. 15. T. crassicostatus. 

Shell subturreted. 

Intervariceal costellje, 10 ; primary lirae on last 
whorl, G. 16. T. oligostirus. 

Intervariceal costellae, 15 ; lir^e, 16. 

17. T. gemmulatus. 
Intervariceal costae, 10 ; primary lirae, 4. 

18. T. Quoi/i. 
Intervariceal costae, 6 ; lirae, 4. 

19. T. sexcostatus. 

SPECIES EXCLrnED. 

T. Prattii, T. Woods, is transferred to Banella. 

T. Tasmanica, R. M. Johnston, is transferred to 'Epidromus . 

1. Triton Abbotti, T. Woods. 

T. Ahhotti, Tenison Woods, Proc. Eoy. Soc, Tasm., for 1874, 
t. 1, f. 8, p. 24. 

Shell elongately-ovate ; spire high, slightly distorted, ter- 
minating in a subcylindrical obtuse apex, consisting of four and 
a half polished, rounded, faintly lirate, and transversely 
striated whorls. "Whorls five and a half, excluding the nuclear 
whorls, carinated and tuberculated on the keel ; spirally lirate 
and transversely distantly striated ,• the lirae obscurely flatly 
granulated, unequal. 

Varices at about four-fifths of a whorl, tuberculated at the 
carination. 

Body whorl triangulated, the posterior carination with six 
large wedge-shaped intervariceal tubercles, the anterior angu- 
lation with about five small intervariceal tubercles, becoming 
smaller and finally obsolete towards the marginal varix. 

Aperture ovate; outer lip denticulated within; inner lip 
thin, reflected over" the columella, with small transverse corru- 
gations. Canal not quite so long as the aperture; very much 
reverted. 



118 

Length, 55 ; breadth, 30 ; length of aperture and canal, 29. 
Locality. — Table Cape (SbS«r^ Museum! and R. M. Johnston ly 

2. Triton radialis, spec. nov. Plate v. fig., 8. 

Shell acutely ovate, with a high, sloping, distorted spire- 
terminating in an acute apex, consisting o£ two polished 
whorls, the anterior one slightly shouldered, or bicarinate, 
the posterior whorl ends in a blunt, short, erect, lateral point. 
"Whorls five, excluding the nuclear whorls, flat, angulated over 
the anterior suture ; the carination broadly and deeply crenate- 
dentate. The surface ornamented with spiral threads, increas- 
ing from six on the posterior slope of the earliest whorl to 
about 30 on that of the body whorl, but at the same time they 
gradually diminish in strength, until they are barely visible- 
to the unaided eye. Base of the body whorl similarly sculp- 
tured, but with two strong lir?e, and three or four on the beak. 

Avarices at about four-fifths of a whorl, deeply and broadly 
crenately-serrated at the carination. There are four or five 
large intervariceal serratures on the posterior carination, and 
three smaller ones on the anterior carina of the body whorl, 
becoming obsolete at half the length between the varices. 
Aperture ovate ; outer lip lirate within ; inner lip thin, erect, 
lirate within , beak shorter than the aperture, abruptly bent to 
ehe right, and reyerted. 

Length, 40 ; breadth, 28 ; length of aperture and canal, 24. 

Localitij. — " G-astropod-bed " of the Eiver Murray cliffs,. 
near Morgan. 

This Murray fossil might at the first glance be taken for 
T. Abbotti, but it has fewer and larger tubercles, which produce 
a greater distortion of the spire, whilst the posterior slope is 
much broader and very feebly lirate and not cancellate on the 
last whorl, which is moreover not at all or but feebly biangu- 
lated ; the shell is proportionately wider, the canal shorter, 
and the apex is very different. 

3. Triton gibbus, spec. nov. Plate v., fig. 9. 

Shell biconical, with a short distorted spire of flat whorls, 
imbricating and crenately-dentate at the suture. Last whorl 
bisected by a very high, sharp, crenately-dentate keel, with a 
precipitous anterior slope, and the base contracted into a 
broad, twisted, and reverted beak. 

"W^horls five (excluding two smooth apical ones ending in a 
laterally-elevated, obliquely-truncated point), with a varix at 
about four-fifths of a whorl, much depressed or almost concave 
for the anterior third of each intervariceal space. Intervari- 
ceal crenulations five, confined to the posterior two-thirds of 



119 

the space, whilst the anterior one-third is encircled with a 
series of small bifid granulations. 

The ornament consists of flexuous slender spiral threads, 
crossed by close fine striae. The encircling threads are alter- 
nately large and small, those on the base of the last whorl, 
and especially towards the marginal varix, are broken up into 
elongate granules. Aperture rhomboid ; outer lip lirate den- 
tate within ; inner lip thinly spread over the columella, which 
shows a strong curved fold at its juQction with the canal. 

Length, 35 ; breadth, 25 ; height of aperture, 14 ; length of 
canal, 10. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; and lower beds 
at Muddy Creek. 

This remarkable gibbous species has the same general 
characters of T. textilis, from which it differs in shape, more 
trochiform spire, shorter canal. 

4. Triton cyphus, spec. nov. Plate v., fig. 11. 

This is another gibbous species, differing from T. gihlus by 
its subscalar spire- whorls and its stout, broad, crenately-granu- 
iated, spiral lirsD. On the base of the last whorl the principal 
lirae are about eight in number, the posterior one of which is a 
little stronger than the rest, and have two, three, or four 
slender threads in the interspaces. There is no columella 
fold as in T. gibhiis. 

Length, 39 ; breadth, 25 ; height of aperture, 16 ; length of 
canal, 8. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek; blue clays at 
Schnapper Point. 

5. Triton 'Woodsii, Tate. Plate v., fig. 4 ; Vab. pi. v., fig. 6. 

T. Woochii, Tate, Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., vol. lY., p. 15 ; 
t. 3, f . 1-2 ; 1879. 

Elongate fusiform, with a much produced conical spire ; 
apex acute of two and a half whorls, the anterior one angular, 
the next rounded and very narrow, terminating in an acute 
curved lateral point. "Whorls six, excluding the apical ones, 
sharply angulated medially, but rather flatly depressed behind 
each varix ; keel with six bluntish tubercles between the 
varices. Varices rather broad, convex axially, without tuber- 
cles, ornamented as the rest of the surface, situated at about 
four-fifths of a whorl. 

Last whorl somewhat tumid, biangulated ; the anterior keel 
with six rounded small tubercles, which become obsolete to- 
wards the marginal varix. 

Surface ornamented with numerous slender spiral threads, 
for the most part, equal and equidistant ; cancellated by close, 



120 

fine, raised lines. There are about 20 lirjc on the posterior 
slope of the last whorl, of which one median and one or two 
near the suture are stouter than the rest, and irregularly 
granulose ; the anterior part is similarly ornamented. 

Aperture quadrately oval ; outer lip tuberculate within : 
inner lip erect, with a tubercle at the poiut of the pillar, to 
which is opposed a stout tubercle on the outer lip ; canal long, 
much recurved. 

Length, 37 ; breadth, 17 ; length of aperture 9, of canal 12. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

T. Woodsii was founded on an immature example, which does 
not so characteristically represent the species as the adult 
specimen which is here figured. 

Var. — The specimens from the Eiver Murray Cliffs and 
Schnapper Point are much larger, and the lirae usually more 
granulated. Length 50, breadth 26, length of aperture 18. 

6. Triton textilis, spec. nov. Plate v., fig, 12. 

Elongate-fusiform, with a much produced conical spire ; apex 
acute of three rounded lirate whorls, ending in an acute 
upward-curved point. 

Whorls six, excluding the embryonic ones, with a high ante- 
median serrate-dentate carination ; but much depressed behind 
each varix, and with the sudden enlargement in front of it 
there is produced considerable distortion of the spire. Last 
whorl medially angulated, with an alniost precipitous slope 
anteriorly. 

Surface ornamented with numerous (about 30 on the pos- 
terior slope of last whorl) flat, equal, spiral threads, with a 
little wider interspaces, cancellated by close, fine, raised lines. 

Varices rather broad, concave axially, rather acute, without 
tubercles, and ornamented as the rest of the surface, situated 
at about four-fifths of a who id. The inter var iceal nodulations 
vary from six to eight, decreasing in size anteriorly. 

Aperture oval ; outer lip with a sharp, minutely-wrinkled 
margin, with an inconspicuous dentate, with ridge within, 
abruptly terminating at the canal ; inner lip erect, with a few 
corrugations anteriorly, and a small tubercle at the point of 
the pillar. Canal long, much recurved. 

Length, 37 ; breadth, 20 ; length of aperture and canal, 22. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; and lower beds 
at Muddy Creek. 

This species very much resembles T. Woodsii, but is more 
distorted, the whorls more angularly elevated, by the absence 
of an anterior carination on the body whorl, and by the more 
numerous spiral lir^. 



121 

7. Triton intercostalis, spec. nov. PI. ix., fig. 5. 

Shell elongate-ovate; whorls, five (apex unknown), the 
•earlier ones, convex, with five principal granulose lirse, finely 
reticulated in the furrows ; the anterior ones bicarinated and 
tuberculated and reticulated all over. 

Last whorl roundly truncated medially, and abruptly 
attenuated into a stout, long, twisted beak ; the whole surface 
^closely reticulated by transverse raised lines and stronger 
spiral lirae. The medial part is encircled with three equi- 
distant, tuberculated keels ; the posterior one is the stoutest, 
a.nd the anterior one, which is the weakest, is in an alignment 
with the posterior angle of the aperture. The tubercles of 
the two posterior ones are confluent, and are continued back- 
ward as a narrow arched costulation to the suture ; the inter- 
costal space is occupied by two similar costulations, ending 
anteriorly at a strong subnodulated thread which bisects the 
posterior slope. The basal part of the last whorl has two 
equi-distant, strong, granular liree. 

Varices narrow, rather broadly expanded, crenulated on the 
margin, at three-fifths of a whorl. The inter-variceal nodula- 
tions are seven in number on the two posterior rows, and ten 
■on the anterior row. 

Length, 43 ; breadth, 28 ; length of aperture, 17 ; of canal, 
10. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek {J. Dennant !) 

This species is very distinct through its obliquely costated 
posterior slope and the unusually narrow intervariceal areas. 

8. Triton annectans, spec. nov. PI. v., fig. 3. 

Shell resembling T. cyplius with the whorls medially sub- 
angular, spire less distorted and higher, last whorl subquad- 
rate, encircled with two rows of nodulations. The nodulations 
on the posterior angulation are large, seven on each inter- 
variceal space, but diminishing in size anteriorly ; the eleven 
nodulations on the anterior angulation are small, though con- 
spicuous, equal sized and regular disposed. Posterior slope of 
last whorl with about twelve irregular encircling lirse, the 
larger ones more or less granulose. 

Length, 38 ; breadth, 21 ; length of aperture, 14i"5 : of canal, 
9-5. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

9. Triton armatus, spec. nov. Plate v., fig. 3. 
Ovate-elongate; whorls five and a half (apex not known), 

carinated and acutely nodulose, equally spirally lirate ; lirgs 
thin, depressed, about ten on the posterior slope and five on the 
front of the penultimate whorl. Varices broad, high, and 
*spinosely nodulate on the carination. 



122 

Last whorl ventricose, narrowly truncated and bicarinated 
at the periphery, with four intervariceal nodulations, those of 
the anterior row confluent w^ith the corresponding ones behind, 
and continued backward as oblique, broad undulations, becom- 
ing evanescent before reaching the suture. Base with a strong 
encircling thread, equidistant with the two carinations. 

Aperture oval ; outer lin smooth within, flatly and narrowly 
expanded, continuous with the smooth inner lip which is 
broadly reflected over the columella ; aperture contracted in 
front by a columella fold, and a stout ridge opposed to it on 
the outer lip. Beak with a very broad depressed base, twisted 
and reverted. 

Length, 41 ; breadth, 24 ; length of aperture, 13 ; of canal, 
12. 

Locality. — In a well sinking in the Murray Desert. 

This species is not much unlike T. annectans, but differs by the- 
shape and fewness of the intervariceal nodulations. 

10. Triton ovoideus, spec. nov. Plate ix., fig. 4. 

Shell ovate, with a short, broad, conical spire ; apex obtuse ? 
Whorls four (incomplete), rounded, slightly angled at the 
anterior suture, and furnished at the angulation with six small 
rounded intervariceal nodulations ; encircled throughout with 
flattened beaded ridges, alternating with very narrow simple 
threads. Varices six, at a^bout four-fifths of a whorl, rounded, 
convex axially, and ornamented as the rest of the surface. 

Columella arched, furnished with an obliquely axial, elon- 
gate callosity at the posterior angle, and with tooth-like ridges 
at the front. 

Canal very short, much bent to the right, and slightly re- 
verted. Outer lip thickened, with seven strong denticulations 
within, the anterior one much larger than the rest. 

Length, 23 (estimated, 24" 5) ; breadth, 14; length of aper- 
ture and canal, 14. 

Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek (J". Bennant l) . 

A species exceedingly like T. Bassi, Angas, but conspicuously 
distinct by its broader and fewer (about half the number) lirae, 
and consequently by the fewer and stouter denticulations on the 
outer lip; moreover, the spire w^horls are more angular, the 
nodulations smaller ; the aperture is oblique, and the canal 
more twisted. 

11. Triton tumulosus, spec. nov. Plate v., fig. 2. 

Shell ovately conical, with a moderately high distorted spire 

of subgradated w^horls. Apex of two polished whorls ; the- 

anterior one is high, bicarinated, and transversely striated ;, 

the posterior one, encircling a shallow concavity, at first sud- 



123 

denly narrowed, "then somewhat depressedly dilated, and ending: 
in a blunt appressed point. 

Whorls five, excluding the embryonic ones, convex, rather- 
tumid in front of and depressed behind each varix; ornamented 
with a median row of stout granulations, anterior to which are 
three very broad, rounded, nodately undulose encircling ridges,, 
and two similar ones at the front, with a stout thread in each 
interspace ; the whole surface traversed by close-set striae. 

Last whorl ventricose, with numerous lirsB alternately stout 
and slender on the anterior portion, the primary lirae with 
distant, elongate, depressed granules. 

Varices at four-fifths of a whorl crenulated by the lirae ;, 
intervariceal nodulations seven. 

Aperture ovate ; outer ]ip lirate ; inner lip corrugated, 
slightly angulated in front ; canal of moderate length,* shorter 
than the aperture, oblique, and strongly reverted. 

Length, 42; breadth, 24; length of aperture, 15; of canal, 10. 

Localities. — Lower beds, Muddy Creek; blue clays, Schnapper 
Point. 

T. tumiilosus has a general resemblance to T. cypJius, but 
differs in shape of whorls and in the spiral ornament. Among 
living species it has some affinity with T. suhdistortus, from 
which it differs by its shorter spire, long canal, and the gross 
spiral sculpture. 

12. Triton tortirostris, spec. nov. Plate v., fig. 7- 

T. minimum, Tenison Woods, Proc. Eoy. Soc, Tasm., for 
1870, p. 107 (non Hutton). 

Shell ovate, with a high conical distorted spire ; apex 
globose of four rounded whorls, ending in a very small de- 
pressed tip. The anterior whorl is obtusely angled above 
and medially, and is transversely striated. 

Whorls six, excluding the apical ones, rounded, obscurely 
angulated and tuberculated ; last whorl rather tumid, abruptly 
contracted at the base into a broad, short, dextrally bent and 
reverted beak. The last whorl in young specimens is narrowly 
truncated on the periphery. 

Surface ornamented with unequal, depressed, spiral lirae, 
broken up into elongate granules and transverse striae ; there 
are from six to eight lirae on the posterior slope of the spire- 
whorls. Varices rather broad, convex axially, without tuber- 
cles, the lirae which pass over them are granulated at the 
intercrossing by strong transverse threads ; situated about 
four-fifths of a whorl. 

The periphery between the varices on the last whorl with a 

*The canal of the figured specimen is incomplete. 



124 

TOW of five trifid nodulations ; the anterior row, whicli is in an 
aligament with the posterior angulation of the aperture, is 
weaker and separated by a wider interspace than that which 
intervenes between the two equal and posterior ones ; base 
with two inequidistant strong subnodulous lirae. 

Aperture oval, oblique ; outer lip with a sharp erect margin, 
■denticulate within ; inner lip broadly reflected on the colum- 
ella, smooth, with an oblique anterior fold and bearing three 
denticles at the end. 

Length, 49 ; breadth, 27"5 ; length of aperture, 17 ; of canal, 
11. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; in the lower 
beds at Muddy Creek ; and gastropod-bed of the Eiver Murray- 
cliffs, near Morgan ; Table Cape \R. 31. Johnston /) 

This species though partaking somewhat of the general form 
of T. Woodsii is readily separable by its rounded apex, trifid 
nodulations, in which latter character it approaches T. inter- 
costalis, but is otherwise very different. 

T. minimum, Tenison Woods, was established on a specimen 
of 11 mills, long. This I have had under observation, as also 
another example of IS mills, in length. Both agree perfectly 
with the young of corresponding size of T. tortirostris. As 
the specific name had already been employed by Ilutton in 
1873 for a dissimilar Nev\' Zealand fossil, I have imposed a new 
designation. 

I cannot concur with the opinion of Prof. Hutton, Proc. 
Lin, Soc, N-S-W., p. 481, 1886, that this species, Murray- 
examples of which under the M.S. name of T. pseudospengleri 
had been examined by him, is the same as T. minimus, Hutton, 
of which I have before me authentic specimens. 

13. Triton protensus, spec. nov. Plate v., fig. 10. 

Shell turriculate-f usif orm ; apex obtuse, of about two narrow 
smooth whorls, of which the posterior one at first overhangs 
the other, thence rapidly attenuated to a small incurved de- 
pressed point. Whorls five, excluding embryonic ones ; the 
earlier ones flatly convex ; the last one and a half whorls 
feebly augulated medially, and there feebly nodulated. 

The ornament consists of flat narrow spiral threads, with 
"wider interspaces, cancellated by moderate closed slender 
threads, producing on the earlier whorls minute granulations at 
the intersection. Varices at about four-fifths of the whorl, 
broad, elevated, ornamented as rest of the surface ; the inter- 
Tariceal nodulations five in number. Outer lip feebly denticu- 
lated within ; base of the columella with a few corrugations ; 
canal as long as aperture, reverted. 

Length, 29 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture and canal, 16. 



125 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

This species is more lanceolate tlian T. Wbodsii, with 
convex whorls ; though having the same form of ornament, it 
has the anterior convexity of the last whorl uninterrupted, and 
the nuclear whorls are different. 

14. Triton cribrosus, spec. nov. Plate v., fig. 5. 

Shell elongate-fusiform, with a very high, gradually attenu- 
ated spire of eight gradated whorls, terminating in an apex of 
two an a half rounded whorls, with a very small mamillate tip, 
the anterior whorl globose and finely spirally lirate. 

Spire whorls, excepting nuclear ones, convex, narrowly trun- 
cated at the periphery by two stout fiat ridges, and the pos- 
terior slope broader and less abrupt than the anterior slope ; 
a moderately strong post-medial ridge encircles the posterior 
slope, and there is a similar one at the anterior suture. The 
concave interspaces are encircled each with two or thre& 
similar but smaller threads. The whole surface crossed by 
thin, six or seven, intervariceal costulations which are knotted 
at the junctions with the lirse, and distantly transversely 
striated. 

Varices at about four-fifths of a whorl, compressed, rather 
high, with four broad crenate-serratures. 

Last whorl quadrately convex, somewhat rapidly attenuated 
into a long, slightly curved and reverted beak ; feebly costu- 
lated on the base. Outer lip sulcated within ; inner lip thinly 
and narrowly adpressed over the columella ; columella slightly 
arched, with an oblique ridge terminating at the point of the 
pillar. Canal as long as the aperture, rather narrow, slightly 
bent to the right, and reverted. 

Length, 34 ; breadth, 15 ; length of aperture and canal, IS'5. 

Localiti/. — Clayey green-sands, Adelaide bore. 

15. Triton crassicostatus, spec. nov. PI. xi., fig. 4. 

Shell elongate-ovate, with a moderately high regular spire 
of eight gradated whorls, ending in a mamillate apex of about 
four rounded smooth whorls, with the tip very small and 
slightly exsert. 

Spire w^horls (excepting nuclear ones) of regular rapid in- 
crease, slightly concave at the shoulder, angulated at the keel, 
with a very slight contraction towards the anterior suture. 
Ornamented with about ten equidistant flatly rounded liras ; 
the intervening much broader furrows closely and sharply 
transversely striated. The transverse ornament consists of 
six intervariceal costje, which are raised into blunt serratures 
on the keel ; the varices are compressed, elevated, crenulated 
on the margin, situated at two-thirds of a w^horl. 



126 

Last whorl convexly quadrate, very mucli contracted at the 
"tase ; with five intervariceal costae, thick and high at the 
periphery, evanescent on the base ; base with two prominent 
equidistant lircT, and intervening th^'eads. The lirae on the last 
whorl are more or less granulated, especially towards the 
marginal varix and base. 

Aperture sub-rotund; peristome continuous; the almost 
semicircular sharp outer lip slightly interrupted by the pro- 
jection of the four principal lir?e, obscurely denticulated ; 
inner lip erect, with a sharply twisted columella plait at the 
base. Canal incomplete, apparently sharply bent and re- 
verted. 

Length, excluding canal, 24; breadth, 15"5 ; length of aper- 
i;ure, 9. 

Locality. — Table Cape, Tasmania {R. HI. Johnston !) 

This species has some resemblance to the young of T. 8peng- 
leri, but the whorls are more angulated, and the transverse 
ornament is different, 

16. Triton oligostirus, spec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 7. 

Shell elongate-oval ; apex mamillate of two and a half small 
Tounded whorls, the tip depressed. Whorls eight, convex, with 
six principal encircling lira), feebly costated transversely (ten 
between the varices); the intercostal spaces are latticed by the 
intercrossing of spiral threads and stout, distant, elevated 
stri^ ; the cost?e are feebly granule se, but more conspicuously 
•on the two median and on the posterior of the principal lirse. 

Last whorl ventricose, with a rounded base ; spirally lirate, 
and tessellated all over. The cost?e are slender, arched, and do 
not extend on the base, feebly nodulo-granulate ; base with two 
or three principal lirse, which are broken up into elongate, flat 
granules. 

Outer lip toothed ; columella denticulated at the front. 

Length, 17"5 ; breadth, 9. 

Localities. — Adelaide bore ; and Turritella-clays, Aldinga 
:Bay. 

This is another species of the Quoyi-group, from which it is 
distinguished by the numerous spiral lirae, slender cost^e, and 
tessellated ornament. 

17. Triton gemmulatus, spec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 8. 
Shell turriculate, with a distorted spire of seven convex 
whorls, ending in a large blunt apex of two and a half smooth 
whorls, with a tip very small and rather depressed. Spire 
whorls (excepting the apical ones) irregularly convex, being 
ventricose in front of, and nearly flat behind, each varix ; orna- 
mented with about 16 unequal linp, of which there are two 



127 

prominent ones on the periphery, crossed by about 15 faint 
intervariceal costulations which bear bead-like granulations at 
the intersections ; the intercostal spaces distantly transversely 
striated. 

Varices eight, at intervals o£ about four-fifths of a whorl, 
stout, broad, crossed by the lirag, and axially striated. 

Last whorl convex, with a rounded base contracted into a 
short twisted beak ; ornamented same as that of the spire, ex- 
cept that the transverse striations cut up the surface of the 
lirse into small granulations. 

Aperture subrotund, entire ; outer lip with an acute crenu- 
lated margin, lirate within ; inner lip reflected, smooth, with 
an oblique fold at the front. 

Length, 13 ; breadth, 6 ; length of aperture, 4 ; of canal, 2. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

This fossil belongs to a group typified by the recent T. Quoyi, 
Eeeve, but it is more slender, has a larger apex, finer ornament, 
longer canal, and a smooth inner lip. 

18. Triton Quoyi, Reeve. 

T. Quoyi, Beeve ; monograph of Triton 

This species, so common on the southern shores of Australia, 
is known to me as a fossil by several specimens from the upper 
beds of the Muddy Creek section 

19. Triton sexcostatus, spec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 9. 

Turriculate ; whorls nine, ending in a small obtuse apex of 
two rounded whorls ; spire whorls convex, the earlier ones sub- 
quadrate, ornamented with four spiral ribs, acutely nodulated 
by the intercrossing of transverse costae, of which there are 
six between the varices. Outer lip prominently toothed ; 
columella with three rounded tubercles. 

Length, 21 ; breadth, 95, 

Locality. — Oyster banks at Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay. 

This fossil closely resembles T. Qitoyi, from which it is con- 
spicuously different by its larger, fewer, and more distant 
intervariceal costge, which number in the recent species from 
10 to 11, whilst there are invariably six on the fossil. 

Geis'tjs Epideomus. 

synopsis of species. 
Whorls equally attenuated in front and behind. 

Surface granulated all over by the intersections of equal 
and equidistant lirae (12) and cost?e. 

1. E. teiiuicostatus. 



128 

Lirae 14, rather unequal, closer together than the costao ;. 
nodular-granulose on the larger lirae. 

2. E. nodulatus. 

Liras six ; costae wide apart ; granulose ; apex hemi- 
spheric. 3. E. Tasmanicus. 

Costae simple, interstices spirally striated. 

4. E. citharellus; 
Surface cancellated, but not granulated. 

5. E. leptoslceles. 
Whorls shouldered, especially the earlier ones. 

Intercostal spaces rugosely striated ; apex large, hemi- 
spheric. 6. E. iexturatus. 

Intercostal spaces microscopically striated ; apex sub- 
cylindrical. 7. E. turritus. 

1. Epidromus tenuicostatus, T. -Woods. Plate vi., fig. 12. 

I'isania tenuicostata, Tenisou- Woods, Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W.,. 
Tol. iii., p. 224, t. 20, f . 6, 1878. 

Shell elongate-fusiform ; whorls eight, convex ; nuclear 
whorls two, smooth, shining, ending in a very small suberect 
papillary tip ; the third or fourth whorls shining, ornamented 
with slightly ilexuous crowded transverse ribs ; the rest of the 
whorls cancellated by equal and equidistant transverse and 
spiral ribs, stoutly granulose at the intersections. About 40 
transverse ribs on the last whorl, and about 12 spiral ribs on 
the penultimate whorl. 

Varices eight, somewhat irregularly disposed, broad, crenu- 
lated on the margin. 

Aperture narrowly oblong ; canal very short, slightly twisted 
and reverted ; outer lip dentate lirate within ; inner lip re- 
flected on the columella, smooth. 

Length, 15 ; breadth, 5 ; length of aperture and canal, 6"5. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek ; gastropod-bed of 
the Eiver Murray Cliffs, near Morgan. 

The examples from the latter locality offer such differences 
from the type as to suggest a distinct species ; in them the 
third whorl from the summit is prominently ventricose, produc- 
ing a turbinate apex, and the transverse ribs on it are stout and 
wide apart. 

2. Epidromus nodulatus, spec.'jnov. Plate vi., £9;. 11. 
Shell turriculate ; whorls seven and a half, moderately con- 
vex ; nuclear whorls one and a half, globose, smooth, with the 
tip immersed. Ornamented with somewhat unequal revolving 
lir^e (14 on the penultimate whorl) and narrow, rounded, 
curved, transverse riblets (about 22 on the penultimate whorl); 
the riblets are narrower than the interspaces, which are trans- 
versely striated, and are slightly nodulate at the intersections 



129 

witli the lirae. Varices nine, compressed, elevated, transversely 
striated, and crenulated by the lir^e which pass over them. 

Aperture narrowly oblong ; outer lip lirate within, lirae con- 
tin ued to the margin, which is crenulate ; inner lip widely ex- 
panded and subreflected. 

Length, 19 ; breadth, 7 ; length of aperture and canal, 8. 

Locality. — Clayey green - sands, Adelaide bore. Three 
examples. 

3. Epidromus Tasmanicus, Johnston. Plate xi., fig. 11. 

Triton Tasmanicus, E. M. Johnston, Proc. Roj. Soc, Tasm. 
for 1879, p. 33. 

"Shell narrow, turreted, with elevated spire, and round blunt 
apex ; whorls eight, cancellated and ornamented with about 24 
fine riblets and two broad round distant varices on each whorl, 
which become slightly granulose at points where intersected 
by the more faintly raised regular carinse, six of the latter 
visible on the upper whorls ; interspaces, varices, carinas, and 
riblets finely transversely striate throughout ; aperture entire, 
ending in a short canal ; outer denticulate interiorly. Long, 
about 22 mil., lat. 8. Table Cape."— E. M Johnston. 

This species is only known by the unique specimen and now, 
unfortunately, much reduced in size by fracture, which I have 
figured. However, from what is left of it, and from the des- 
cription drawn up before mutilation, it is clear that it is an 
Mpidromus and specifically distinct from its congeners in the 
Australian Tertiary beds. The large hemispheric apex with 
its depressed tip is comparable only with that of JE. texturatus, 
whilst its rounded whorls and simpler ornament distinguish it. 

4. Epidromus citharellus, spec. nov. Plate iv., fig. 6. 

Shell turriculate ; whorls six (apex unknown), nearly flat, 
ornamented with thin, elevated, slightly curved, transverse 
cost£e (16 on the last whorl), the much wider concave inter- 
spaces distantly spirally striated ; varices eight, irregularly 
disposed ; outer lip lirate within. 

Length, 18 ; breadth, 5'5 ; length of aperture and canal, 7 5. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek f J". Bennantl) 

5. Epidromus leptoskeles, s'l^zc. nov. Plate iv., fig. 10. 

Shell with a narrow lanceolate outline of eight whorls ; 
surface ornamented with slightly curved numerous transverse 
flat ribs. The wider interspaces are divided into oblong de- 
pression by regular, thick spiral lines. In other respects the 
species is like LJ. tenuicostatus. 

Length, 14 ; breadth, 14. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek (J. Dennant !) 



130 

6. Epidromus texturatus, s'pec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 10. 

Shell ovately-turreted ; whorls nine and a half of regular 
increase, terminating in a large hemispha3ric apex of two and a 
half rapidly decreasing whorls, the tip hardly depressed. The 
first whorl is smooth, the next is ornamented with flexuous 
radial ribs ; the rest of the wdiorls rounded, but flattened 
behind, ornamented with revolving threads and curved costula- 
tions, spinosely granulated at the intersections ; the intercostal 
spaces closely rugosely striated in the axial direction, and 
spirally by rounded threads with linear interstices. There are 
six lirse on the penultimate whorl, none on the posterior slope, 
which diminish in strength towards the anterior suture ; and 
40 to 50 costulations on the penultimate w^horl, reduced to 30 
on the body whorl. 

Varices nine, broad, somewhat depressed. 

Outer lip shortly lirate within ; inner lip narrow, smooth. 

Length, 37 ; breadth, 14 ; length of aperture and canal, 17. 

Localities. — Blue clays, Schnapper Point ; lower beds at 
Muddy Creek {J. Dennantl). 

The specimen from the latter locality has thicker spiral ribs 
and larger tubercles, especially those of the posterior rib, 
which imparts a more quadrate outline ; the costulations on 
the last whorl are fewer. 

7. Epidromus turritus, spec. nov. Plate iv., fig. 4. 

Shell turriculate, whorls eight, terminating in a blunt apex 
of two smooth subcylindrical whorls much smaller than the 
regular whorls ; the third and fourth whorls bicarinate, the 
rest of the spire whorls angulated and shouldered, and much 
contracted towards the anterior suture ; body whorl regularly 
and moderately convex, proportionately narrower than penul- 
timate whorl, gradually attenuated into a broad, short, reverted 
beak. Ornamented with narrow, flat, spiral threads (five on 
the posterior slope of the penultimate whorl, 18 on the anterior 
portion, two of which, one on the keel, and one nearly medial, 
are stouter than the rest), crossed by costul^e (about 30 on the 
penultimate whorl), which are spinulose-granulated at the 
intersections ; intercostal spaces closely, finely, tranversely 
striated. 

Varices three, confined to the anterior whorls, inconspicuous, 
having the form of lamellate imbrications. 

Outer lip with numerous, short, slender ridges within ; inner 
lip narrowly reflected, smooth. 

Length, 27"5 ; breadth, 9 ; length of aperture and canal, 13. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek (J". Dennant I and 
J. B. Wilson'.)', blue clays at Schnapper Point (72. T.). 



131 

FAMILY FUSID^. 
G-ENUS Fusus. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

I. Periphery carinated,* bearing hollow spines or foliations. 
Keel with foliar extensions. 1. F.foliaceus. 

Keel with spinous extensions. 
{a). No spines in front of keel. 

Posterior slope of whorl lirate. 

Basal lirae spinous ; posterior slope concave. 

2. F. acanthostephes. 
Basal lirae without spines ; posterior slope 

convex. 

3. F. craspedotus. 
Posterior slope without lirae. 

Basal lir^e without spines. 

4. F. spiniferus. 
(5). Two rows of spines in front of keel. 

One row of spines behind keel. 

5. F. cocJileatus, 
Two rows of spines behind keel. 

6. F. se?iticosus.'^ 
The species of this group are obviously congeneric with 

F. pagoda, Lesson, which Professor v. Martens has recently at- 
tached to a new sub-genus of Pleurotoma, named Columbarium, 
'On account of peculiarities of the radula ; but on conchological 
.grounds it will be convenient to include them under Fusus. 
II. Periphery (of last whorl at least) angulated or shouldered ; 
whorls ribbed or tuberculated. 

"Whorls tabulated, crenate-dentate on the keel. 

7. F. d id y Otis. 
Whorls equally sloping from the angulation. 

Lirae on penultimate whorl. 

Ten, stout, equal. 8. F. Johnstoni. 

Twenty, slender, unequal. 

9. F. simulans. 

Seven, slender, subequal. 

10. F. sculptilis. 
Whorls angulated over anterior suture. 

Periphery with keel-like ridges. 

7. F. dicfyotis, var. 
Periphery with blunt nodulations. 

11. F. incompositus. 
Periphery with cuneiform, acute, tubercles. 

* In most examples of F. senticosus, the whorls are quadrately rouncled 
and only feebly carinated. 



132 

Apex large hemispheric ; spire sub-cvlindrie.. 

12. F. tholoides. 
Apex smaller ; spire couic, ventricose. 

13. F. Aiding ens is. 
III. Periphery neither angulated nor shouldered. 

Shell lanceolate-fusiform. 

"Whorls flat, spirally lirate ; no costae. 

14. F. aciformis. 
Whorls flat, costated, spirally sulcated. 

15. F. hexagonalis. 
"Whorls rounded, costated, with distant slender 

lirse. 10. F. sculptilis. 

Shell elongate-fusiform. 

"Whorls rounded or flatly convex and subimbricat- 
ing, without costae ; apex bulbous. 

16. F. lulbodes. 
"Whorls rounded, posterior whorls plicate. 

Lirae slender and granular ; canal long and 
slender. 17. F. Meredithce. 

Lirse prominent angular, whorls very convex,, 
spire attenuated. 18. i^. Gippslandicus.. 

Lirse thick, few ; canal short and stout. 

19. F. dumetosus. 
Whorls squarely rounded, covered with rows of 

tabular spines. 6. F. senticosus. 

Shell ovately fusiform. 

Whorls rounded, posterior whorls plicate. 

20. F, Tateanus. 

SPECIES EXCLl'DED. 

F.funiculatus, T. Woods, is transferred to Oolunibella. 

F. Ino., T. Woods, is transferred to Dennantia. 

F. Foblini, T. Woods, is transferred to Siplwnalia. 

F. styliformis, T. Woods, is transferred to Sipho. 

F. transenna, T. Woods, is transferred to Feristernia. 

F. vitreoides, K. M. Johnston, in Proc. Eoy. Soc, Tasm., for 
1879, p. 32, from Table Cape, is uniquely represented by a 
rolled imperfect shell offering no distinctive characters, and 
had better be expunged ; the generic position is very doubtful. 

1. Fusus foliaceus, spec. nov. Plate vii., fig. 10. 
Shell rather thin, with a high gradated spire ending in a small 
blunt mamillate apex of one and a half smooth whorls. AVhorls- 
eight and a half, the third whorl angulated in the middle and 
plicate ; the rest of the whorls excessively angulated, the keel 
extended into a compressed upturned flange. The flange con- 
sists of two laminae, separated and supported by vertical trans- 
verse plates. The posterior slope of the whorls within the 



133 

■flange is flat or sliglitly convex, ornamented with close fine 
sinuous growth-lines and by inconspicuous spiral threads ; the 
•coronal flange is obliquely wrinkle-ridged on both sides, raised 
into depressed scales on the outer side, particularly on the an- 
terior whorls. Last whorl contracted very much from the 
middle of the base, which is defined by a strong thread coinci- 
dent with the posterior angle of the aperture, and prolonged 
into a very long and very narrow slightly flexuous beak ; base 
lirate (about ten), with alternating slender threads crossed by 
close imbricating lamellae of growth ; the beak is ornamented 
with oblique raised threads alternately large and small, 
w^rinkled across by scaly lamellae. 

Aperture angularly rounded ; outer lip thin, running out 
into a narrow canal at the keel, in front of which the margin 
is serrated, and lirate within ; inner lip continuous, with outer 
lip at the top, somewhat thickened to the pillar beyond which 
it is continued as a sharp thin lamina. 

Dimensions of a moderate-sized specimen : — Length, 44^ ; 
breadth in front of: flange, 11 ; length of aperture, 8 ; of canal, 
25. Dimensions of figured specimen, of which the canal is in- 
complete-. — Length, 44; breadth, l(j ; aperture height, ll'o ; 
breadth, 9 ; length of canal, 19. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek and blue clays at 
Schnapper Point. 

This beautiful fossil is so much like the Challenger species, 
F. pagodoides, "Watson, taken at a depth of 410 fathoms off 
Sydney, that it might easily be mistaken for it. The very 
ample description and figure of that species, however, permit 
to point out differential and distinctive characters : the fossil 
has a much smaller apex, is densely lirate on the anterior and 
base of body whorl, the beak is not prickly, and the coronal 
fringe is largely developed on all the whorls except the three 
apical ones. 

2. Fusus acanthostephes, spec. nov. Plate vii., fig. 7. 

Shell fusiform, rather thin, with a turreted spire ending in 
a small sphaeroidal apex, the next whorl very narrow and 
angulated ; the rest of the whorls (six) excessively angulated 
and coronated at the keel with large erect or radially extended, 
compressed, hollow spikes. Last and penultimate whorls with 
three rounded serrated ridges on the posterior slope, reduced 
to one on the middle whorls and entirely absent on the earlier 
ones. Base of last whorl ver}^ contracted and precipitous, 
ornamented with four or five angular keels, the third from the 
coronal fringe serrated, the others carrying short, crowded 
recurved prickles. Beak encircled with prickly ridges. Mar- 
gin of outer lip serrate-dentate, grooved within. 



134 

Length, 55 ; breadth, 20 ; aperture, height, 9"5 ; breadth, 7'5 ;■ 
length of canal, 30. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point, and lower beds 
at Muddy Creek. 

Another remarkable species of the same type as F. foliaceus , 
but the coronal fringe is cut up into spines, as in the recent 
JF.fagoda, Lesson, from which it differs by its shorter spire and 
narrower whorls, serrated lirse on the posterior slope of the- 
whorls, and in the shape of the last whorl, which is prickly 
spirally ridged on the base. 

3. Fusus craspedotus, s-pec. nov. Plate vii., fig. 4. 

Shell thin, fusiform, with a high spire, ending in a small 
mamillate apex of two smooth whorls ; whorls eight and a half 
in all, excepting apical ones, very angular, and compressed into 
a narrow keel, crenate-dentate on the margin. Last whorl with 
the posterior slope convex, depressed behind the keel, .and 
much more so at the suture ; the rounded and contracted base- 
is produced into a long, rather broad, somewhat flexuous beak ;, 
ornamented on the posterior slope with numerous inconspicuous 
spiral threads, and towards the middle by two or three promin- 
ent ones, crossed by growth lines which are raised into minute 
scales on the larger lirae ; bases of serrations with rounded 
ridges conformable with their curvature. Base of body whorl 
encircled by a slender keel, which is coincident with the pos- 
terior angle of the aperture ; the whole surface roughly cancel- 
lated b}- numerous unequal spiral threads and lamellae of 
growth ; beak encircled with spiral threads and two or three 
ridges carrying vaulted scales. 

Aperture angularly rounded ; outer lip thin, its margin 
crenulated, sulcated within, running back in a short canal at 
the keel, and somewhat insinuated behind the keel. 

Length (canal incomplete), 47 ; breadth, 20 ; aperture, height 
15, breadth 8 ; length of canal (incomplete), 14. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; and lower beds 
at Muddy Creek; Table Cape {B. M. Johnston'.). 

This belongs to the same group ^s F. foliaceus, and, like all 
cohabitant species, the interior is grooved coincident with the 
keel ; its shape and ornament distinguish it. 

4. Fusus spiniferus, spec. nov. Plate vii., fig. 1. 
Shell somewhat thin, of seven whorls, similar to F. acan- 
tliosteplies, with a shorter spire ; the summit is a little variable 
in shape, but is never spherical ; the posterior slope of the 
whorls without any spiral ornament ; the base of the last whorl 
with a crenated slender keel coincident with the posterior angle 
of the aperture, and usually with a similar one in front of, but 



135 

contiguous to it; anterior to which is a spiral thread or two. 
Outer lip dentate on the margin corresponding with the basal 
lirae. 

Length, 32 ; breadth, 11 ; height of aperture, 8 ; length of 
canal, 18, 

Locality. — " Grastropod-bed" of the Eiver Murray Cliffs near 
Morgan. 

5. Fusus cochleatus, spec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 9. 

Shell elongately fusiform, whorls nine and a half, apex ob- 
tuse of one and a half rounded whorls ; the rest of the whorls 
bisected by a thin, compressed, elevated keel, extended into 
flat, vaulted, pointed scales ; the first three spire whorls orna- 
mented only with close sinuous growth lines, the others with 
a strong ridge on the posterior slope contiguous to the keel, 
and two similar, equi-distant ones in front, all provided with 
scales like those on the keel, though smaller. Canal encircled 
with rows of vaulted scales. 

Length, 31 ; breadth, 12 ; length of canal and aperture, 18. 

LocalUy. — Turritella clays, Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay. 

6. Fusus senticosus, spec. nov. Plate vii., fig. 3. 

Shell thin, elongately fusiform, slender ; whorls six and a 
half, apex obtuse of one and a half more lor less elongate 
smooth whorls ; the other whorls squarely rounded, deeply im- 
pressed at the suture, with five encircling ribs covered with 
tubular hollow spines, or slender vaulted pointed scales ; 
the middle rib on the angle of the whorl stouter than the rest, 
and furnished with long spines. Last whorl shouldered and 
sub tabula ted, with two or three threads rarely wanting on the 
posterior slope ; the rounded base and canal with equi-distant 
similar spiral lirsB, one or two on the canal are stouter and 
provided with larger spines. 

The transverse ornament is very peculiar, consisting of im- 
bricating lamellae, more or less radially disposed around the 
bases of the spines, and the bundles of one row somewhat 
alternating with those of the next. 

Length, 20 ; breadth, 5'5 ; height of aperture, 4 ; length of 
canal, 10. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; lower beds at 
Muddy Creek ; gastropod-bed, E,iver Murray Cliffs, near 
Morgan. 

7. Fusus dictyotis, spec. nov. Plate vii., figs. 2 and 6. 
Shell stout, elongately fusiform with a high gradated spire, 
angulated whorls, serrately-dentate on the keel, finely spirally 
Urate and crossed by thin lamellae. Whorls, nine, in- 



136 

eluding tlie mamillate apex of two subglobose wliorls ; earlier 
ones bicarinated, stoutly costated, and latticed by spiral lirae, 
and frilled lamella? of growth. Anterior whorls bisected by a 
strong keel raised into wide cuneate compressed serrations, 
almost tabulated above, conically contracted in front with a 
strong spiral thread in the middle line ; there are about nine 
unequal lir?e on the posterior slope of the penultimate whorl, 
and an equal number in front of the keel. Last whorl a little 
ventricose in the middle line, rounded at the base, and con- 
tracted into a long, nearly straight, open canal ; there are 
eight rounded plications on the whorl, vanishing on the base ; 
anterior portion of whorl with raised angular encircling lirae, 
with alternating slender and stouter threads in the interspaces; 
whole surface crossed by thin continuous lamellae, which pro- 
ject into vaulted scales on the encircling keels and lirae ; canal 
ornamented as the base, but the vaulted scales on the stouter 
ridges projecting into small sharp points. 

Aperture angularly rounded ; outer lip thin, lirate within, 
continuous with the inner lip which is continued as a sharp, 
thin, elevated lamina to the extremity of the canal. 

Length, 82 ; breadth, 24 ; aperture, height, 16 ; width, 11 ; 
length of canal, 35. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; lower beds at 
Muddy Creek ; gastropod-bed of the Eiver Murray Cliffs, near 
Morgan ; and in a well sinking 24 miles north of Morgan. 

Yar., pi. vii., fig. 6, with a longer straight declining shoulder; 
plications rounded, uot produced into sharp points, the angula- 
tion which is less prominent. The figured specimen is an ex- 
treme form, but it is connected wdth the type by graduating 
specimens. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek ; Eiver Murray 
Cliffs ; Table Cape {B. M. Johnston .') 

8. Fusus Johnstoni, T. Woods. Plate xii., figs. 4a, 4&. 

F. Johnstoni, T. Woods, Proc. Eoy, Soc, Tasmania, for 1876, 
p. 94. 

Shell narrowly fusiform, terminating in an obtuse apex of 
two smooth subglobose whorls ; whorls eight (excepting the 
nuclear ones), convex, angular, spirally lirate, and transversely 
plicate. The lirae are stout convex equal and equidistant, 
sometimes with a thread in the interstices, about 10 on the 
penultimate whorl. Costae broad, rounded, about eight to 10 
on each of the anterior whorls, but diminish in number up the 
spire, and scarcely appear in front of the periphery on the last 
whorl. 

Length, 21 ; breadth, 9 ; length of canal and aperture, 16. 

Locality. — Table Cape. (B. 21. Johnston I) 



137 

This species differs from F. MeriditJice by its less acuminate 
rspire, more angular and regularly plicate whorls ; the whorls 
are more regularly increasing than in F. simulans, and the liras 
^re very much stouter and fewer. 

9. Fusus simulans, spec. nov. Plate x., figs. 2a, 2&. 

Shell closely approximating to F. Meredithcs ; whorls eight, 
till, excepting the two large apical ones, angulated or angularly 
convex, slenderly costated, and tuberculated on the keel ; costae, 
fseven to nine on the last whorl ; lirse not all granulated, about 
20 on penultimate whorl alternalely large and small. 

The angular stoutly tuberculated whorls are characters too 
pronounced to permit of specific identity with F. Meredithce ; 
the apex though small is about twice the size of the Tasmanian 
fossil. 

Length, 31 ; breadth, 12-5 ; length of aperture and canal, 7. 

Localities. — Gi-astropod-bed of the Eiver Murray cliffs, near 
Morgan ; lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

10. Fusus sculptilis, spec. nov. Plate x., fig. 13. 

Shell lanceolar-fusiform, thin, of seven and a half whorls. 
Apex blunt, of one and a half rounded smooth whorls, becom- 
ing angulated and graduating into the next whorl, which is 
medially angulated and transversely costated ; the rest of the 
whorls convex, of slow increase, separated by a deep impressed 
•suture, ornamented with costaD and curved transverse thread- 
lets, and strong encircling threads. 

The costse are rounded, moderately elevated, and number 
.about ten on the body whorl. The lirse are flat, thin, more or 
less minutely crenulated, and raised into small acute nodula- 
tions as they pass over the costse ; on the penultimate whorl 
there are about six principal lirae, the one at the periphery 
.stronger than the rest, with one slender thread here and there 
in between. 

Last whorl abruptly attenuated into a long, narrow, straight 
canal ; the costse faintly extending on to the canal, which is 
spirally lirate. Aperture oval, peristome continuous, inner lip 
faintly lirate within. 

Length, 14 ; breadth, 4 ; length of aperture and canal, 8. 

Locality. — Clayey green-sands, Adelaide bore. 

11. Fusus incompositus, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 9.! 
Shell elongate-fusiform, with the spire suddenly contracted 
in front of the large subcylindrical apex, which consists of two 
smooth ventricose whorls, with the extreme tip somewhat 
obliquely flattened down. The next whorl is very narrow, sub- 
angulated medially, and spirally striated; the three other 



138 

whorls are roundly angled a little in front of the medial line, 
with a row of large, rounded, nodular plications on the anterior 
slope, ornamented with raised, angular, spiral threads (12 to 
15 on the penultimate whorl, of which the posterior are finer 
than the anterior ones), crossed by flexuous striae. The nodu- 
lations on the last whorl are six, large, faintly traceable to the 
suture as oblique undulations, and vanishing anteriorly at the 
base, which is contracted into a long, slightly flexuous, lirate 
and transversely striated beak. 

Length, 27; breadth, 9; length of aperture and canal, 16. 
^ Localities. — Clayey green sands, Adelaide bore ; and " Tur- 
ritella clays," Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay. 

12. Fusus tholoides, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 11. 

Shell fusiform, with a short spire ending in a very blunt 
hemispheric apex. Whorls five, the first smooth, depressed ; 
the second high, flatly convex, radially ribbed and spirally 
lirate ; the third slightly angular medially with similar but 
stronger ornament ; the anterior whorls angularly convex, 
slightly angled, and crenately serrate at the shoulder ; faintly 
transversely costated (about 10 to a whorl), and irregularly 
cancellated by spiral lirae and transverse threads. There are 
about 10 lirje on the posterior slope of the penultimate, and 
six alternately stout and slender on the front. 

The last whorl is obscurely flatly rounded in the middle 
where the costfe fade away, thence abruptly contracted in a 
long, straight, open beak ; base with numerous granularly 
wrinkled lirae ; the interspaces closely cancellated. 

Length, 22 ; breadth, 9 ; length of canal and aperture, 15. 

Locality. — Clayey-green sands, Adelaide bore. 

13. Fusus Aldingensis, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 10. 

The young shell resembles F. tlioloicles, but has a broader 
spire, smaller blunt apex, the whorls subimbricating with a 
suprasutural angulation crowned with stronger serrations. 

Length, 22 ; breadth, 9"5 ; length of canal and aperture, 16. 

Adult specimens of seven whorls have the anterior whorls 
sharply keeled in the anterior third, obliquely plicated, the 
plicse (10 to a whorl) forming wedge-shaped tubercles on the 
keel ; the whole surface is finely cancellated by slender spiral 
threads and transverse striae. At this stage the species simu- 
lates Fasciolaria cristata (see p. 151), but apart from other 
differences the incisions on the keel are very much shallower 
and the projections very much smaller and pointed. 

Length, 35 ; breadth, 14!"5 ; length of aperture and canal, 20. 

Locality. — Turritella-clays, Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay. 



139 

14. Fusus aciformis, spec. nov. Plate vii, figs. 5a— 5b. 

Shell lanceolate-fusiform, with a regular decreasing spire of 
flatly convex whorls, terminating in an obtuse summit of two- 
and a half whorls ; the aTiterior whorl of the apex is tumid in 
the middle, radially ridged, and is wider than the succeeding 
spire-whorl ; the next apical whorl is much narrowed, and the- 
small tip is depressed. Whorls 10^, excepting the apical ones, 
almost flat ; suture linear, somewhat concealed ; the earlier- 
whorls with five equal equidistant subacute elevated lir^e, the 
broad concave interspaces traversed with close-set growth- 
wrinkles ; the lirfB increase in number with the growth of the- 
shell and are about ten on the penultimate whorl. 

Last whorl of very slight increase, gradually tapering into 
the long straight beak, ornamented with wavy, acute, encircliuo- 
ridges. Outer lip thin, lirate within; peristome continuous, 
inner lip not reflected. 

Length, 41 ; breadth, 7,; length of canal and aperture, 22. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; and lower beds' 
at Muddy Creek. 

In its very narrow lanceolate form this fossil most resembles 
F. acus, Adams and Eeeve ; but the whorls are flatter, and. 
without axial ribs. 

15. Fusus hexagonalis, spec. nov. Plate iii., figs. 15a — 156. 

Shell linear-lanceolar-fusiform, prismatic. Apex of two and 
a half whorls, medially angulated ; the anterior one costated. 
and projecting beyond the succeeding whorl, the next nar~ 
rower, smooth, and ending in an upturned lateral point. The- 
rest of the whorls six and a half, the earlier ones angulated 
medially, gradually becoming flatly convex, separated by a deep 
suture ; with slender axial plications or angulations, usually 
six on a whorl in an alignment one with another from whorl to 
whorl, thereby imparting an hexagonal outline to the spire;, 
ornamented with flat encircling ridges and grooves, the relative 
width of the ridges and furrows being different for different 
individuals, and traversed by growth lines, which are raised 
into arched scales at the suture. 

Last whorl of slight increase, convex or flatly rounded at 
the periphery, costae reaching to the base, but not on to the 
beak ; ornamented as the spire ; rather abruptly contracted 
into a long, slender, straight beak. Aperture narrow, oval- 
oblong; outer lip lirate within, its margin crenulated. 

Length, 19 ; breadth, 3 ; length of aperture and canal, 11'5. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

16. Fusus bulbodes, spec. nov. Plate vii., fig. 8. 
Shell long, fusiform, wdth a rapidly narrowing spire of sub- 
imbricating whorls, terminating in a large ovoid summit.. 



140 

l^Yhorls eiglit, the first somewhat globose, the next very nar- 
row, smooth, and bicarinated, the third nearly flat, shining, 
and spirally scratched ; the other w^horls gradually becoming 
more and more obtusely angled and swollen round the anterior 
part, being very contracted at the anterior suture, and flatly 
sloping to the posterior suture ; encircled with raised threads 
(about 15 on the penultimate whorl) narrower than the inter- 
spaces, which are traversed by close-set striae. 

Last whorl tumid and rounded at the periphery, rapidly con- 
tracted at the base into a long, narrow, straight canal ; the 
surface tessellated by transverse threads and stouter spira.1 lirae. 

Dimensions of young perfect specimen of five whorls. — 
Length, 4tt ; breadth, lOo ; length of canal and aperture, 27"5 ; 
diameter of bulbous summit, 4'5. Of a large incomplete speci- 
men.— Length, 6S (85 estimated) ; breadth, 22-5 ; length of 
•^canal and aperture, 33 (estimated 50). 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; and lower beds 
at Muddy Creek. 

17. Fusus Meredithae, T. Woods. 

F. gracillimus, Tenison Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasm., for 
1875, p. 22 (non Adams and Reeve). 

F. ILereditlicd, Tenison Woods, op. cit. on legend to pi. i, 
fig. 6. 

Shell elongate-fusiform, with a high conical acuminate 
spire, ending in a very slender apex of one and a half smooth 
high whorls. Whorls below the apex, seven and a half, convex, 
the body whorl sometimes subangulated and somewhat tumid, 
spirally sulcated, and slenderly ribbed and transversely cos- 
tated. 

There are about 10 slender costa? on each of the posterior 
whorls, becoming more and more reduced in size, usually 
.absent on one or more of the median whorls, and on the body 
whorl are represented by short corrugations at the periphery. 
The spiral threads are flatly rounded, alternating with a little 
wider flat grooves often with a fine thread in the middle; 
crossed by distant striae which obscurely granulate the lirae. 
There are about 12 lirae on the penultimate whorl. 

Aperture ovate, rather abruptly contracted to the long, 
rather open canal ; outer lip thin, obscurely crenulated on the 
margin, lirate within. 

Length, 33 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture, 8 ; of canal, 10. 

Locality .—11^\q Cape. (Hohart IIus. ! B. 31. Johision !) 

18. Fusus Gippslandicus, spec. nov. 
Shell elongate-fusiform, ending in a smallish mamillate 
apex of one and a half smooth-rounded whorl, the tips 



141 

laterally immersed ; wliorls below the apex seven, of very- 
slow increase, convex, much contracted at both sutures, 
stoutly but narrowly ribbed, lirate. Transverse plications- 
about 11 to a whorl, narrow, very prominent, slightly nodulose, 
almost obsolete on the body whorl. Spiral ridges angular, 
four of which on the middle and front very prominent, with 
an intermediate thread. Three slender lirse on the posterior 
slope ; whole surface transversely closely wrinkled. Base- 
gradually attenuated, ornamented with alternately large and 
small angular encircling ridges. 

Length, 44 j breadth, 13 ; length of aperture, 12, of canal, 12. 

Localities. — Jemmy's Point and Cunninghame, Grippsland, 
{W. H. Greg son!) 

This is a more slender shell with narrower cost?e than 
F. dumetosus ; it differs from F. MerecUtlicd by its coarser orna- 
ment, more convex whorls, and less ventricose body whorl. 

19. Fusus dumetosus, spee. nov. Plate ix., fig. 1. 

Shell stoutly fusiform, whorls rounded and spirally ridged ; 
differing from F. ustulatus, Eeeve, by the whorls being of less- 
rapid increase, last whorl not so ventricose, and by the absence 
of axial plications on the anterior whorls, at least, on the body 
whorl. 

Length, without apex, 31'5 ; breadth, 12-5 ; length of aper- 
ture and canal, 18. 

Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek {J. Lennant .') 

20. Fusus Tateanus, T. Woods. Plate xiii., fig. 5. 

F. Tateana, Tenison "Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasmania, for 
1876, p. 94. 

Shell ovately fusiform ; whorls seven (without apex), the 
body and penultimate whorls roundly convex, obscurely dis- 
tantly spirally lirate and transversely striated ; the rest of 
the spire whorls flatly convex, the posterior ones costated and 
lirated. There are about ten costsD in a whorl, and about 15 
subangular threads equi-distant and about equal to the inter- 
vening sulci. Last whorl rather sloping to the suture ; aper- 
ture elliptic, outer lip thin and abruptly incurved to the long, 
narrow canal. 

Leni>th of an incomplete specimen, 86 ; breadth, 35 ; length 
of aperture, 30; o£ canal, so much as known, 25. 

Locality. — Table Cape, Tasmania {Holart Mus. ! B. M. Jolin- 
ston /) 

This fossil is very distinct from any living species, but is 
remotely related to F. longcevus of the European Eocene. 



142 

Genus Siphoxalia. 

synopsis of species. 
"Whorls augtilated, subiinbricating. 

Spire elevated ; crenate-dentate on the keel ; spirally 
1 irate. 1. S. suhreflexa. 

Spire short ; nodulate on the keel ; transversely lamel- 
late. 2. S. lamelUfera. 
Whorls shouldered. 

Shell elongate-fusiform and costated. 

Lirae, 15 ; tubercles, 13. 3. S. BoUini 

Lirae, 11 ; tubercles, 11, and stouter. 

4. S. Jongirostris. 
Shell pyriform, costated anteriorly. 5. S. spatiosa. 

1. Siphonalia subreflexa, G. B. Sowerhy. 

Fusus suhreflexus, Gr. B. Sowerby, in Darwin's G-eological 
Observations, 1S44, 2nd ed., p. 616, t. 4, fig. 57. 

Shell fusiformly turreted; apex small mamillate of two 
smoothwhorls ; the next four whorls convex, transversely 
€Ostated, and spirally lirate ; the four anterior whorls angu- 
lated and ventricose in front of the middle, the posterior slope 
■convex, tuberculated on the keel, spirally lirate with alter- 
nately stout and slender threads, and cancellated by transverse 
stride. The tubercles are compressed, prominent, and about 
13 to a whorl. Aperture large, oval ; outer lip lirate within ; 
canal long, curved to the left. 

Length, 85 ; breadth, 40 ; length of aperture, 32 ; width of 
aperture, 19 ; length of canal (incomplete), 20. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek (J. Dennani /) 

This species is markedly distinct from the two next species 
by its prominent submedial tuberculated keel, without any 
trace of costation, except on the posterior whorls. It is with 
some reluctance that I ascribe our fossil to Sowerby's F. suh- 
o'pflexus, from the Chilian Tertiary, as it is possible that differ- 
€rences of ornament or other minute characters may really 
exist which are not pictorially or verbally indicated. 

2. Siphonalia lamellifera, spec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 5. 
Shell ovately fusiform, stout, with a low conic spire of sub- 
imbricating flat whorls ending in an obtuse apex. Whorls six, 
a,ngulate over the suture ; last and penultimate whorls bluntly 
nodulose on the keel (eight to a whorl). Last whorl bisected 
by a blunt keel, the medial portion roundly truncated, orna- 
mented with stout plications, which terminate at the keel in 
stout, blunt nodulations ; anteriorly abruptly contracted into 
the concave base, which is prolonged into a broad, curved, up- 
turned, loDQ-ish canal. Surface ornamented with imbricatiusj 



143 

lamellae insinuated at the keel ; at the keel, and in front of it, 
the lamellae are raised into slender close frills, which about 
the keel are more or less continuous, and appear as raised 
threads. Aperture trapezoidal ; outer lip smooth within for a 
distance of about six mills., beyond which the surface is closely 
and regularly spirally striated, and provided with narrow and 
short callous ridges. 

Length, 52 ; breadth, 29 ; length of aperture and canal, 36. 

Locality. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point, Port Phillip. 

3. Siphonalia Roblini, T. Woods. 

Fasits Rohlini, Tenison-AVoods, Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasman., for 
1876, p. 22, tab. 1, fig. 7. 

Anterior whorls subangulated, with 13 subdistant, somewhat 
sharp tubercles on the angulation,* ornamented with spiral 
acute threads, alternately large and small — about 15 large ones 
on the penultimate whorl — cancellated by thickish subdistant 
transverse striae. The posterior whorls are transversely plicate, 
the plicae gradually reduced to tubercles. Aperture elongately 
pyriform ; outer lip thin, costated within ; canal elongate, 
twisted, and recurved. 

The type specimen possesses five and a half whorls, the apex 
being broken off, and has a length of 66, breadth of 30, length 
of aperture and canal of 41, and breadth of aperture of 14. 

Locality. — Table Cape {Jlohart Mm. I). 

4. Siphonalia longirostris, spec. nov. Pi. xi., fig. 8. 

Shell elongate-fusiform, with a high subscalar spire, ending 
in a small mamillate apex of one and a half smooth convex 
whorls. AVhorls nine, convex to subangulated; ornamented 
with transverse costae, which are reduced to somewhat sharp 
tubercles, and subacute spiral threads alternately large and 
small, crossed by subdistant lamellae. There are 11 tubercles 
on the body whorl and about 11 strong spiral threads on the 
penultimate whorl. 

Aperture elongately pyriform ; outer lip thin, internally 
sulcated ; canal elongate and much twisted. 

Length,*69 ; breadth, 27 ; length of aperture and canal, 40 ; 
breadth of aperture, 11. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point and lower beds at 
Muddy Creek. 

This species differs from S. Rohlini by its more convex whorls, 
more elevated and stouter costae, and by the fewer and stouter 
spiral threads. 

5. Siphonalia spatiosa, spec. nov. Plate iv., fig. 5. 
Shell somewhat elongately pyriform ; whorls six ; apex want- 
* The figure represents the tubercles much too large. 



144 

ing ; posterior whorls flat or slightly convex, with a row of 
uodulations at the anterior suture ; anterior whorls tabulate, 
the posterior slope very wide, upward inclined, the anterior 
slope narrow and contracted at the suture, roundly plicated, 
the plicas terminating at the keel in obtuse nodulations. Last 
whorl ventricose in the middle, slightly sloping from the keel 
for a distance equal to the length of the posterior slope, thence- 
suddenly contracted in a long, rather wide, curved, and slightly 
reverted canal ; the transverse plications do not extend on tO' 
the base, and are absent in the anterior-fourth of the whorl ;. 
there are 14 nodulations on the last whorl. 

The whole surface is ornamented with crowded depressed, 
rounded spiral threads, alternately large and small, crossed 
by curved lines and striae of growth which obscurely crenulate 
the lira?. 

Aperture large, oval ; outer lip slightly dilated anteriorly, 
and slightly ascending posteriorly, smooth within ; inner lip' 
widely spreading over the columella and decurrent on th& 
inner face of the canal ; columella slightly concave above the 
pillar. 

Length, 98 ; breadth, 48 ; length of aperture and canal, 73. 

Locality. — IJpper beds at Muddy Creek. (J". Dennant I) 

GENrs SiPHO. 

STN-OPSIS OF SPECIES. 

Aperture variced ; without costae, 1. S. lahrosus. 

Aperture simple. 

Ornament of granular rows ; no costae. 

2. S. crehrigranosus. 
Ornament of flat equal threads ; costated. 

3. S. styliformis. 
Ornament of round threads, alternately large and 

and small and transverse lamellae, with or without 
costge. 4. S. asperulits, 

1. Sipho labrosus, spec. woy. ' Plate iii., fig. 7. 

Shell linear - lanceolar - fusiform, thin, of five and a half 
whorls, ending in a large blunt mamillary apex of one and a 
half globose smooth whorls. The other whorls convex, separ- 
ated by a deep suture, ornamented all over with encircling 
lir^e (ten on the penultimate whorl) alternately stout and 
slender, crossed by angular threads raised into subgranular 
imbrications on the lirae. 

Last whorl gradually attenuated into the^ long, slightly 
curved and reverted, open canal ; the outer lip is thickened by 
a varix slightly removed from the edge, varix somewhat 
anovular and insinuated at the suture. 



145 

Aperture narrow-oval, peristome entire and smootli. 
Length, 11 ; breadth, 3'5 ; length of aperture and canal, 6. 
Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

2. Sipho crebrigranosus, spec. nov. Plate iii., fig. 8. 

Shell broadly lanceolar-fusiform, rather stout, of six and a 
half whorls, ending in a large blunt mamillary apex of two 
globose smooth whorls ; the rest of the whoi'ls moderately con- 
vex, separated by a linear suture ; ornamented all over with 
equal and equi-distant encircling lirae and transverse threads, 
almost obliterated by the development of granules at the 
intercrossing (the lirae are about 12 on the penultimate whorl). 
Last whorl tapering into a moderately long, slightly curved^ 
hardly reverted, open canal ; inner lip lirate within. 

Length, 13 ; breadth, 4 ; length of aperture and canal, 8. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

3. Sipho styliformis, T. Woods. 

Fusus styliformis, Tenison- Woods, Proc. Lin. Soc, JN'.S.'W.,. 
vol. iv., p. 12, tab. 3, fig, 6, 1879. 

Shell elongately fusiform, slender, thin ; whorls seven. Apex 
of two smooth whorls, joined to the spire by a thick varix, be- 
hind which, for about half a whorl, the surface is costated, 
thence rapidly enlarging into a globose whorl terminating in a 
narrow subimmersed tip. The spire whorls slightly convex, a 
little contracted at the anterior suture, rendered almost pris- 
matic by regular disposed rounded plications (seven to a 
whorl) ; suture impressed, more or less concealed by vaulted 
imbricating scales ; ornamented with flat spiral lirsB about or 
nearly equalling the flat, smooth, intervening furrows (about 
seven on the penultimate whorl). 

Body whorl rather abruptly contracted into a long, wide, 
slightly twisted and reverted canal ; aperture ovate ; outer lip 
thin ; lirate within ; columella arched, smooth. 

Length, 12'5 ; breadth, 4*5 ; length of canal and aperture, 7. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek ; "gastropod bed"' 
of the Eiver Murray Cliffs, near Morgan. 

4. Sipho asperulus, spec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 5. 

Shell similar to S. styliformis, but larger, with flat whorls 
channelled at the suture, and the ornament consisting of spiral, . 
narrow, rounded threads alternately large and small (about 
ten on the penultimate whorl), crossed by lamellae, which are 
raised into low scales over the lirse. The plications are not so 
strongly developed as in the allied species, and are more usually 
obsolete or reduced to axial angularities. 



146 

Length, 19 ; breadth, 7 ; length of aperture 5, and of canal 
5 ; width of aperture, 3. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

Genus Pseudoyaricia. 

Name in allusion to the abnormal character of the varices. 

Type. — P. mirabilis, spec, no v. 

Generic characters. — Shell cylindroid-fusiform, smooth, spire 
obtuse, whorls with a few remote and non-continuous imbricat- 
ing varices ; canal very short, wide ; columella smooth, slightly 
arched. 

The varices are not produced as ordinarily by an outward 
thickening or bulging of the shell wall, but appear as abrupt 
step-like interruptions to the regularity of the spiral curve, 
and seem to indicate that each periodic mouth was slightly 
margined with enamel, and the new growth to have been com- 
menced from within, so that the successive growths are not in 
the same plane. 

The peculiarity of its variceal characters and the blunt apex 
remove this genus from Genea, Bellardi, of the Italian Tertiary, 
which in other particulars it resembles. Tryon, in his Manual 
of Conchology, places Genea in a subordinate position to Misus, 
but I think it is more related to Neptunea or Sipho. 

1. Pseudovaricia mirabilis, spec. nov. PI. vii., figs. 9a— 9c. 

Shell elongately fusiform, smooth, shining, rather thin, with 
a cylindrical spire a little longer than the aperture, ending in 
a very blunt apex of two very rapidly narrowing whorls, flat- 
tened at the summit. 

Whorls below the apex, six, very broad, of slow increase, flatly 
convex, with a very narrow high-sloping shoulder, defined by a 
strong thread ; 11 varices, or about two to a whorl, irregularly 
disposed. Whole surface transversely, finely, and closely 
striated, except on the shoulder, where they are stouter and 
more distant. On each side of the angulation are two or three 
spiral threads, which on the posterior whorls are cut up into 
elongate granulations. 

Aperture elliptical ; outer lip plain, smooth within ; 
columella slightly incurved, smooth ; canal wide, short, nearly 
straight, obliquely emarginate. 

Length, 46 ; breadth, 13 ; length of aperture and canal, 21 ; 
width of aperture, 6. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek {J. Lennantl). 



147 

G-ENUs Comi:n-ella. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

Whorls convex, not shouldered. 

Lirate, posteriorly faintly eostated. 1. C. crassiiia. 
Strongly lirate and linearly eostated, punctatedly im- 
pressed. 2. C. pertusa. 
Costated throughout. 3. C. subfilicea. 
Plicately-wrinkled ; base smooth. 4. (7. pumila. 
Whorls shouldered and, except body whorl, strongly cos- 
tated. 5. C. Clelandi. 
Species excluded. 
'C. cancellata, T. Woods, is transferred to Bela as B. Woodsii. 
C. lyrsecostata, T. Woods, is transferred to JPhos. 

1. Cominella crassina, spec. nov. Plate x., fig. 4. 

Shell excessively strong with the form of the elate variety of 
•C. alveolata, Kiener, described as C. Adelaidensis, Crosse and 
Pischer ; the ante-sutaral impression is broad and well defined, 
the posterior whorls only are faintly costated ; the differential 
characters are the wide, flat encircling furrows, as wide, or 
nearly as wide, as the ridges, marked with transverse, curved 
lines ; the outer lip is strongly ridged within. 

Length, 32 ; breadth, 16 ; length of aperture and canal, 19'5. 

Lacaliti/. — tipper beds at Muddy Creek {J. Bennant'.). 

2. Cominella ? pertusa, spec. nov. Plate ix., fig. 11. 

Shell minute, ovate-oblong; apex small, mamillate, of one and 
a half whorls with the tip obliquely immersed ; the rest of the 
whorls four, convex, suture impressed, ornamented with 
straight, thread-like cost«, about 15 to a whorl, and thick 
spiral threads punctatedly impressed in the narrow interstices ; 
spiral threads eight on the penultimate whorl. 

Aperture round, large, emarginate in front ; outer lip a 
little dilated, faintly tuberculated within, variced behind. 

Length, 4"25 ; breadth, about 2"5 ; length of aperture, 2. 

Locality. — Clayey green sands, Adelaide bore. 

3. Cominella subfilicea, spec. nov. Plate x., fig. 6. 

Shell with the form of O.Jllicea, Adams, and, like it, with 
costse descending to the base of the last whorl, but it differs by 
its encircling depressed ridges separated by linear furrows, as 
in most species of the genus, whereas in the living shell the 
surface is finely striated and marked with colour lines. 

Length, 20 ; breadth, 9 ; length of aperture and canal, 12. 

Localities. — Oyster banks, Aldinga Cliffs ; and equivalent 
beds at Hallett's Cove, St. Vincent Gulf. 



148 

4. Cominella pumila, spec. nov. Plate iv., fig. 12. 

Shell very small, tliin, ovate ; whorls five, convex, apex 
mamillate ; the whorl next the puUus smooth, the next twa 
ornamented with narrow, close, wrinkle-like transverse ridges, 
which on the last whorl are confined to the posterior one-third^ 
rest of the whorl inornate. 

Length, 5 ; breadth, 3 ; length of aperture and canal, 3' 5. 

Localitjj. — Clayey green sands, Adelaide bore. 

This little fossil has a general resemblance to Ci/llene 2?homhea,. 
but wants the distinctive characters proper to that genus. 

5. Cominella Clelandi, spec. nov. Plate xi., fig. 1 ; plate xiii., fig. 1. 

Shell of the shape and style of ornament of TropJion Flindersi^ 
but with the aperture of Cominella ; posterior whorls with about 
ten costfe, spirally lirate, last whorl convex, roundly shouldered, 
costaB obliterated. 

Length, estimated, 35 ; breadth, 22 ; length of aperture, 24. 

Locality. — Upper Aldinga series of beds at Hallett's Cove^ 
collected by Dr. Cleland, Hon. Sec. of the Society, after whom 
the species is named. 

GEiN'US Btjcciis'um. 

1. Buccinum fragile, T. Woods, Proc. Hoy. Soc, Tasm., for 
1876, p. 107, from Table Cape, is unknown to me. 

G-ENrs Pasciol^eia. 

STJTOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

"Whorls rounded, costated 

Ovately fusiform, costce broad, lir?p many. 

1. F. Tenisoni.^ 
Lanceolately fusiform, costse broad, jira* few. 

2. F. exilis. 
Elongate-fusiform, costse narrow, angi.lar. 

3. F. concinna. 
"Whorls angularly convex, nodulated on the angulation. 

4. F. decipiens. 
"Whorls medially raised into a crenately incised keel. 

5. F. cristata. 
"Whorls shouldered, costulated in front. 

Elongate-fusiform, last whorl of moderate size, canal 

nearly straight. 6. F. crypoploca. 

Last whorl ventricose ; canal twisted. 7. F. rugata. 

1. Fasciolaria Tenisoni, T. Woods. 
Fasciolaria Tenisoni, Tenison- Woods, Proc. Lin. Soc, X.S.W.,. 
vol. iv., p. 13, tab. 3, fig. 3, 1879. 



149 

Shell ovately fusiform, with a moderately high conic spire, 
-ending in a blunt apex of one and a half subglobose whorls. 
Whorls six and a half, moderately convex, with broad rib-like 
folds (nine on the last whorl), wider than the intervening con- 
cave interspaces, evanescent towards the posterior suture ; 
ornamented in a spiral direction by narrow, elevated, subacute 
threads (about 12 on penultimate whorls), sometimes with a 
thread let in the furrow, cancellated by regular nearly straight 
growth lines. Columella with one conspicuous plait at the top 
of the pillar, succeeded by two small ones ; canal long, 
straight ; outer lip thin, Urate within. 

Length, 30 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture, 9 ; and canal, 11. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek (Tenisoii-Woods and 
X DeiiJiani .'). 

2. Fasciolaria exilis, spec. nov. Plate s., fig. 3. 

Shell lanceolate-fusiform with an elongate acuminate spire 
ending in a small blunt apex of two subglobose whorls ; whorls 
nine, excepting the apical ones, flatly convex, transversely 
plicate, and widely latticed by transverse threadlets and dis- 
tant encircling lirre. The costae are about eight to a whorl ; 
on the posterior whorls they are thick and rounded, about 
equalling the interspaces, becoming narrow more angular and 
wider apart as the whorls increase ; there are six elevated 
moderately thick lirae on the penultimate whorl, usually with 
a threadlet in the wide intervening spaces. Last whorl of very 
slight increase, graduall}'- tapering into the long, straight, 
narrow beak, which is encircled with flat ridges. 

Outer lip crenulated on the margin, lirate within ; columella 
with two or three small oblique plaits. 

Length, IS ; breadth, 4"5 ; length of aperture and canal, 9 ; 

Localities. — Grastropod bed of the River Murra}- Cliffs, near 
Morgan ; blue clays at Schnapper Point ; lower beds at 31uddy 
Creek. 

3. Fasciolaria concinna, sjyec. nov. PI. viii., fig. 6. 
Shell elongate-fusiform, with a high acuminate spire, ending 
in a small mamillate apex of one and a half smooth whorls, 
with the tip immersed and somewhat lateral. "Whorls eight 
and a half, the posterior spire whorls slightly gradated, plicate, 
encircled with strong lirae, crenulated b}^ close-set transverse 
strise ; the anterior whorls convex, a little ventricose medially, 
but more contracted in front than behind ; ornamented with 
narrow, regular, subacute plications, confined to the anterior 
lialf of each whorl (15 on the penultimate whorl), and rather 
«tout, elevated, flat spiral ridges (15 on the penultimate whorl), 
the flat intervening spaces of double the width, provided with 



150 

from two to four spiral tlireadlets ; the whole surface trans- 
versely striated ; the strife crenulate the edge of the lirae and 
produce with the spiral threadlets a neat cancellation in the 
iiiter-spaces. 

Last whorl a little tumid on the base, which contracts 
abruptl}-, and is suddenly prolonged into a narrow beak ; sur- 
face ornamented as the rest of the shell. Aperture round, with 
a sharp angle at the top ; outer lip sharp, thin, well arched, 
erenuUited on the margin, faintly lirate within ; inner lip 
slightly concave, with a thick oblique twist-like fold at the 
front ; canal narrow, long, slender, and nearly straight. 

Length, 40; breadth, 15; aperture, length 12, width 7; 
length of canal, 11. 

Locality. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point. 

4. Fasciolaria decipiens, spec. nov. Plate viii,, fig. 1. 

Shell elongately fusiform, with a high turrited spire ending 
in a small blunt mamillate apex of one and a half smooth 
rounded whorls, the tip immersed. 

Whorls nine and a half, of regular increase ; the anterior 
ones roundly angulated and nodulated medially, concave behind 
and somewhat contracted in front, ornamented with revolving 
threads and transverse riblets — the rudely square depressions 
transversely striated. 

Tubercles, twelve on the last whorl, bluntly or subacutely 
conical, trisected by three peripheral lirse ; lirae acute, equi-^ 
distant, about twelve on the penultimate whorl, those on the 
medial and anterior areas stouter than those on the posterior 
slope, sometimes with a threadlet in the intervening furrows. 

Body whorl with a high posterior slope, bluntly convex on 
the periphery, thence gradually contracted into a long, broad, 
almost straight beak. Aperture elongate-oval ; outer lip with 
a thin porcellanous thickening on the slightly crenulated 
margin, smooth within ; inner lip callously spread and adpressed 
over the columella ; columella with two oblique plaits hardly 
visible from without. 

Length, 6S ; breadth, 25; aperture, length 21, width 10; 
length of canal, 16. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek ; gastropod-bed of 
the Eiver Murray Cliffs ; Table Cape {B. M. Johnston !). 

Each locality has its own racial variety, and it may be desir- 
able, when fuller material is at hand, to apply distinctive 
names to each. 

The type form from Muddy Creek is the most lanceolate, the 
breadth to the length is as 1 to 2 7 ; the Murray variety differs 
by its more angulate whorls, sharp, stout and simple tubercles, 
and is proportionately broader, the breadth to the length being 



151 

1 to 2'5 ; the extreme of shape is presented by the Table Cape 
race, which has a shorter spire, more ventrieose body-whorl, with 
large conical tubercles, the breadth to the length is as 1 to 2'2. 

5. Fasciolaria cristata, spec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 4. 

Shell fusiform, with a high scalar spire of regularly-increasing 
whorls, ending in a small mamillate apex of one and a half 
globose whorls, the extreme tip immersed. 

"Whorls scA^en and a half, the posterior spire-whorls bluntly 
angulated in the middle and costated ; the anterior whorls 
angulated, bisected by a sharp, elevated, compressed keel, 
which is cut into deep crenatures (about 10 on the body whorlj, 
transversely plicated, coincident with the projections on the 
keel, from which the plicae are obliquely directed, vanishing 
towards the posterior suture, but well developed in front, 
rounded and continued to the anterior suture. Ornamented 
with angular unequal lir?e (about 20 on the penultimate 
whorl), and rather closely tessellated by growth-lines. 

Body whorl with three strong lirse on the front, with a few 
primary and secondary threads intervening, cancellated by 
transverse striae ; base gradually attenuated into a long, some- 
what narrow, oblique, spirally lirate beak. Aperture oval, 
large ; columella with three oblique conspicuous plaits, the an- 
terior one the strongest, with one to three inconspicuous pos- 
terior plaits ; plaits sometimes bifid at their ends. 

Dimensions of a medium sized specimen : — Length, 41 ; 
breadth, 19 ; length of aperture, 13 ; of canal, 11. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

6. Fasciolaria cryptoploca, spec. nov. PI. viii., fig.' 2. 

Shell fusiform, moderately elongate, with a high scalar spire, 
ending in a small mamillate apex of one and a half smooth 
convex whorls. 

Whorls nine ; the earlier whorls flatly convex, and graduating 
to tabulated in the two anterior ones. Anterior whorls with 
nine plications to each whorl ; plicae narrowly rounded, 
elevated into sharpish conical tubercles at the shoulder, 
separated by wide, shallow and open furrows, dying out on 
the posterior slope and on the base of the body whorl ; the 
ornament consists of acute spiral ridges, alternately large and 
small (about 20 on the penultimate whorl), separated by a little 
wider angular furrows, roughened by transverse lamellae of 
growth. 

Aperture oval-oblong; outer lip thin, strongly lirate within; 
columella with a strong oblique fold, arising from the top of 
the pillar, and one or two smaller above, not visible from the 
exterior ; canal stout, rather broad, open, slightly bent to the 
left, and a little reverted. 



152 

Length, 46 ; breadth, 18"5 ; aperture, length 15, breadth 8.5 ; 
length of canal, 13. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

7. Fasciolaria rugata, spec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 3. 

This species very much resembles F. cryptoi^loca, but differs 
by its fewer and more rapidly enlarging whorls, which are 
about equally sloping from the periphery to the sutures ; the 
€anal is shorter and strongly twisted. 

There are ten sharp plications on each of the anterior whorls, 
and the encircling lir^ (ten to twelve on the penultimate whorl) 
are equal-sized, and the surface is usually more rugged by the 
edges of the imbricating lamellae than in the allied species. 

Dimensions of the type specimen, with six and a half whorls : 
— Length, 45 ; breadth, 23 ; length of aperture 17, of canal 10. 

Localities. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point ; and lower beds 
at Muddy Creek {J. Lfennant!). 

Gexus Peeisteenia. 

I find it convenient to include under this generic title those 
fusoid shells having a sharply sinistrally bent canal, with one 
strong fold on the columella, or with two or more slender 
plaits additional, and others with a short canal having the 
columella characters, which I cannot with any degree of confi- 
dence refer to established genera or subgenera. 

Some of the species, by their long slender canals with two or 
more plaits, differ from Fasciolaria only by the obliquity of the 
beak. P. approximans is more typical ; whilst the small group 
of species congregated around P. succincta approaches Tudicula. 
Lastly, there are two small Trophon-like shells, with a very 
short twisted canal, that cannot consistently be referred to 
Troplwn on account of the oblique j^lait on the columella. 

Unacquainted with the majority of the genera of the family 
established on Tertiary fossils by Conrad, Bellardi, and other 
pala?ontologists, I refrain from creating new groups out of the 
heterogeneous assemblage of species which I have brought to- 
gether under Feristernia. 

SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

Peristome not continuous. Apex subacute or mamillate, 
smooth. 

"Whorls angulated, costated. 

Stoutly lirate ; apex subacute. 1. P. approximans. 
Last whorl convex, without costse. 

2. P. purpuroides. 
Finely lirate ; apex mamillate. 

Whorls equally lirate ; apex small. 

3. P. Morundiana 



153 

Posterior slope without lircT ; apex twice tlie 
size. 4. P. Murrayana. 

Wliorls convex, co stated. 

Costae broad ; canal longer tlian aperture. 
"Whorls a little flatted behind. 

5. P. altifrons. 

"Whorls equally contracted. 6. P. Aldingensis. 
Costae slender ; canal short. 7. P. affinis. 

Whorls convex, not costated. 

Cancellated ; canal short, 8. P. transenna. 

Lirse slender ; canal very long, attenuated. 

9. P. lintea. 

Stoutly lirate, posterior whorls subangulated and 

and costated. 2. P. purpuroides. 

Peristome not continuous. Apex hemisphaeric, radially 

ridged. 

Whorls bicarinated. 10. P. apicilirata. 

"Whorls regularly convex. 11. P. actinosteplies. 

Peristome continuous ; inner lip erect. 

Whorls subpyriform ; last whorl ventricose. 

12. P. succincta. 
Whorls fusiform ; beak long and slender. 

LiraB angular, alternately large and small ; 
whorls flattened at shoulder. 

13. P. interlineata. 
Lirffi flat ; tranversely wrinkled. 14. P. suhundidosa. 

1. Peristernia approximans, spec. nov. Plate ix., fig. 2. 

Shell fusiform, solid, of ten angular- convex whorls, ending 
in a small, subacute apex, provided with eight narrow trans- 
Terse plications, bent forward on the posterior slope and be- 
coming obsolete on the base of the body w^horl. Ornamented 
with depressed rounded spiral lirae, which are somewhat irregu- 
lar and unequal, about nine on the posterior slope, decreasing in 
strength as the suture is approached, about 20 on the medial 
and front parts of the body whorl ; the interstitial spaces 
are narrower than the lirae, and are pitted by transverse threads, 
which on the posterior slope appear as crowded imbricating 
forward-curved lamellae. 

Aperture narrowly ovate ; outer lip stoutly lirate within? 
attenuated and crenatulated at the margin, with an oblique 
fold at the origin of the canal ; columella concave to the 
slight oblique fold at its junction with the canal ; canal rather 
long, slightly bent to the left, and a little upturned at the 
^extremity. 

Length, 27 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture, 8 ; of canal, 8. 



154= 

Localities. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek ; oyster banks^ 
Aldinga Cliffs. 

This fossil, thougli not a typical Ferisfeniia, cannot well be 
included under Troplion to which its living analogue P. Paivcs 
was originally referred, 

Mr. Boog Watson, Zool. Challenger Exped., pt. xlii., p. 194f, 
1886, writing of Tf^oplwn HanJeyi, which Mr. Tryon regards as 
an elate form of T. Fnivce, Crosse, says : — " The operculum of 
this species is not that of Murex nor of JFicsus, still less that of 
TJrosalpin.v. . . The form of the shell and operculum alike 
remove it from TropJion.'" In his perplexity he classes it as a 
Fusus. As regards the shell T. Faivce is congeneric with 
Siphonalia fiiscozonata, Angas, which Tryon places under 
I*eristernin — a position the least objectionable. 

Perisfernia PaivcB is a variable shell, botb as to shape of 
whorls and length of spire, so also is its fossil representative, 
and specific differences are not easily definable so as to em- 
brace every individual variation of each. In the living species 
the whorls are tabulated, and the length of the aperture and 
canal does not exceed that of the rest of the shell ; in 
P. approximans the whorls though angulated are not tabulated, 
and the length of the aperture and canal is about half as long 
again as the rest of the shell. 

2. Peristernia purpuroides, spec. nov. Plate is., fig. 3. 

Shell fusiform, stout, whorls seven, apex small, mamillate. 
"Whorls convex, a little contracted at the anterior suture, the 
posterior whorls faintly transversely ribbed ; ornamented with 
thick spiral lirae, about nine on the posterior whorl, interstices 
much narrower than the lirae, and transversely striated. 

Aperture oval ; outer lip strongly lirate within, with a 
strong fold at the front ; inner lip patulous, callously expan- 
ded, decurrent on the pillar, which is bounded on the left by a 
narrow angulated furrow ; there is a strong oblique fold arising 
from the point of the pillar ; canal rather short, stout, and 
broad, bent to the left, and slightly reverted. 

Length, 29 ; breadth, 14 ; length of aperture ll'o, of canal 6. 

Localiti/. — Tipper beds at Muddy Creek (J. Dennant !) . 

The fossil recalls some varietal forms of 'Purpura lapillus, 
but its canal and plaited columella remove it from that genus ;. 
its affinity to Peristernia approximans is unquestionable, though 
not likely to be confounded with it. 

3. Peristernia Morundiana, sipec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 7. 
Shell ovately fusiform, stout, of seven flatly convex whorls 
of rather rapid increase, with a rather short conic spire ending 
in a small mamillate apex of two smooth whorls ; the anterior 



155 

of the apical wliorls is almost flat-sided, the posterior one is- 
globose, with the tip laterally immersed. Whorls bluutly 
angled and tuberculate behind the anterior suture, the posterior- 
slope is very wide and slightly convex ; the tubercles are 
rounded, widely separated, eight to a whorl, vanishing half-way 
across the posterior slope, but reaching the anterior suture ;, 
spirally lirate, lirae acute, about 20 on the penultimate whorl, 
alternately large and small on the anterior half, closely striated 
transversely. 

Last whorl medially angulated and tuberculated, gradually 
attenuated into a broad, open, much curved shortish beak. 
Aperture oval ; outer lip thin, faintly lirate within ; columella 
with a strong plait at the front decurrent on the canal, behind 
which is a second, and though moderately strong, is hardly 
visible from without. 

Length, 42'5 ; breadth, 20"5 ; aperture, length 16, width 9 ; 
length of canal, 11. 

Locality. — Grastropod-bed of the Eiver Murray Cliffs, near 
Morgan. 

4. Peristernia Murrayana, sine. nov. 

Shell ovately fusiform, whorls six and a half, of rapid in-- 
crease ; spire short conic, ending in a moderately large obtuse 
apex of two whorls, 1'5 mill, in diameter ; for about a third of 
a whorl from the margin of the pullus the surface is slenderly 
costated, the posterior whorl is globose, with the tip central 
and partially immersed. 

Whorls bluntly angulated and tuberculated at the anterior 
suture, the posterior slope very wide and slightly concave; 
tubercles small, eight to a whorl, trisected by three strong 
lirse ; ornamented on the anterior half of "the whorl with three 
or four strong spiral threads, with threadlets in the furrows,, 
the posterior slope with fine spiral and transverse striae hardly 
or not at all visible to the unaided eye. 

Last whorl subangulated and tuberculated at the periphery, 
at the base suddenly contracted into a narrow, nearly closed, 
sinistrally bent canal. Aperture oval ; outer lip thin, slightly 
effuse at the front, faintly lirate within ; columella with an 
oblique conspicuous plait arising from the pillar, and with two 
to four small linear ridges behind. 

Length, 25'5 ; breadth, 12'25 ; aperture, length 9, width 6 ;. 
length of canal 6. 

Locality. — One of the commonest fossils in the E-iver Murray 
Cliffs near Morgan. 

This species is much like P. Morundiana, but is'only about half 
the size, and differs by its more rapidly increasing whorls,, 
smaller and trisect tubercles, almost smooth on the posterior 



156 

slopes, b}^ its more sliarply bent attenuated beak, by the pos- 
terior deuticles on the columella, audby its larger and different 
pullus. 

5. Peristernia altifrons, spec. nov. Plate x., fig. 1. 

Shell fusiform, stout (apex wanting); whorls five, rapidly 
-enlarging ; posterior whorls shouldered, the posterior slope 
^ery narrow and at first inclined inwards, ornamented by equal 
lir?e and cancellated by straight striae ; with increase of growth 
the whorls become increasingly convex and plicated. Last 
whorl tumid in the middle, with seven narrov\% somewhat 
humpy, curved plications on the medial region, spirally lirate. 
Lirffi equidistant, about 20 on the penultimate whorl, with wide 
interspaces, but on the medial and anterior areas and on the 
base of the last whorl they are alternately large and small. 

Aperture oval ; columella with a strong fold at the front, 
decurrent on the canal ; canal stout, apparently of moderate 
length, curved to the left and reverted. 

Length, incomplete, 38 ; breadth, 18 ; aperture, length 15, 
width 7. 

Locality. — G-astropod-bed of the Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

6. Peristernia Aldingensis, spec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 8a, 8&. 

Shell fusiform, stout, with a high conical spire, ending in a 
small blunt mammilate apex of two and a half whorls ; for 
about a third of a whorl from the junction with the spire the 
surface is furnished with linear transverse plications. 

"Whorls eight and a half, increasing somewhat rapidly, 
convex, with seven large rounded oblique ribs on each whorl, 
w^hich die out on the base of the last whorl, separated by broad 
open furrows. Surface scored by coarse angular spiral threads 
(about ten on the penultimate whorl), roughened on the edge 
by close-set transverse striae, parted by wider furrows, with or 
without a spiral threadlet. Last whorl with a rounded base 
prolonged into a longish, sinistrally curved ^' and slightly re- 
verted beak. 

Aperture round ; outer lip strongly lirate within ; columella 
with a strong oblique plait at the top of the pillar, having a 
tooth-like termination ; a sniPvller plait is occasionally present 
behind it. 

Fig. 8& represents an extreme elate individual with more 
defined costations. 

Length, 35 ; breadth, 1-1-5 ; length of aperture, 10 ; of canal, 
S-5. 

Localities. — Turritella clays, Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay ; 
and Adelaide bore. 



157 

7. Peristernia affinis, sjyec. nov. Plate xi., fig. 7. 

Shell like P. transenna but narrower, with strong angular 
plications, which impart a more convex outline to the whorls. 
Whorls six, apex decollated ; bodj whorl with twelve trans- 
verse ribs, acutely nodulate at the intersection with the lirae. 
Aperture oval ; columella with a strong oblique twist ; canal 
shorter than in P. transenna, oblique and slightly twisted ; 
outer lip varicosely thickened a little beyond the edge ; stoutly 
lirate within. 

Length, 16*5 ; breadth, 7 ; length of aperture and canal, 9. 

Locality. — Table Cape {B. M. Johnston !) . 

8. Peristernia transenna, T. Woods. Plate xi., fig. 10. 

Fusus transenna, T. Woods, Proc. lioy. Soc. Tasm. for 187&, 
p. 94. 

Shell ovately fusiform with a flat spire, apex wanting ; 
whorls five, flatly convex, subangulate above, equally and 
widely latticed with arched transverse and spiral threads, 
raised into short, small conical nodulations at the intersection, 
the interstices cancellated. There are 24 transverse threads 
on the body whorl, and five spiral threads on the middle por- 
tion of the body whorl. 

Aperture oval ; columella with a strong oblique twist 
ascending from the pillar ; canal wide, of moderate length, 
oblique, and slightly reverted ; outer lip ? 

Length (incomplete), 20; breadth, 9; length of aperture 
and canal, 12. 

Locality. — Table Cape {B. M. Johnston!). 

9. Peristernia lintea, spec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 11. 

Shell ovately fusiform, with a moderately high conical spire 
ending in a blunt apex of one and a half sub-globose whorls ;. 
whorls below the apex four, ornamented by fine spiral threads 
with two or three striae in the interspaces, crossed by slender 
arched growth lines and very fine striae ; last whorl sometimes 
with short undulations at the periphery. 

Outer lip thin, lirate within ; columella with a conspicuous- 
oblique fold at the top of the canal succeeded by two or three 
small ones. 

Length, 28 ; breadth, 10 ; length of aperture, 9; of canal, 11. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

This species is distinguished from Fasciolaria Tenisoni by its 
more ventricose body whorl, fine spiral ornament, and slender 
bent canal. 

10. Peristernia apicilirata, spec. nov. PI. ix., fig. 14. 

Shell small, elongate-fusiform, spire high, of sub-gradated 
whorls, ending in a large hemispheric apex radially finely 



158 

iribbed ; wTiorls below apex four, convex, bicarinated medially, 
transversely costated. 

Cost» thick, seven or eight to a whorl, distant, raised into 
blunt tubercles on the keels, faintly continued on to the base 
•of the last whorl. Spiral ornament consists of two strong 
medial threads forming keels, a slender thread on the posterior 
slope, and one or two at the front of the spire whorls ; the 
\whole surface crossed by curved striae of growth. 

Aperture oval; outer lip thin; columella obliquely trun- 
cated by a spiral plait ; canal very short, wide, curved, and 
reverted. 

Length, 5 ; breadth, 2 ; length of aperture and canal, 2. 

Localities. — Turritella clays at Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay; 
clayey-green sands, Adelaide bore. 

11. Peristernia actinostephes, spec.nov. Plate ix., fig. 10. 

Similar to P. apiciliraia ; whorls below apex five, regularly 
• convex, with thick humpy costas, about nine to a whorl, with 
equal, equidistant spiral threads (six on the penultimate 
w'horl). Outer lip smooth or lirate within ; base a little more 
contracted. Aperture oblong. 

Length, 7 ; breadth, 2*5 ; length of canal and aperture, 3. 

Localities. — Same as the last. 

12. Peristernia succincta, T. Woods. 

TropJion succinctus^ Tenison- Woods, Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., 
vol. iv., p. 16, tab. J., figs. 6, 6«, 1879. 

Shell elongate-turbinate, apex blunt, of one and a half small 
subglobose whorls, the tip somewhat oblique ; whorls below 
the apex 5, convex, somewhat flattened behind ; encircled with 
distant sharp high keels, rudely rugged at the edge, the wide 
concave interspaces marked with transverse growth-lines and 
fine spiral striae. 

Iveels on the penultimate whorl five or six, of which the two 
or three medial ones are a little larger and more distant than 
the rest. 

Last whorl somewhat tumid ; ajDcrture nearly circular ; outer 
lip slightly dilated, thickened and closely grooved within, 
bevelled to a sharp undulate edge ; inner lip continuous with 
the outer lip, with a thin erect margin; a strong, oblique plait 
at the junction with the canal, with a few small denticles be- 
hind ; canal of moderate length, wide, stout, bent to the left, 
and much reverted. 

Length, 33 ; breadth, 20 ; aperture, length 13-5, width 9 ; 
canal length 10, width 4"5. 

Locality. — Lower beds at IMuddy Creek. 



159 

13. Peristernia interlineata, si)ec. nov. Plate vi., fig. 1. 

Shell ovately fusiform, with a moderately high subgradated 
spire, ending in a blunt apex of one a half subglobose whorls, 
the tip depressed. Whorls below the apex four, convex, equally 
contracted at both sutures, spirally ridged. 

Eidges angular, acute, three or four of which on the median 
portion of the spire whorls forming keels ; the broad concave 
furrows with a thread, crossed by straight distant striae. On 
the body whorl the ridges are more serrately cut by the trans- 
verse striae than those are on the spire. 

Aperture oval; outer lip thin, closely and strongly lirate 
within ; peristome continuous ; inner lip with a thin erect 
margin, a strong oblique anterior plait, and a few denticles. 
Canal long, slender, twisted to the left and reverted. 

Length, 23 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture 8*5, of canal 7. 

LocalUy. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

E-elated to P. succincta by its ornament, but it is elongated 
and has a long tapering canal. 

14. Peristernia subundulosa, spec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 12. 

Shell similar to P. interlineata but the whorls are regularly 
convex ; the spiral lirse flatly rounded, no intersticial thread in 
the wider interspaces (about ten on the penultimate whorl) ; 
lirae undulose by reason of the obscure, broad, transverse 
wrinklings. There are two small plaits and a tooth on the 
columella, in addition to the prominent fold at the junction 
with the canal. 

Length, 23'5 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture 9, of canal 7. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

GrENUS TtJDICULA. 

STJ^OPSTS OF SPECIES. 

Periphery truncated and costated. 1. T. costata. 

rounded, undulose. 2. T. turhinata. 

angulated, plain. 8. T. angulata. 

It is noteworthy that the above-named fossils conform more 
with the type of the genus (T. sjyirillus) than does any of the 
living species associated therewith ; the recent species, which 
number five, are confined to the Indo-Australian region. Each 
of the fossil species has very distinctive characters as com- 
pared with T. spirillus. 

1. Tudicula costata, spec. nov. Plates., fig. 9. 

Shell globosely conical, with a very short conical spire ; apex 

mamillate of two whorls, erect, and a little lopsided. Surface 

ornamented with numerous spiral threads alternately large 

and small and transverse striae. Last whorl truncated at the 



IGO 

peripliery, bearing nine curved somewhat liumpy costae, which 
are crenulated by about six strong spiral threads ; base short, 
rounded, contracted into a long, straightish, slender beak. 

Aperture oval ; outer lip with a slight callous thickening on 
the margin, smooth within ; inner lip continuous with the outer 
lip, much thickened, but not spreading, decurrent on the pillar; 
with a stout oblique plait at the summit of the pillar and a few- 
denticles behind. 

Length, 27"5 ; breadth, 19 ; aperture, length 12, width 7 ;; 
length of canal, 13. 

Locality. — In a well sinking on the Eiver Murray Desert. 

2. Tudicula turbinata, »i-)ec. nov. Plate x., fig. 7. 

Shell globosely conical, with a short conical spire of flatly 
depressed whorls ; apex mamillate, erect, of two smooth whorls. 
Surface ornamented with angular, distant, spiral threads ; 
interspaces angular, with a medial threadlet, coarsely striated 
spirally, and finely striated transversely. 

Last whorl rather ventricose, especially towards the aper- 
ture, rounded at the periphery, provided with short thick 
costcT, ten in number, crenulated by three or four strong lirae ; 
base short, rounded, contracted into a long, straight, slender 
beak. 

Aperture oval ; outer lip slightly incurved behind the peri- 
phery, where it is much thickened, margin crenulated and 
scored for a short distance within ; inner lip continuous with 
the outer lip, very much thickened, but not spreading, with a 
stout oblique plait at the summit of the pillar and five or six 
denticles behind. 

Length, 27 (canal incomplete) ; breadth, 23 ; aperture length, 
20; width, 11; length of canal, 10 (incomplete). A young 
specimen measures — length, 22"5 ; breadth, 8 ; length of aper- 
ture, 8 ; of canal, 10. 

Localities. — Gastropod-bed of the Eiver Murray cliffs, near 
Morgan ; lower beds at Muddy Creek (J. Dennantl). 

3. Tudicula angulata, spec. nov. Plate x., fig. 9. 

Shell globosely conical, with a short, flatly depressed spire, 
apex erect mamillate of two smooth whorls. Last whorl angu- 
lated at the periphery, ornamented with spiral lirae, irregularly 
crenulated by oblique growth lines; lirae on posterior slope, 
nearly equal and equidistant, narrow, rounded, and depressed, 
the interspaces a little wider ; on the front and base the lirae are 
stronger, wide apart, the interspaces occupied by three or four 
threadlets. 

Aperture as in T. turhinata, except that there are no den- 
ticles behind the columella-plait. 



161 

Length, less the canal, 16 ; breadth, 15*5 ; aperture, length, 
11 ; width, 6-5. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

Genus De:n"2^antia. 

Name in compliment to Mr. J. Dennant, F.G-.S., who has 
placed his very extensive collection of the Muddy Creek 
fossils at my service. 

Type. — Eusus Ino, Tenison Woods. 

Generic Characters. — Shell elongate, turriculate ; aperture 
prolonged into a moderately long, sharply bent and reverted 
canal ; columella with an oblique fold ending at the point of 
the pillar in a tooth-like projection ; base of body whorl with 
a revolving ridge coincident with the posterior angle of the 
mouth and ending in a pointed projection on the thin outer lip. 

This genus combines the form of Fastigiella with the aper- 
ture of Leucozonia and the canal of Peristeomia. 

STIN'OPSIS OF SPECIES. 

Lirately ridged or striated. 1. D. Ino. 

Spirally furrowed. 2. D. cingulata. 

1. Dennantia Ino, T. Woods. PI. xii., figs, la— Ic and 3. 

Fusus Ino, Tenison- Woods, Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., vol. iv., 
p. 13, tab. 3, fig. 10, 1S79. 

Shell elongate-turriculate, rather stout ; whorls eight and a 
half, of moderate increase, ending a rather large obtuse apex 
of two and a half smooth tumid whorls with the tip depressed 
and centrally immersed. 

Anterior whorls convex, suture well impressed, encircled with 
slender, acute lir?e (about seven on the penultimate whorl, but 
the number is very variable), the wide interspaces with spiral 
threads and microscopic transverse closely-set striae, arched 
growth-lines and indistinct folds occur at irregular intervals. 

Body whorl regularly convex to the basal keel, then suddenly 
contracted into a moderately long twisted beak. 

Aperture ovate ; outer lip thin, interrupted by the projection 
of the basal keel, behind which it is slightly incurved, lirate 
within ; inner lip defined behind by an impressed line continued 
to near the extremity of the canal, provided with an oblique 
fold arising from a short denticle at the junction with the 
canal. 

Length, 26'5 ; breadth, 10 ; length of aperture 8, of canal 6. 

Localities. — One of the commonest fossils in the lower beds at 
Muddy Creek ; blue clays at Schnapper Point ; G-astropod-bed 
of the River Murray Cliffs, near Morgan. 

Mr. Tenison- AYoods founded this species on a young example 

K 



162 

with miicli of the outer lip broken awa}^, and as the whole as- 
pect is so totally different from a perfect matured shell it was 
needful to refigure the species, and for this purpose I selected 
a specimen which agreed the best with the original diagnosis. 
The species is subject to much variation ; examples from the 
Hiver Murray Cliffs are much shorter and broader than the 
type, an extreme form having a breadth equal to half the 
length. Pig. 3 on tab. 12 represents a variety common at 
Schnapper Point, in which the encircling ridges are very promi- 
nent and angular, and somewhat roughened by the intercross- 
ing of growth-folds. 

2. Dennantia cingulata. Plate xii., figs. 2 and 5a— oh. 

A rather more slender form than D. Ino, with linear encirc- 
ling furrows. In the form represented by fig. 2, the broad sur- 
face is simply scored by lines, whilst in the form represented 
by fig. 5 the grooving is deep and moderately broad, though not 
so wide as the rounded ridges. Xow and again a thread ap- 
pears in the furrows. 

Locality. — Blue clays, Schnapper Point. 

Gexus Leucozoxia. 

STKOPSIS or SPECIES. 

Shell pyriform ; spiral stri» microscopic. 1. L. micronema. 
Shell ovate-globose ; spiral ornament of fine distant threads 
and stri». 2. L. staminea. 

Shell globosely turbinate ; lirse stout, close. 

3. L. tumida. 

1. Leucozonia micronema, spec. nov. Plate ix., fig. 12. 

Shell small, pyriformly ovate, apex mamillate of one and a 
half whorls, the tip obliquely depressed. Whorls below the 
apex three, slightly overlapping behind, concealing the suture; 
microscopically wavy-striated in a spiral direction, the strias 
hardly visible on the base of the last whorl ; marked trans- 
versely by striae and linear folds of growth. 

Aperture elongate-oval ; outer lip lirate within, margin (?) ; 
columella with six narrow, nearly transverse plaits, rather 
close together, decreasing in size from the front, the anterior 
one much the largest ; canal short, stout, wide, straight, a little 
upturned at the end. 

Leugth, 11 ; breadth, 6 ; length of canal and aperture, S. 

Localiti/. — Blue clays at Schnapper Point. 

This little fossil is apparently congeneric with Buccinum 
rostratiim, Wood, the generic position of which is very doubt- 
ful, but placed by Gray in his genus Leucownia under the sub- 
generic title of Lagena. 



163 

2. Leucozonia staminea, spec. nov. PL ix., fig. 13. 

Shell small, ovately globose, apex a little eccentric, mamil- 
late of one and a lialf whorls, flattened down at tlie tip. 
"Whorls below the apex four ; ornamented with distant, slender 
spiral threads, the interspaces about 1 mill, wide on the body 
whorl, occupied by close fine stride ; a few of the lir^e towards 
■the base are irregularly granulated. Aperture oval; outer lip 
thin, lirate within ; columella with three close, equal, slightly 
oblique plaits at the front, each ending in a tooth-like projec- 
tion, a narrow umbilical chink behind the pillar ; canal short, 
bent to the left, and reverted. 

Length, 12 ; breadth, 7'5 ; length of aperture and canal, 8. 

Locality, — Blue clays at Schnapper Point. 

3. Leucozonia tumida, spec. nov. PI. xiii., fig. 2. 

Shell small (immature?), globosely turbinate, ventricose; 
apex mamillate of two subglobose whorls ; whorls four in all; 
last whorl ventricose, with equidistant angular threads, finely 
cancellated in the furrows by two or three spiral threadlets 
and transverse striae. 

Outer lip faintly lirate within ; three nearly equal sized 
plaits at the fore part of the columella ; canal short, much 
-twisted, and reverted. 

Length, 10'5 ; breadth, 7'5 ; length of aperture and canal, 8. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. {J. Lennant !). 

Genus Zemiea. 
1. Zemira praecursoria, spec. nov. Plate xi., fig. 5. 

Shell ovate, stout ; whorls five and a half, ending in a smooth 
mamillate apex, rounded, deeply channelled at the suture ; 
sculptured w4th revolving incised lines (about ten on the 
penultimate whorl), the posterior of which are more prominent; 
whole surface slightly wrinkled and striated transversely. 

Last whorl with a revolving channel in an alignment with 
the posterior angle of the aperture, and terminating at the 
anterior third of the outer lip in a tooth-like projection ; in 
front of the channel are six prominent, rounded, spiral ribs 
much wider than the interspaces, whilst the posterior area is 
sculptured as the penultimate v/horl. 

Aperture ovate, slightly angulated posteriorly ; inner lip 
with a slight callous extension, partially concealing the narrow 
umbilicus, which is margined by a strong, rounded, striated 
rib ; columella smooth, compressed, terminating in a transverse 
tooth -like fold ; anterior canal reduced to a mere notch ; outer 
lip thin, the part anterior to the tooth-like projection is 
crenately wrinkled. 



164 

Length, 21 ; breadth, 13 ; length o£ aperture, 14. 

Localif}/. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek (J". DennantV). 

The discovery of a fossil species of Zemira is of interest 
from the circumstance that the genus has hitherto been known 
by one species, Z. aiistralis, Sow., inhabiting the temperate sea» 
of Eastern Australia, from which it differs by its longer spire 
and narrower body whorl, narrower sutural sulcus, and by the 
more pronounced encircling ridges. 

Gexus Pisania. 

stiiopsis of species. 
Turriculate, slenderly cancellate, canal long. 

1. P. rostrata. 
Ovate-fusiform, coarsely .cancellate, whorls convex. 

2. P. semicosfata^ 
thick oblique cost?e, whorls convex. 

3. P. obliqiiecostata ^ 
whorls bicarinate, cancellated. 

4 . P . ^ urp u ro ides . 
Ovate-conical, stronglj^ costated and lirate, margined at the 

suture. 5. P. hrevis^ 

1. Pisania rostrata, spec. nov. Plate x., fig. 10. 

Shell elongate-ovate, fusiform, with a high conical spire, 
abruptly attenuated at the base into a stout beak (long for the 
genus). Apex very small of two rounded whorls, the tip 
obliquely depressed. Whorls below the apex six, convex, 
spirally lirate with depressed rounded threads alternately 
large and small (about 20 on the penultimate whorl) ; posterior 
■whorls with crowded slender costae, about 24 on the ante> 
penultimate whorl, which vanish at the penultimate whorl. 
Last whorl varicosely dilated behind the aperture ; base 
rounded, rather sharply contracted into a broad, slightly 
oblique, much-upturned beak. 

Aperture oval-oblong ; outer lip with a thin margin, strongly 
ridged within ; inner lip with a circumscribed callous cover 
continued down the pillar, behind which is a shallow narrow 
groove ; a bifid callosity on the body wall near the posterior 
angle of the aperture ; a strong oblique plait ends in a blunt 
tooth-like projection at the top of the canal. 

Length, 25 ; breadth, 10 ; length of aperture, S ; of canal, 5. 

Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek (J". Bennant !) 

This species is conspicuous amongst living congeners by its 
abruptly contracted base and long beak. 

2. Pisania semicostata, spec. nov. Plate iv., fig. 9. 
Shell oblonoj-fusiform, similar to P. rostrata, with more 



165 

rapidly increasing whorls, base less abruptly attenuated, canal 
shorter, costae fewer and stouter. AVhorls below the apex four, 
costae slightly curved, rounded, about as wide as the interspaces, 
16 on the penultimate whorl, obsolete or only faintly developed 
-on the body whorl. 

Length, 19"5 : breadth, 8'5 ; length of aperture, 7 ; of canal, 3. 
. Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek {J. Dennant !). 

3. Pisania obliquecostata, sjjec. nov. Plate ix., fig. 7. 

Shell small, narrow-ovate, thick ; whorls five, slightly convex, 
•strongly costated and lirate. Costae rather narrow, rounded, 
high, distant, oblique, about eight to a whorl ; lirag stout, dis- 
tant, four on the penultimate whorl, more or less tuberculated 
on the costse. 

Aperture varicosely dilated ; six stout denticles within the 
outer lip ; columella truncated by an oblique fold ; canal short, 
.stout, a little oblique. 

Length, 7 ; breadth, 3 ; length of aperture and canal, 3'5. 

Locality/. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek. 

4. Pisania purpuroides, Johnston. Plate xi., fig. 6. 

Ricinula purpicroides, R. M. Johnston, Proc. Koy. Soc, Tas- 
iQania for 1879, p. 33. 

Shell small, solid, obtusely and narrowly ovate. "Whorls six, 
those of the spire obtusely angulated and bicarinated, with an 
impressed suture, transversely costated, spirally lirate, and 
finely cancellated between the costte. There are two strong 
encircling carinae, one median and a second about midway to 
the anterior suture, whilst a third, less prominent, is at the 
posterior suture ; in the concave interspaces between the lirae 
there are one, two, or three fine spiral threads. 

Last whorl moderately convex, with about seven equal and 
equidistant stout lir^e, having about three threads in each in- 
terspace. 

The costae (eleven on the penultimate and eight on the body 
whorl) are raised into blunt nodulations at the points of inter- 
section with the stouter lirae. 

Aperture narrowly ovate ; outer lip varicosely dilated be- 
hind, slightly creuulated on the acute margin, and with seven 
tooth-like ridges within ; inner lip spreading over the 
columella and thinly continuous with the outer lip, with one 
elongated plication near the posterior angulation and about 
eight small irregular callosities thence to the point of the 
pillar. Canal short, wide, oblique, and slightl}^ reverted. 

Length, 12 ; breadth, 6 ; length of aperture and canal, 7. 

Locality. — Table Cape, Tasmania (i^. Jf. Jolinstoii ! ); lower 
beds at Muddy Creek. 



166 

5. Pisania brevis, spec. nov. PI. is., fig. 8. 

Shell oratelj conical ; wliorls six, angularl^y convex, a little 
contracted in front, strongly costated and lirate. 

Costre narrow, acutely rounded, distant, slightly oblique, 
about ten to a whorl, more or less crenulated by the lirse. Lir8& 
on the body whorl alternately stout and slender, two very 
stout ones on the angulation ; suture margined by two con- 
fluent lirae. 

Aperture somewhat varicosely dilated ; outer lip lirate 
within ; columella truncated by an oblique fold behind, which 
is denticulated ; canal short, stout, slightly oblique. 

Length, 10 ; breadth, 55 ; length of aperture and canal, 6. 

Localitij. — Upper and lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

GeXUS CA^'THARrS. 
1. Cantharus varicosus, 8-pec. nov. Plate viii., fig. 10. 

Shell ovate, subf usiform, whorls five and a half, flatly con- 
vex, variced, of rapid increase, apex of one and a half small 
smooth rounded whorls, the tip immersed. 

Posterior whorls spirall}' deeply grooved ; anterior whorls 
with thick spiral ridges, about eight on the penultimate whorl, 
broken up into thick, elongate, regularly disposed granules, 
with a slender thread in the narrow interspaces ; on the body 
whorl the granulation is not so regular, and the interstitial 
thread is conspicuous. Varices five. 

Aperture oblong ; outer lip varicosely dilated, margin sharp^ 
with a thick, stoutly denticulate band within, the front sharply 
curved to the short, sinistrally curved, emarginate beak ; inner 
lip and pillar with a thin porcellanous coat tuberculate all over. 

Length, 17"5 ; breadth, 9'5 ; length of aperture and canal, 12. 

Locality. — Turritella-clays, Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay. 

GrE]!«^TJS PhOS. 
SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

Apex acutely conical. 

Whorls convex, a little flatted behind. 

1. P. iardicrescens. 
Apex subcylindrical or turbinate. 
Whorls convex, not shouldered. 

Costse slender, lira? strong. 2. P. lircecostatus, 

CostcT feeble, lir?e faint. 3. P. cominelloides. 

CostcT and lir?e strong. 4. P. Gregsoni. 

Whorls shouldered and tuberculated. 

5. P. tiiberculatiis. 
Apex mamillate, obtuse. 

Whorls tabulated, aperture variced. 6. P. variciferus. 



i 



167 

1. Phos tardicrescens, spec. nov. Plate x., fig. 12. 

Shell pyramidal, stout, whorls eleven, convex, closely ribbed 
and lirate ; apex conical of five smooth slightly convex whorls 
of very slow increase. 

Whorls below those of the apex of very slow increase, the 
posterior ones narrow, and regularly convex, gradually be- 
coming more and more depressed behind. Last whorl small 
and narrow, with a high slightly declining and rounded 
shoulder defined by a blunt angulation ; base short, rounded, 
ending in a short, strongly twisted, reverted beak. 

Transverse ribs slightly oblique, low, broadish, elevated at 
the shoulder of the anterior whorls into ill-defined cuneate 
tubercles, 14 to a whorl. The spiral ornament cosists of about 
20 thin threads, unequal and inequidistant with wider inter- 
spaces ; the intercostal spaces are rudely cancellated. 

Aperture round ; outer lip thin, with about 20 spiral ridges 
within. 

Length, 21 ; breadth, 11 ; length of aperture and canal, 10. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek (J". Dennant!). 

2. Phos lirc8Costatus, T. Woods. Plate xi., fig. 12. 

Cominella lyrsecostata, T. Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasm., for 
1876, p. 108. 

Shell long, narrow, fusiform, closely and narrowly ribbed, 
conspicuously lirate ; whorls eight, flatly convex ; apex blunt, 
turbinated of three rounded smooth whorls, the anterior two 
high, the terminal one small. 

AVhorls below the apex short and convex, of very slow in- 
crease ; suture deep and margined. Last whorl small, with a 
longish rounded base, ending in a twisted, slightly reverted 
beak. 

Transverse ribs narrow, rounded, crenulated, about 16 to a 
whorl, more conspicuous on the posterior whorls, almost obso- 
lete on the last whorl. LirsD very prominent, distant, six to 
ten on the penultimate whorl ; intercostal spaces finely can- 
cellate. Aperture oval ; outer lip acute, faintly lirate within. 

Length, 19 ; breadth, 7 ; length of aperture and canal, 7. 

Locality. — Table Cape {B. M. JoJinston !) . 

3. Phos cominelloides, spec. nov. Plate iv., fig. 11. 
Shell elongate-pyramidal ; whorls seven and a half, convex, 
distantly ribbed and faintly lirate ; apex blunt, conoidally 
cylindrical, of three and a half smooth whorls. "Whorls below 
those of the apex narrow at first, flatly convex, increasing in 
convexity towards the front, with a slight narrow concave 
depression in front of the suture, defined by a blunt angu- 
lation. 



168 

Last wliorl small, with a rather short rounded base ending in 
a twisted reverted, emarginate beak. 

Transverse ribs, narrow, rounded, ill- defined, except on the 
posterior whorls, about 12 to a whorl. Spiral lirte thick, 
depressed, inconspicuous, about seven on the medial and pos- 
terior areas o£ the penultimate whorl ; obsolete on the middle 
of the last whorl, but prominent on its base. AVhole surface 
closely transversely striated. 

Aperture oval ; outer lip thin, slightly insinuated behind 
the shoulder, without, about 20 slender spiral ridges within. 

Length, 20 ; breadth, 8 ; length of aperture and canal, 10. 

Locality. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek. 

4. Phos Gregsoni, sjyec. nov. 

Shell similar to P. cominelloides, but the whorls are sub- 
angularly convex by reason of the largely developed costae ; 
the basal whorl is narrower, and the apex is different, which 
consists of three high turbinated whorls, and is rendered con- 
spicuous by the disproportionate increase in size of the whorl 
next below it. 

The costa? are rounded, distant, eight to a whorl, vanishing 
behind the shoulder, but are continued to the base of the body 
whorl. Spiral lircT, about six, depressed, equal and equidistant 
on the posterior slope of the penultimate whorl, about twelve 
alternately large and small on the rest of the whorl. Outer 
lip not insinuated behind the shoulder. 

Length, 19 ; breadth, 8"5 ; length of aperture and canal, 8"5. 

Localities. — Jemmy's Point and Cunninghame, Gippsland 
(JV. S. Gregsoni). 

Species-name in compliment to Mr. G-regson, of Bairnsdale, 
to whom I am indebted for the gift of this and other species of 
the Gippsland Tertiary beds. 

5. Phos tuberculatus, spec. nov. Plate s., fig. 5. 

Shell ovately pyramidal, stout, costated and lirate, with a 
rather high gradated spire, ending in a subcylindrical a|)ex of 
three smooth whorls. Whorls below the apex, five, of rather 
rapid increase, short, with a high rounded shoulder concave 
behind. 

Costse, about 11 to a whorl, thick, rounded, equidistant, pro- 
minent only on the angulation, faintly prolonged to the 
anterior suture of the spire whorls ; crenulated by conspicuous 
lira? ; lirae on body wliorl confined to the angulation and to the 
base. 

Aperture oblong ; outer lip acute, smooth within ; beak 
short, twisted, reverted, and emarginate. 

Length, 22 ; breadth, 10"5 ; length of aperture and canal, 11. 

Locality. — Upper beds at Muddy Creek {J. Dennantl). 



169 

6. Phos (?) variciferus, spec. nov. PL xi., fig. 3. 

Sliell turriculate, with a Mgli gradated spire, ending in a 
:small obtuse apex of one and a half convex whorls, the extreme 
tip of which is somewhat obliquely flattened down. 

"Whorls below those of the apex six, of very slow increase, 
sharply angled a little beyond the middle, with a straight up- 
ward slope to the posterior suture, slightly contracted into the 
.anterior suture. 

Spiral lirae, thick, rounded, five on the posterior slope and 
about eight stronger ones on the front, crossed by close-set fine 
striae. Transverse costse, slender, sharp, bent at the keel, 
.about 20 to a whorl, raised into small, blunt knobs on the keel 
and crenulated by the lirse, especially on the anterior, slope ; on 
the last whorl the costae descend from the keel in a sigmoid 
curve to the beak. 

Last whorl variced immediately behind the outer lip, and 
besides there are variceal imbrications, usually about two to a 
whorl. 

Aperture narrow oblong ; outer lip thin, faintly lirate 
within ; inner lip continuous with the outer lip at all stages of 
growth, its edge upraised, markedly so on the pillar, with an 
umbilical chink at the origin of the canal, smooth within. 
Canal short, open, twisted to the left and much reverted. 

Length, 22 ; breadth, 9"5 ; length of canal and aperture, 
11-5. 

Localities. — Lower beds at Muddy Creek; blue clays at 
Schnapper Point ; Gastropod-bed of the Eiver Murray Cliffs, 
near Morgan. 

The genus under which to class this species has been selected 
with some hesitation. Its shape and variceal characters ap- 
proach it to Epidromus, particularly through E. turo^itus^ mihi, 
but the distortion of the short beak is adverse to such associa- 
tion. The entire peristome and variced outer lip suggest a 
reference to Nassaria, which has, however, teeth on the pillar 
and much different shape ; with JPhos it agrees in contour and 
in the short twisted beak, but it lacks the characteristic basal 
groove of the pillar, and otherwise differs by its variced and 
■entire aperture. 

FAMILY NASSIN^. 

GrENUS NaSSA. 
SYNOPSIS OE SPECIES. 

Inner lip with a rugose callus ; outer lip denticulated within, 
with a marginal varix (subg. Hima), 1. N. Tatei. 

Inner and outer lips smooth ; variced externally (subg. 
Pheontis). 2. N. crassigranosa. 



170 

Inner lip with a large rugose callus ; outer lip dentate, not 
variced externally (subg. Niotha). 3. iV^. suhlirella. 

1. Nassa Tatei, T. Woods. Plate xii., fig. 9. 

I^assa Tatei, Tenison Woods, Proc. Lin. Soc. N.S.AV., vol. iii., 
p. 230, t. 21, fig. 13, 1S78 ; id. vol. iv., t. 2, f . 2, 1879. 

Shell ovate or elongate-ovate of eight regularly increasing 
whorls ; apex mamillate of four smooth regular whorls ; the 
rest of the spire whorls regularh^ convex, with an impressed 
suture, cancelhited with sharp raised costn? and flat spiral lira© 
granulated at the intersections. There are about 15 to 20 
costae on the penultimate whorl, but rapidly diminish in num- 
ber posteriorly ; there are seven principal lirse on the penulti- 
mate whorl, sometimes with a thread in one or more of the 
interspaces, the two contiguous lirae next the suture are usually 
less stout than the rest. 

Aperture oblong-ovate, the outer lip being narrowly trun- 
cate at the front. Outer lip with a marginal varix, but elong- 
ate examples, such as figured by me, have a varix at or about 
in an alignment with the columella, inner lip expanded and re- 
flected with a conspicuous posterior plait, and one or more 
rugosities at the front. 

Length, from 7-5 to S'S ; breadth, S'o. 

Localities. — Lower beds, very rare in upper beds, at Muddy 
Creek ; Gastropod-bed of the Eiver Murray Cliffs, near Mor- 
gan ; blue clays at Schnapper Point, Port Philip. 

This species is the fossil analogue of N. compacta, Angas, 
which is the Australian representative of the European 
iV. incrassata. N. Tatei is more elevated, has numerous and 
finer costulations than AT. compacta, and moreover has a large 
puUus of four whorls, and not of two. Professor Hutton in 
Proc. Lin. Soc., IS^.S.W., 1886, p. 481, has referred his 
AT. socialis to this species ; but the two shells are distinct ; the 
JN'ew Zealand fossil has the whorls chanelled at the suture, and 
has usually only four lirae on the penultimate whorl, of which 
the one next to the posterior suture is small ; other less con- 
spicuous distinctive characters are present. 

The illustration of this species by Mr. Woods on plate 21, 
fig. 13, op. cit., is very imperfect, but that on plate 2, fig. 2, op. 
cit., very well represents an exceedingly immature shell. The 
figure accompanying this description is that of a senile ex- 
ample of rather unusual length. 

2. Nassa crassigranosa, spec. nov. PL xii., figs. 6c, 6&. 
Shell stout, ovately conical ; spire regular (except in senile 
examples) of rapidly decreasing subgradated whorls ; apex acute, 
of two smooth minute whorls. Whorls 7 ; the ordinary spire 



171 

whorls convexly angular, with three nodular bands, one at the- 
posterior suture, one median, and the third at about half the 
distance between the keel and the anterior suture. 

Last whorl transversely obliquely costated and nodulated 
by spiral ridges. Costae about 10 — 12 ; lirse eight, the one next 
the suture is separated from the keel by a wider space than 
that which intervenes between the succeeding ones. 

Aperture oval, large, variced externally ; outer lip smooth 
within ; inner lip smooth, slightly reflected, callously extending 
posteriorly ; columella sharply and obliquely truncated. 

Senile examples occur which have added another whorl (as- 
fig. 6b), and by reason of the posterior varix has a somewhat 
distorted spire. 

Dimensions of an ordinary full grown example — Length,. 
14 ; breadth, 85. Of a senile example — Length, 17 ; breadth, 
10. 

Localities. — One of the most characteristic fossils in the upper 
beds at Muddy Creek, very rare and small in the uppermost 
portion of the lower series ; Jemmy's Point, Cunninghams 
and other localities in Gippsland {JV. H. Gregsonl'), 

This species seems to resemble N. granifer, Kiener, but the 
callus of the inner lip is very restricted. 

3. Nasa sublirella, spec. nov. 

Shell small, ovate, with the costse cut into nodules by 
revolving ridges, four on the penultimate whorl; outer lip 
tuberculate within, the posterior tubercle much larger than the 
rest ; inner lip callously reflected, tuberculate. It resembles 
stumpy specimens of JV. lyrella, Beck, but the body whorl i& 
not so inflated, and the spire is longer ; the spiral ribs on the 
body whorl are usually eight, not ten, and the nodulations are 
larger and well defined, not confluent, as is generally the case 
in N'. lyrella ; and whilst in the latter species the cost?e towards- 
the lip usually fade away before reaching the base, in the fossil 
species they are continued to the base. 

Length, 95 ; breadth, 6. 

Locality. — Lpper beds at Muddy Creek. 



ExpLANATiO]S' OP Plates. 

IS'.B. — The figures are of the natural sizes, except when; 
otherwise stated. 

Plate I. 

1. Typhis disjunctus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

2. Typhis acanthopterus, Tate. Schnapper Point. Enlarged.. 

3. Murex (Ocinebra) biconicus, Tate. Murray Desert. 



172 

4. Murex (Pteronotus) triuodosiis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Enlarged. 

5. Murex (Ocinebra) priouotus, Tate. Adelaide. Enlarged. 

6. Typhis evaricosus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

7. Murex (Pteronotus) rliysus, Tate. Sclinapper Point. 
S. Murex (Pteronotus) velificus, Tate. Sclinapper Point. 
9. Murex (Pteronotus) manubriatus, Tate. Adelaide. 

10. Typhis laciniatus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

11. Murex (Pteronotus) calvus, Tate. Aldinga. 

12. Murex (Pteronotus) bifrons, Tate. Adelaide. 

Plate II. 

1. Trophon hypsellus, Tate. Adelaide. Much enlarged. 

2. Murex (Ocinebra) tridentatus, Tate. Aldinga. Much 

enlarged. 

3. Trophon icosiphyllus, Tate. Adelaide. Much enlarged. 

•1. Murex (Chicoreus) Adelaidensis, Tate. Adelaide. En- 
larged. 

5. Murex (Chicoreus) lophoessus, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

6. Murex (Chicoreus) tenuicornis, Tate. Adelaide. En- 

larged. 

7. Mnrex (Chicoreus) Dennanti, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Slightly enlarged. 

8. Eapana aculeata, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

9. Murex (Chicoreus) basicinctus, Tate. E. Murray Cliffs. 

10. Murex (Ehiuacantha) asteriscus, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Slightly enlarged. 

11. Murex (Ehiuacantha) pachystirus, Tate. E. Murray Cliffs. 

Slightly enlarged. 

12. Murex (Chicoreus) amblyceras, Tate. SchnajDper Point. 

Slightly enlarged. 

Plate III. 

1. Murex (Ocinebra) asperulus. Tate. Schnapper Point. 

2. Murex (Ocinebra) camplytropis, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

3. Murex (Phyllonotus) sublaevis, Tate. Aldinga. 

4. Murex (Ocinebra) monotropis, Tate. Adelaide. Much 

enlarged. 

5. Murex (Ocinebra^ crassiliratus, Tate. Muddy Creek. En- 

larged. 

6. Murex (Chicoreus) Hamiltonensis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

7. Sipho labrosus, Tate. Enlarged. Muddy Creek. 

8. Sipho crebrigranosus, Tate. Enlarged. Muddy Creek. 

9. Eusus incompositus, Tate. Aldinga. Enlarged. 

10. Eusus Aldingensis, Tate. Aldinga. Enlarged. 

11. Eusus tholoides, Tate. Enlarged. 



173 

12. Murex ('Ocinebra) alveolatus, Tate. Muddy Creek.. 

MucH enlarged. 

13. Murex (OcinebraJ trocWspira, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Much enlarged. 

14. Typhis tripterus, Tate. Adelaide. 

15. Tusus hexagonalis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 5, Apex enlarged. 

Plate IY. 

1. Bela sculptilis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 5, Ornament on. 

shoulder enlarged. 

2. Bela pulchra, Tate. Muddy Creek. 5, Ornament on. 

shoulder enlarged. 

3. Bela AVoodsii, Tate (Cominella GanceUata,'W oodi^). Table 

Cape. 

4. Epidromus turritus, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

5. Siphonalia spatiosa, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

6. Epidromus citharellus, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

7. Bela crassilirata, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

8. Murex (Phyllonotus) Eyrei, T Woods. Muddy Creek.. 

h, Sculpture, and c, apex much enlarged. 

9. Pisania semicostata, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

10. Epidromus leptoskeles, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

11. Phos cominelloides, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

12. Cominella pumila, Tate. Adelaide. Enlarged. 

13. Murex (Pteronotus) didymus, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

Plate Y. 

1. Triton armatus, Tate. Murray Desert. 

2. Triton tumulosus, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

3. Triton annectans, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

4. Triton Woodsii, Tate. Muddy Creek, l. Apex enlarged. 

5. Tritron cribrosus, Tate. Adelaide. 

6. Triton "Woodsii, var., Tate. Eiver Murray ClifFs. 

7. Triton tortirostris, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

8. Triton radialis, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

9. Triton gibbus, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

10. Triton protensus, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

11. Triton c}'phus, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

12. Triton textilis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Plate YI. 

1. Peristernia interlineata, Tate. Muddy Creek. Slightly en- 

larged. 

2. Trophon torquatus, Tate. Aldinga. a. The shell much 

enlarged ; h. Apex magnified. 

3. Murex (Chicoreus) irregularis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Slightly enlarged. 



o. 



174 

Yitulcaria ciirtansata, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 
Sipho asperulus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

6. llauella (Argobucciuum) Prattii, T. Woods. Muddy 

Creek. 

7. Triton oligostirus, Tate. Adelaide. Enlarged. 

8. Triton gemraulatus, Tate. Muddy Creek, a. Enlarged ; 

h. Magnified ornament. 
■ 9. Triton sexcostatus, Tate. Aldinga. Enlarged. 

10. Epidromus texturatus, Tate. Sclinapper Point. I. Orna- 

ment enlarged. 

11. Epidromus nodulatus, Tate. Adelaide. Enlarged. 

12. Epidromus tenuicostatus, T. Woods. Muddy Creek. En- 

larged. 

Plate YII. 

1. Eusus spiniferus, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

2. Eusus dictyotis, Tate. Sclinapper Point. 

3. Eusus senticosus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Slightly enlarged. 

4. Eusus craspedotus, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

5. Eusus aciforrais, Tate. Sclinapper Point, h. Magnified 

ornament. 

6. Eusus dictyotis, var., Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

7. Eusus acantLosteplies, Tate. Scknapper Point. 

8. Eusus bulbodes, Tate. Scbnapper Point. 

9. Pseudovaricia mirabilis, Tate. Muddy Creek, h. Apex 

enlarged. 
10. Eusus foliaceus, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Plate YIII. 

1. Easciolaria decipiens, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

2. Easciolaria cryptoploca, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

3. Easciolaria rugata, Tate. Sclinapper Point. 

4. Easciolaria cristata, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

5. Siphonalia lamellifera, Tate Schnapper Point. 

6. Easciolaria concinna, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

7. Peristernia Morundiana, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

8. Peristernia Aldingensis, Tate, a^ Aldinga ; 5, variety, 

Adelaide. 

9. Eusus cocbleatus, Tate. Aldinga. 

10. Cautbarus varicosus, Tate. Aldinga. 

11. Peristernia lintea, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

12. Peristernia subundulosa, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Plate IX. 

1. Eusus dumetosus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

2. Peristernia approximans, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

3. Peristernia purpuroides, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 



175 

4. Triton ovoideus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

5. Triton intercostalis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

6. Trophon anceps, Tate. Aldinga. Slightly enlarged. 

7. Pisauia obliquecostata, Tate. Muddy Creek. Much en- 

larged. 

8. Pisania brevis, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

9. Trophon brevicaudatas, Tate. Muddy Creek. Much en- 

larged. 

10. Peristernia actinostephes, Tate. Adelaide. Much en- 

larged. 

11. Cominella pertusa, Tate. Adelaide. Much enlarged, 

12. Leucozonia micronema, Tate. Schnapper Point. Enlarged. 

13. Leucozonia staminea, Tate. Schnapper Point. Enlarged. 

14. Peristernia apicilirata, Tate. Adelaide. Much enlarged. 

Plate X. 

1. Peristernia altifrons, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

2. Easus simulans, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs, a, Toung 

shell enlarged ; &, spire of older shell, natural size. 

3. Easciolaria exilis, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. Enlarged. 

4. Cominella crassina, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

5. Phos tuberculatus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Slightly en- 

larged. 

6. Cominella subfilicea, Tate. Aldinga. Slightly enlarged. 

7. Tudicula turbinata, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

8. Tudicula costata, Tate. Murray Desert. 

9. Tudicula angulata. Tate. Muddy Creek. 

10. Pisania rostrata, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

11. Trophon mangelioides, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. Much 

enlarged. 

12. Phos tardicrescens, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 
18. Eusus sculptilis, Tate. Adelaide. Much enlarged. 

14. Murex minutus, Johnston. Table Cape. Much enlarged. 

Plate XL 

1. Cominella Clelandi, Tate. Aldinga. 

2. Melanopsis Pomahaka, Hutton. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

3. Phos (?) variciferus, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

4. Triton crassicostatus, Tate. Table Cape. Enlarged. 

5. Zemira prsecursoria, Tate. Muddy Creek. Slightly en- 

larged. 

6. Pisania purpuroides, Johnston. Table Cape. Enlarged. 

7. Peristernia affinis, Tate. Table Cape. Slightly enlarged. 
S. Siphonalia longirostris, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

9. Murex (Phyllonotus) Legrandi, T. Woods. Table Cape. 
Slightly enlarged. 



176 

10. Peristernia transenna, T. Woods. Table Cape. Sliglitlj 

enlarged. 

11. Epidromus Tasmauicus, Johnston. Table Cape, a. En- 

larged ; 5, magnified ornament. 

12. Phos lircTCOstatus, T. Woods. Table Cape. Sligbtly en- 

larged. 

Plate XII. 

1. Dennantia Ino, T. Woods. Mnddy Creek, h, Apex en- 

larged ; c, Side view of outer lip, much enlarged. 

2. Dennantia cingulata ; var, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

3. Dennantia Ino ; var, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

4. Eusus Johnstoni, T. Woods. Table Cape, a, Adult ; h, 

Young shell (type spec), slightly enlarged. 

5. Dennantia cingulata, Tate. Schnapper Point. 5, Enlarged 

ornament. 

6. ^N'assa crassigranosa, Tate. Muddy Creek, a. Adult, en- 
larged ; I, Senile example. 

7. Eicinula subreticulata, Tate. Muddy Creek. Enlarged. 

8. Purpura abjecta, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

9. Nasa Tatei, T. Woods. Muddy Creek. Senile example ^ 

enlarged. 

10. Toluta uncifera, Tate. Eiver Murray Cliffs. 

11. Yoluta McDonaldi, Tate. Schnapper Point. (A very 

young shell, with one ordinary spire-whorl.) 

12. Lyria harpularia, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

Plate XIII. 

1. Cominella Clelandi, Tate. Hallett Cove. 

2. Leucozonia tumida, Tate. Muddy Creek. Much enlarged, 

3. Toluta tabulata, Tate. Murray Desert. 

4. Yoluta ellipsoidea, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

5. Eusus Tateanus, T. Woods. Table Cape. 

6. Yoluta pseudolirata, Tate. Muddy Creek. 

7. Yoluta pagodoides, Tate. Aldinga. 

8. Yoluta (A^olutoconus) limbata, Tate. Schnapper Point. 

h, Sculpture, magnified. 

9. Yoluta (Yolutoconus) conoidea, Tate. Muddy Creek. 
10. Yoluta cathedralis, Tate. Muddy Creek. 



I 



Eeeata. 



Page 92. Under Typhis disjunctus, for fig. 14 read fig. 1. 
Page 104. Under Murex Legrandi, for fig. 8 read fig. 9. 
Page 121. Under Triton armatus for fig. 3 read fig. 1. 



177 



FuRTHKR Notes on Australian Coleoptera, 
^wiTH Descriptions of Ne^w Species. 

[Read October 4, 1887.1 

Br THE Eet. T. Blackbtien-, B.A. 

The following paper is partly supplementary to the series 
of papers that I have read before the Eoyal Society during the 
year, but I take the opportunity its publication affords to 
furnish descriptions of new species that have recently come 
under my notice. 

I have lately had the advantage of receiving a communi- 
cation from my friend, D. Sharp, Esq., M.D., of Shirley Warren, 
near Southampton, England, President of the Ent. Society 
of London, relative to a number of types that I forwarded 
to him some time ago, and also to some of the series of 
memoirs that I have read before the jRoyal Society. As Dr. 
Sharp's standing among students of entomology is so high that 
he is probably generally regarded as '"'' facile princeps'' of liv- 
ing coleopterists, I have received his notes and determinations 
with extreme interest, and am glad to have received them in 
time to correct in this present volume of our transactions two 
errors that they have brought to my notice in my previous 
papers — one the application to a new genus of a name that 
was already in use, the other the description by me as new of 
a species that M. Eauvel had already described in the Ann. 
Mus. Civ. G-en., 1877. In correcting the latter (see below) I 
have explained why I failed to identify my insect with M. 
!Fau vol's. 

CARABID^. 

(Sub-Fam. Scabitid^.) 

EPiLECTUs gen. nov. 

I offer this name as a substitute for EicrygnatJius (vid. ant. 

p. 12) which. Dr. Sharp points out, is already in use for a 

genus of GarahidcB. 

(Sub-Fam. Cratocebidje). 
PHOETICOSOMTJS. 

In characterising this genus. Dr. Schaum states that the ab- 
breviated scutellar elytral stria is absent. This, however, does 
not appear to be strictly correct. In most examples of P.felix, 
Sch. (the type of the genus), I find traces of it, generally 
amouEting to no more than an impression at the extreme base, 
but sometimes being more prolonged, and in several other 

li 



178 

species o£ the geuus it is almost well-defined in some speci- 
mens. In all the species of the genus known to me there is a 
distinct elytral impression on the third interstice, behind the 
middle, but I have seen occasionally examples in which it is 
hardly to be discerned; also, I find that under a strong lens 
the anterior tibiae are crenulate on the lower part of their 
exterior margin. The under surface and femora are dotted 
very thinly with extremely long hairs. 

P, onucronatus, sp. nov. Eufo-piceus, prothorace (marginibus 
lateralibus exceptis) et capite obscurioribus ; illi angulis 
posticis acutis subdentif ormibus ; elytris apice submucro- 
natis, minus fortiter striatis, interstitiis planis antice, 
postice subconvexis. Long., 6 1. 
The thorax is widest a little in front of the middle, with its 
lateral margins rather strongly rounded and quite widely re- 
flexed (considerably more so than in P.feliv, Schaum), and 
has a feeble impression on either side at the base, with scarcely 
any puncturation ; the anterior angles are strongly produced. 
The apex of the elytra is produced in a conspicuous manner. 

A specimen has been sent to me by Mr. Eothe, of Sedan, and 
there is another (badly crushed and useless as a type) in the 
South Australian Museum, taken at Parallana by Mr. C. M. 
Bagot, from which, however, I have described the colours, as 
the specimen from Mr. Eothe appears to be immature, and is 
much paler. 

JP. hrunneus, sp. nov. Eufo-brunneus vel piceus, antennis palpis 
pedibusque dilutioribus ; prothorace canaliculato, antice bi- 
sinuato, postice angustato, angulis posticis obtusis ; elytris 
fortiter striatis. Long. 4f — 5 1. 
Erown, inclining to reddish, or to pitchy ; legs palpi and 
antennae uniformly paler. Head, across the eyes, a little wider 
than the base of the thorax. Thorax transverse, widest in 
front of the middle, scarcely half again as wide as long, faintly 
channelled (the channel reaching neither the base nor apex) ; 
the anterior margin bisinuate, considerably wider {i.e., as 4 to 
3i) than the base ; sides rather strongly rounded, scarcely 
sinuate just before the base, with a narrow reflexed margin ; 
base very gently emarginate ; anterior angles not prominent ; 
posterior angles very obtuse, but not quite rounded off ; the 
region of the posterior angles explanate, with the margin con- 
siderably turned up ; across the thorax, just in front of the 
base, is a transverse depression, which is separated from the 
extreme base (except close to the posterior angles) by a narrow- 
portion which is not depressed and into which the central 
longitudinal channel does not penetrate : in the transverse de- 
pression there are some obscure wrinkles, and the explanate 



i 



179 

region o£ tlie posterior angles is occupied by some rather close 
ill-dej&ned puncturation ; there is an obscure curved impression 
across the middle of the front part of the thorax which forms 
the anterior limit of the longitudinal channel. The elytra are 
regularly and rather strongly striated, with the abbreviated 
stria represented (in the specimens before me) only by a 
fovea at the extreme base ; the interstices are wide, almost 
quite flat near the front, but become narrower, and convex, 
behind, the third interstice bearing a well marked puncture 
behind the middle. 

This insect is extremely close to P.felix, Schaum, which is 
described very briefly and unsatisfactorily by its author. The 
figure supplementing the description, however, has enabled 
me to identify as that species an example sent to me from 
Melbourne, and there is another much damaged specimen in 
the South Australian Museum. P. hrunneus differs ivomfelix 
in being a little narrower, with the antennae uniformly tes- 
taceous red, instead of pitchy with the base paler ; its thorax is 
not quite so strongly transverse, and is much more narrowed 
behind, with the edges of the explanate part near the posterior 
angles more turned up. In felix, moreover, the declivous 
hind portion of the thorax continues evenly to the extreme 
base and is much more strongly and closely wrinkled. 

Lyndoch Valley. Taken by Mr. Tepper. 
P. similis, sp. nov. Brunneus, antennis palpis pedibusque palli- 
dioribus ; prothorace vix canaliculato, antice vix bisinuato, 
cordate, angulis anticis hand productis, posticis acute 
rectis ; elytris minus fortiter striatis, interstitiis planis. 
Long. 5 1. 
Head, across the eyes, slightly narrower than the base of th© 
thorax. Thorax transverse, widest in front of the middle, 
about half again as wide as long, very feebly channelled ; 
anterior margin scarcely wider than base ; a transverse curved 
depression well marked in the front ; sides strongly rounded 
in front, becoming straight just before the base ; margins 
narrow and but little explanate behind ; surface almost abso- 
lutely devoid of puncturation. Elytra rather feebly striated, 
the interstices almost perfectly flat even to the apex. 

This insect resembles P. mucronatus, but besides the elytra 
being normal at the apex, the thorax is a little narrower be- 
hind, with the anterior angles not prominent, the sides much 
more narrowly margined and the posterior angles slightly less 
sharp. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum, 
It was taken, almost certainly, in South Australia^ but I can- 
not ascertain exactly in what locality. 



180 

(Sub-Fams. Anisodactylidje and Harpalid^.) 
The classification of the Australian insects of these groups 
is in a state of great confusion ; nor am I able to do very 
much towards clearing up the difficulty. The great obstacle 
consists in the unsatisfactory nature of most of the descriptions 
that have been published, which renders the identification of 
the insects they refer to very doubtful. As I have before me 
some species of the group that are certainly as yet undescribed, 
and which I now purpose describing, it will not be out of place 
to preface my descriptions with a few notes on the genera of 
these sub-families. Taking Mr. Masters' recent catalogue of 
Australian Coleoptera in hand, we find the general confusion 
very clearly reflected there. Under the heading " Sarpalides'^ 
that catalogue includes all the genera mentioned in it which 
belong to M. Lacordaire's two tribes Anisodactylides and Har- 
palides. But it is headed by the genus Phorticosomus which 
Dr. Schaum (its author) states (evidently correctly) to belong 
to the Crafocerides — a sub-family that finds a place elsewhere 
in Mr. Masters' catalogue. The next genus Geohcenus is- 
represented by a single species described in the "Voyage de la 
Coquille," the identification of which is probably hopeless, and 
which is not at all likely to be a real Geohcenus. Then follows 
Gnathaphanus, to which eleven species are attributed. Gnatha- 
'plianus was founded by Mr. W. 8. Macleay on the female of a 
species from Java, and Lacordaire and Erichson have both 
regarded it as probably a mere synonym of Harpalus. How- 
ever this may be, unless there is evidence in the matter un- 
known to me, I should think it very improbable that the 
Australian species are entitled to bear the name. The first 
species in the genus (Adelaidce, Cast.), and several others at 
least, are moreover evidently congeneric with the species that 
appears some pages further on under the name of Microsaurus 
(a name that has fared badly, for its author, Mr. Bates, in the 
Journal of Entomology, gives it as Mirosarus, and in the same 
volume it is indexed as Ilicrosarus) . Anisodactylus follows 
Gnaihaphanus with three species, one of which was attributed 
to the genus by the Baron de Chaudoir. This is no doubt very 
high authority so far as concerns the species described by the 
Baron* ; as regards the other two {Harpalus 7'otundicoUis and 
Waterhousei, Cast.), althougli the tarsal structure and some 
other characters are extremely suggestive of Anisodactylus, the 
shape of the thorax, the great slenderness of the antennae and 
palpi, and other features produce a facies utterly unlike that 
of 1 he European ^?z2sof/«c/j//2', and suggest the need of anew 
generic name. AVithout having seen the Baron de Chaudoir's 

* I have not seen the description. 



181 

Temarkson the subject, however, I should not do wisely to take 
action in the matter. Then follows Ilaplaiier, founded by the 
Baron de Chaudoir for a single species (described by the Count 
de Castelnau as a Harpalus) , and this is no doubt a good genus. 
Then comes DiapJioromerus, formed by the Baron de Chaudoir 
for an Australian insect — no doubt a perfectly satisfactory 
genus, but no representative of it has come under my notice, 
and (as I have examined a large number of Anisodactylides 
from various parts of the colony) 1 cannot but conclude from 
this that some, if not many, of the crowd of species Mr. 
Masters attributes to it are not really at home there. The 
£ve genera that follow are doubtless quite satisfactory, but 
they do not average three species apiece. Of the remaining 
four genera (1)1 should say that some at least of those called 
Harpalus are very questionable ; (2) Cyclothorax belongs to the 
Anchomenidm ; (3) concerning Stenolophus and Acupalpus, as I 
have not seen any of the few species so named, nor do the 
authors of those species attribute to them any of the essential 
characters of those genera, I will only say that if the insects 
are correctly placed, it is very interesting on account of the 
general divergence of the Australian Harpaloid series from the 
types that prevail in the jN^orthern Hemisphere. I will just 
guard myself, in conclusion, from being understood to depre- 
ciate Mr, Masters' work by saying that he has no doubt fol- 
lowed the only course open to him in distributing the species 
he enumerates among known genera rather than going beyond 
the province of a catalogue by forming new genera. His cata- 
logue will doubtless long remain the standard one on which 
students will work, and is very valuable. So many of the 
types on which the Australian species were founded are in 
Europe (if existent at all), that no small boon would be con- 
ferred on Australian workers if some European specialist 
would make a careful examination of such as are available, and 
report the result to one of our scientific Societies for publi- 
cation. 

Note to mt eemaeks on ANisoDACTTLinji] axd Haepalid^. 
While these notes were in the press, and too late for me to 
alter them, I received through the kindness of Dr. Grestro, of 
Genoa, a copy of the Baron de Chaudoir' s memoir alluded to 
above as not having been seen by me. I find that in the main, 
though not strictly, Mr. Masters has followed the Baron in his 
arrangement of the families in question. On the whole the 
perusal of the memoir has not led me to modify to any con- 
siderable extent the remarks that I have made. I cannot but 
consider still that Diaplioromerus as the Baron has arranged it 
is an assemblage of forms that ought not to be united in a single 



182 

genus. The Baron regards as mere sections groups of species 
■wbicli have the male anterior and intermediate tarsi widely 
dilated (the basal four joints being similarly clothed beneath), 
and groups in which the same are very slightly dilated (with 
the first joint clothed differently from the rest). The memoir 
has enabled me to identify with certainty some of the species 
in the former section concerning which I was not previously 
sufficiently assured to found any conclusion on their characters, 
and when I place side by side Harpalics Germari, Cast., and 
HarpaJus Deyrollei, Cast., their differences appear far too great 
to allow of their bearing a common generic name, while the 
close affinity between the latter and Hyplimyax is beyond 
doubt. The Baron does not appear to have noticed the striking 
difference between the hind tarsi of Diaplwromerus (first 
group) and those of HypKarpax, and seems to have regarded 
the tooth on the hind femora of the latter as a constant cha- 
racter, the absence of which should ipso facto exclude from the 
genus. I am quite convinced that Harpaliis inornatus, Germ., 
is a typical Hypliarpax, although the Baron places it as a 
synonym of Harpalus australis, Dej. (without giving any reason), 
under the generic name Diaplwromerus. As I have said above, 
I think it possible that the two may be identical, but in that 
case H. australis is a Hypliarpax. My remarks on Anisodactylus 
are quite in agreement with those of the Baron. Touching 
Gnatliaplianus, he appears to have deliberately considered the 
Australian species called by that name generically inseparable 
from the Javanese individual for which the name was provided,, 
so that the doubt I have expressed above on the point is pro- 
bably unfounded. In that case Mr. Bates' genus JSIirosarus 
will not stand, I think, as it appears to have been founded for 
a species that de Chaudoir would have considered to be a 
Gnatliapliamis . 

HTPHAEPAX. 

This genus is, I think (among the Anisodactylides, hsiYmg the 
anterior and intermediate tarsi in the male strongly dilated 
with the basal joint not very much smaller than the second) 
best distinguished by the shortness of the tarsi, especially the 
hindmost. These — i.e., the hind tarsi — are very decidedly shorter 
than their tibiae, and have their basal joint in some species 
scarcely, in others not at all, longer than the second. The 
characters in the hind femora and tibiae of the males are very 
variable. In S. lateralis, W. S. Macleay (the type of the genus), 
the femur is said to be unidentate beneath, and the tibia to be 
arched and crenulate within. In Mr. Bates' S. puncticauda 
the femur is said to be " incrassate but not dentate," and the 
tibia to be flexuous but not arched. I have before me a number 
of species (several of whicli are probably identical with some 



183 

already described) in one of whicli I can discover no difference 
in structure between tbe bind legs of tbe male and female, 
and in another ("certainly H. inornatus, Germ., I tbink) tbe 
bind femur is more strongly dentate in some males tban in. 
otbers. All tbe species of this genus tbat I bave seen are sbort, 
broad insects, witb tbe tborax strongly, or very strongly, 
transverse, and its basal and apical margins not differing mucli 
from eacb other in widtb. Tbe following species attributed to 
DiapJioromerus in Mr, Masters' catalogue belong, I tbink to 
Sypharpax, viz., (sreus, Dej., ^mcstralis, JDej.,* inornatus, Germ., 
^Coxi, Cast, BostocJii, Cast, femoralis, Cast, 7nandihularis, Cast, 
and perhaps moestus, Dej., and ranula, Cast. Tbe following, 
which Mr. Masters places in Ilarpalus, also seem from the des- 
criptions to belong to HypJiarpax, viz., atroviridis, Macleay, and 
convexiusculus, Macl. 

H. inornatus, Germ. A species occurring commonly at Port 
Lincoln and also around Adelaide, agrees so well with Germar's 
description that I have no hesitation in considering it identified. 
The following particulars are omitted by Germar, and should 
be placed on record, viz., the male characters are exactly as in 
typical HypJiarpax (the tooth on the posterior femora, how- 
ever, being more strongly developed in some specimens than in 
otbers) the wddth of the thorax is nearly half again the length 
of the same, and its bind angles are slightly obtuse, but rounded 
off, tbe hinder part of the lateral margin forming a slightly 
obtuse angle witb the base, but tbe angle itself being rounded ; 
the puncture on the third interstice of tbe elytra is nearer to 
the apex than in some other species of tbe genus. The des- 
cription of Harpalus australis, Dej., does not altogether agree 
•with that of II . inornatus (e.g., tbe thorax being called " sub- 
transversus"), but, nevertheless, it is quite possible they may 
refer to tbe same species, in which case Dejean's name must 
bave tbe preference, as in Mr. Masters' catalogue. I should 
think it also open to much doubt whether Sarpalus Peronij 
Cast, is not really identical with inornatus. I do not, however, 
see sufficient reason for Mr. Masters' identification of S. 
JPeroni with II. novcB-HollandicB, Cast, as their author gives a 
perfectly satisfactory differential character between them in 
the shape of the thorax. I possess a Hypharpax from Mel- 
bourne which I bave little doubt is the latter species. It is 
extremely close to inornatus, Germ., but has the thorax much 
narrower in front, and is a little smaller. 

* Mr. Masters treats these three as identical, but I am not clear on the point. 
Germar's insect may be identical with Dejean's, but Count de Castelnau's 
description is too vague for identification, and it is very unlikely to be 
founded on the same insect as Germar's, and if so the description of the 
colour of the legs must have been founded on a very unusual variety. 



184 

H. Soisduvali, Cast. I possess a female specimen from Swan 
Hiver, evidently a Hypliarpax^ wLicli is probably this insect. It 
differs from the preceding exactly, as TI. Boisduvali is said to 
differ from ausfralis, Dej.,its thorax being nearly twice as wide 
as long, with strongly rounded sides, and the elytra wide, 
(especially behind), with slightly feebler striation. I cannot 
understand Mr. Masters' reference of H. Boisduvali to csreus, 
Dej , as the thorax of the latter is said to be rectangular behind. 
I should say that H. Boisduvali^ Cast, is a good species. 

THENAEOTES. 

T. australis, sp. nov. Piceus ; nitidus ; palpis, antennarum 

basi, prothorace, elytrorum marginibus lateralibus apiceque, 

et pedibus, rufis testaceisve ; antennis elongatis (corporis 

dimidio sublongioribus) ; prothorace transverso postice 

angustato ; elytris striatis, striis latera versus deficientibus ; 

subtus piceus in medio rufescens. Yar., pronoto proster- 

noque in medio infuscatis. Long. If — 2 1. 

The whole upper surface is absolutely devoid of puncturation, 

properly so-called, except a single small puncture on the third 

interstice of each elytron behind the middle ; there are also a 

few obscure coarse impressions in a very strong furrow w^hich 

runs a little within the lateral margin of the elytra, commencing 

about the middle and reaching the apex. The antennae (by 

measurement) slightly exceed half the length of the body, but 

appear even longer to the eye, and are of a fuscous colour 

(except the basal two joints). The thorax is about one-third 

wider than long, is widest just behind the front, and thence 

arcuately narrowed to the base, has basal angles almost 

rounded off and a fairly strong rounded impression on either 

side in front of the hind margin, is extremely finely margined 

at the sides, and pretty distinctly channelled longitudinally. 

Each elytron bears four well-marked stride, outside which there 

is no distinct sculpture, except the lateral furrow mentioned 

above. The eyes are large and prominent. As the specimens 

before me all appear to be females, I can give no particulars 

concerning the tarsi of the male, but as I have Dr. Sharp's 

authority for attributing the insect to Tlienarotes, I suppose 

they are as in T. tasmanicus, Bates. The under surface is 

minutely coriaceous. 

I have met with this insect near Port Lincoln and in the 
Adelaide district, and have seen specimens taken by Mr. Eothe 
near Sedan. 

T. discoidalis, sp. nov. jSTitidus ; rufus vel piceo-rufus, capite 
(labro mandibulisque exceptis) et elytrorum disco piceis 
vel nigris ; antennis elongatis (corporis dimidio longitudine 
sequalibus) j prothorace transverso, postice angustato, basi 



185 

utrinque foveolato puuctulato, elytris striatis. Yar. ? 
Minor ; elytris totis (sutura margineque laterali postice 
exceptis) piceis. Long. If — 2 1. 

This species is rather closely allied to the preceding. The 
"thorax is slightly less transverse (its width being scarcely one- 
third greater than its length), with some puncturation about 
the posterior angles which are obtuse, but well defined ; the 
elytra are more strongly striated, and the striae do not become 
obsolete laterally ; the puncture on the third interstice is 
wanting ; the colour is different also, the dark portion of each 
■elytron being bordered all round (except along a portion of the 
base in some specimens) with a red colour similar to that of 
the thorax. In the male the tarsal structure is as Mr. Bates 
describes it in Thenarotes. There is no abbreviated scutellar 
stria in any of the specimens that have come under my notice, 
but I do not attach great importance to this character, since I 
find traces of a stria in some specimens, and not in others, of 
the preceding species. I also observe that the antennae are 
•exceptionally short in some specimens both of this and of the 
preceding ; probably it indicates a sexual distinction. 

Near Adelaide; also Sedan (Rothe). 

T. metalUcics, sp. nov. Minus nitidus ; seneo-niger, antennis 

palpis pedibusque pallidis ; antennis corporis dimidio lon- 

gitudine aequalibus ; prothorace transverso, postice angus- 

. tato, angulis posticis obtusis ; elytrorum disco obsolete 

striato. Long. If — If 1. 

This species does not appear to differ from Thejiarotes except 
in the very slight dilatation of the anterior and intermediate 
tarsi in the male. The thorax is strongly transverse (not 
much less than twice as wide as long), widest in front of the 
middle, with the sides rounded, the posterior angles obtuse, 
and an ill-defined fovea on either side behind. The elytra are 
elongate and parallel, with about three traceable striae, outside 
which there are no distinct striae, but there is a rather strong 
furrow representing the apical portion of about the seventh 
stria. The whole surface of the insect is finely coriaceous. It 
has much the facies of Metahletus. 

I have two specimens taken in the Adelaide district. 

xoTOPHiLrs, ffen. nov. 

(Sub-Fam. Anisodactylin^.) 

'Gen. Thenaroti affinis, at tarsorum 4 anteriorum plantis 1-4 

squamipilosis ; corpus convexius minus elongatum. 

The species for which I have founded this genus do not 

.appear to differ from Thenarotes structurally otherwise than in 



186 

tlie characters of the dilated tarsi in the male. Their facies 
is, however, different, owing to their shorter and more convex 
form. 

iV". niger, sp. nov. Minus nitidus ; niger antennis pedibusque 
picescentibus ; prothorace transverso, margiue antico pos- 
tico latitudiue ?equali ; eljtris (stria suturali excepta) 
hand striatis. Long. 1^ — 1| 1. 

The antenna? are slender and reach back considerably beyond 
the base of the thorax ; the frontal impressions of the head are 
very slight ; the thorax is rather more than half again as wide 
as long, has no dorsal channel and is impunctate and in fx'ont 
nearly truncate. The sides are considerably arched, the re- 
flexed margin very fine and the hind angles rounded off, near 
which there is a large impression on either side. The scutel- 
lum is large but scarcely penetrates between the elytra. These 
latter are nearly three times as long as the thorax, not very 
convex, and are arched on the sides ; excepting some marginal 
impressions near the apex, a faint costa just within them, a 
puncture on either side behind, about where the third inter- 
stice would be if it existed, and a sutural stria, there is no 
trace of punctures or striae ; the surface, however, is not very 
shining. The anterior and intermediate tarsi in the male are 
moderately dilated, the basal three joints being about equal in 
width ; the second is distinctly longest and is quite twice the 
length of the fourth ; the first and third are about equal to 
each other and are not much shorter than the second ; none of 
them is transverse unless the fourth, which is scarcely so. The 
hind tarsi are not much shorter than their tibi?e ; their first 
joint is a little shorter than the second and third together, the 
fourth short, the fifth nearly equal to the first. In general 
appearance this species reminds one of JBlechrits, though of 
course the thorax is wider. 

Port Lincoln. 

iV^. gracilis, sp. nov. Sat nitidus ; niger ; antennis pedibusque 
piccescentibus ; prothorace transverso, antice quam postice 
vix latiori; elytris obsolete striatis, striis latera versus 
deficientibus. Long. 1^ — If 1. 
Very closely resembles the preceding, but is smaller, a little 
narrower, and more shining. There is a single well defined 
puncture on the centre of the surface of the head. The thorax 
is scarcely so transverse as in JV. niger, is slightly more nar- 
rowed behind, and has a depression all across the base, in 
which the posterior impressions are included. The elytra are 
striated, the sutural stria being well defined and two or three 
striae besides being traceable which, however, become gradually 
feebler as they recede from the suture and then cease alto- 



187 

gefher. In other respects tliere is little distinction to be 
noted between tbe two insects. 

Port Lincoln ; also the Adelaide district, 

i\r. parvus, sp. no v. Sat nitidus ; niger ; antennis pedibusque 
piescentibus vel rufescentibus ; prothorace transverso 
postice angustato ; elytris (stria suturali excepta) vix evi- 
denter striatis. Long. 1 — 14 1. 
This very small species is closely allied to both of the pre- 
ceding two. In shape it resembes gracilis. There are several 
isolated punctures in front of the centre of the surface of the 
head. The thorax is still less transverse than that of gracilis, 
and is more narrowed backwards ; it is depressed all across the 
base, and is very little wider than the head. The striation of 
the elytra is scarcely visible outside the sutural stria. In 
other respects there is little difference from N'. gracilis. 
Widely distributed in South Australia. 

N. Icetus, sp. nov. Nitidus ; supr^i rufus vel testaceus, capita 
piceo, elytris plus minus venigronotatis ; subtus piceus, 
sternis rufescentibus, antennis palpis pedibusque testaceis, 
antennis corporis dimidio longitudine vix sequalibus, pro- 
thorace transverso, postice angustato utrinque foveolato ; 
elytrorum disco obsolete striate. Long. If — If 1. 

This diminutive species differs from TJienarotes in having the 
basal joint, as well as the second, third, and fourth, of the 
anterior tarsi in the male clothed with squamose pilosity, and 
narrowed at the base. I cannot discover any other structural 
peculiarity, unless it be that the same joint is not quite so much 
narrower than the second, as in Thenarotes. The thorax i& 
rather strongly transverse (quite half again as wide as long), 
and is nearly truncate both in front and behind, with a faintly 
marked dorsal channel ; the sides are rather strongly rounded 
in front (the greatest width being before the middle), and then 
converge to the base, which is a little narrower than the front 
margin ; the hind angles are well marked and obtuse ; strictly 
speaking the basal region is hardly foveolate, but the hind 
corners of the thorax are explanate ; its surface is quite free 
from puncturation. The elytra have no sculpture on the disc 
except a well-marked sutural stria and faint traces of one, two, 
or three strise beyond it. The blackish markings of the elytra 
in a brightly coloured specimen consist of a basal triangle with 
its apex directed backwards on the suture, and a large patch 
covering the whole of the apical two-thirds of the elytra except 
a spot on the suture behind the middle. In a pale specimen 
the basal triangle is reduced in size, and there is a transverse 
fascia just behind the middle, these markings being fuscous 



188 

iratlier fhan black, and shading off into fhe surface colour. The 
general appearance is very suggestive of Sarotlirocrepis. 
Near Adelaide, also Sedan (Rothe). 

N. palustris, sp. nov. Nitidus; brunneo-ferrugineus, elytris 
abdomineque obscure infuscatis ; antennis corporis dimidio 
brevioribus ; protborace transverso, trans basin depresso, 
postice vix angustato, utrinque foveolato ; elytrorum disco 
vix striato. Long. 1\ 1. 

This little insect does not seem to differ structurally from 
ibe preceding except in having the basal joint of the male front 
tarsi as wide as the second. The thorax is widest about the 
middle, and regularly rounded on the sides, with the basal 
.angles rounded off. There is a depression all across the base, 
in which is a deep fovea on either side, and there is scarcely 
^ny trace of a longitudinal channel, and none at all of any 
puncturation. The elytra have a fine sutural stria, and scarcely 
any indication of striae outside it, but there is a deep furrow 
near the apex of the external margin, as though the sutural 
stria was strongly recurved. The colour is a somewhat livid 
Thrown, with the legs paler, and there is some very obscure in- 
fuscation (which is probably variable) about the basal and 
apical regions of the elytra. 

A single specimen occurred to me on the banks of the Murray, 
;at Murray Bridge. 

LECA^fOMERUS. 

Ij.Jlavocinctits, s]). nov. Nitidus; piceo-niger (nonnullis exem- 
plis capite prothoraceque rufescentibus), mandibulis palpis 
antennis pedib usque llavis, pro thoracis elytrorumque mar- 
gine summo flavo ; prothorace leviter transverso ; elytris 
striatis interstitiis planis. Long. 3 1. 
This neat little insect seems to be quite distinct from any- 
thing previously described. The anterior margin of the 
thorax is slightly narrower than the base, the sides are pretty 
strongly rounded, the greatest width being considerably in 
front of the middle where it is about one-fourth part greater 
than the length ; the anterior margin is scarcely concave, the 
hinder angles are roundly obtuse ; there is a well defined 
central channel, and a large shallow impression on either side 
behind ; the thorax has no distinct puncturation. The elytra 
.are rather finely striated, the interstices quite flat except close 
to the apex where they become convex, the third interstice 
having no systematic puncturation ; the abbreviated scutellar 
stria is wanting or indicated only b}^ a basal dilatation of the 
second stria. The anterior and intermediate tarsi are very 
:strongly dilated in the male, the basal joint being quite small 



189 

and fhe second scarcely smaller than the following twO' 
together, the fourth strongly emarginate and about the same 
size as the first. The hind tarsi are slender and not much, 
shorter than their tibiae, the first joint not much longer than 
the second, the third and fourth together equal to the first, 
the fifth quite equal to the first. The claws are very long and 
slender. 

The facies is that of Calathus. Is it possible that Gedbmnus: 
AustralasicB, Gruer., is really a member of this genus ? This 
question seems to be suggested by M. Lacordaire's remark 
(G-en. Col. I., p. 273) on the Galathus-\i\.Q appearance of th& 
African genus Geolcenus. 

Port Lincoln ; not rare. 

L. odscurus, Nitidus ; niger ; mandibulis, palporum apice, an- 
tennisque (basi testacea excepta) fuscis ; pedibus (tibiis 
apice, tarsisque plus minusve infuscatis exceptis) sordide 
testaceis ; prothoracis lateribus flavis ; hoc fortius trans- 
verso ; elytris subtiliter striatis, interstitiis planis. Long. 
2|1. 
The thorax resembles that of the preceding, except that it is 
more than a third wider than long, with its anterior margin 
scarcely narrower than its base, and has some confused punc-^ 
turation about the basal impressions. The sides of the elytra 
are more parallel, the stride fainter, the interstices, if possible, 
flatter in front, and certainly more convex behind ; there is a 
distinct abbreviated scutellar stria and a well-defined puncture 
on the inner edge of the third interstice. The anterior four 
tarsi are not so strongly dilated in the male as they are in the 
preceding species, though their proportions are similar, except 
that the second joint is not quite so much larger than the rest. 
The hind tarsi resemble those of the preceding. 
Near Adelaide. 

i. Lindi, sp. no v. Nitidus ; niger ; an tennis palpis pedibusque 
sordide testaceis ; prothorace vix transverse ; elytris stria- 
tis, interstitiis vix planis. Long. 2|- 1. 

Very closely allied to L. flavocinctus, but differing in the 
following respects : — The legs, palpi, and antennae are of a 
very dull testaceous color, and the extreme margin of the 
thorax and elytra is not paler than the rest of their surface ; 
the thorax is evidently narrower, is scarcely a sixth part wider 
than long, and is widest scarcely in front of the middle ; the 
interstices of the stria on the elytra are not quite so flat. In 
other respects the description of L. flavocinctus would apply to 
this insect. 

P. Lincoln. 



190 

HarpaJus Deyrollel, Cast. I have identified this species with 
-some certainty, having taken it at Port Lincoln and on Torke's 
Peninsula. I am, however, much puzzled as to its affinities. 
Pive specimens are before me regarding the sex of which I am 
•uncertain. In two of them there seems to be a slight dilation 
of the four basal joints on the anterior and intermediate tarsi, 
but it is very slight. If I am right in regarding these specimens 
:as males the insect probably belongs to the true Harpalides. 
If, however, they are females the species may be a Hyijhmyax, 
although it is narrower and more elongate than any other of 
that genus that has come under my notice. I should be very 
glad of any precise information regarding the sexes of this 
insect. It appears to me not unlikely that H. Fortnumi, Cast., 
is founded on this same species, in spite of the Count calling it 
*' rather short and broad," for the expression would not be in- 
applicable if it be compared with true Harpali. The descrip- 
tions of Fortnumi and Deijrollei are vague in the last degree, 
not even placing their sub-family beyond doubt, but they do 
not mention any satisfactory distinction of one from the other 
except the presence of some sculpture on the surface of the 
thorax in Fortnumi which is not attributed to BeyroUei. The 
specimens before me, however, vary in this respect, some hav- 
irig a few striolce, others none. 

STAPHYLINID^. 

LEPT ACINUS. 

Z. jncticornis, mihi (vide ant. p. 7). Dr. Sharp, of South- 
ampton, tells me that specimens of this insect which I for- 
warded to him are identical with Xantholinus socius, Pauv. I 
have no doubt as to the correctness of this identification on 
Dr. Sharp's authority, and will ask all correspondents to whom 
I have supplied the name to substitute socius, Pauv., for 
picticorjiis, Blackb. But I do not think that the species can be 
regarded as rightly placed in Xantholinus. Its dilated anterior 
tarsi alone prevented my looking for it among species attri- 
buted to that genus. Its intermediate cox^e, too, are scarcely 
more widely separated than those parts are in many species of 
Leptacinus, and the apical joint of the maxillary palpi agrees 
much better with Leptacinus than with Xantholinus. I think 
the insect should be called Leptacinus socius, Pauv. It should 
be noted also that M. Pauvel in his description makes no refer- 
ence to the peculiar colouring of the antenn?? (which suggested 
my name), and which is strongly marked in almost every one 
oi the multitude of examples that I have examined— the first 
and third joints being black or pitchy, while all the rest are 
ferruo-inous. 



191 

PHL(EOCHAEIS. 

-P. antipodum, Pauv. I have met with this species, I think, 
several times in the Port Lincoln district. If I am right in 
my identification of it, however, M. Eauvel has founded his 
description on immature or very pale specimens. I have now 
before me two examples from Port Lincoln that I cannot 
consider specifically distinct, one of which is coloured as 
P. antipodum is described, while the other is very much darker, 
being of a pitchy colour, with the front of the head, the thorax, 
the apex of the elytra and of the hind body, and the base of the 
antennae reddish. It is just possible that if my specimens were 
placed side by side with M. Fauvel's types they might prove to 
be a distinct species, but, judging by the description, I think 
they are identical. 

HOMALIUil. 

a. Adelaides, sp. nov. Piceus ; mandibulis, labro, palpis, 
antennis, pedibusque rufescentibus ; antennis brevibus, 
crassiusculis ; capite medio sparsim, ad latera crebrius, 
subtilius punctulato ; prothorace postice leviter angustato, 
sparsius subtiliter punctulato ; elytris prothorace duplo 
longioribus, crebrius subtiliter sublineatim punctulatis ; 
abdomine obscure subtiliter punctulato. Long. 1\ 1. 
There is a slightly reddish tone about the thorax, shoulders, 
and sides of the hind-body in this insect. The antennas are 
very little longer than the head ; their joints 3-10 all transverse 
(4-10 strongly so), the apical joint very little longer than wide. 
The thorax has strongly rounded sides, and is widest just be- 
hind the front, thence slightly contracted to the base, in front 
of which the sides are sinuate so that the hind angles are very 
nearly right-angles ; there is scarcely any indication of longi- 
tudinal foveas. The elytra are parallel-sided, and scarcely 
wider than the thorax. The puncturation of the hind body 
becomes more sparing and obscure from the base to the apex. 

Extremely like the European S. concinnum, Er., from which 
it differs in its much shorter and stouter antennae, and in the 
somewhat more distinct puncturation of the hind body. 

I obtained a single specimen from debris on the banks of the 
Torrens. 

a. philorinoides, Eauv. I have taken under bark of 
JEiicalyptus, both near Port Lincoln, and in the Adelaide district 
specimens which agree quite satisfactorily with the description 
of this insect, previously recorded only from Victoria. 

COLYDIID.E. 

DITO:\IA.. 

D. pidchra, sp. nov. Minus depressa ; rufa ; elytrorum disco 
infuscato ; prothoracis lateribus valde explanatis fortiter 



192 

serrulatis, elytris tuberculis parum elevatis subseriatim 

dispositis. Long. 2 1. Lat f 1. (vix.) 
Antennae red, club not darker ; tbird joint considerably nar- 
rower, but not sborter, tban second, longer than broad ; 4-9 
small and subequal ; tbe last two forming a large abrupt club. 
Head very strongly dilated in front of tbe eyes, tbe dilated 
portion forming on either side a large obliquely elevated lobe 
which completely covers the basal joint of the antennae ; the 
space between these lobes is occupied by the clypeus, and the 
outline of the entire surface thus formed in front of the eyes 
consists of about a dozen straight lines (of very unequal lengths) 
placed at angles to each other. The surface of the thorax is 
uneven, the disc being occupied by two costae wich run in a zig- 
zag manner from the front margin to the base (the space 
between them being depressed), outside which are some other 
less-defined costae running both longitudinally and transversely, 
with depressed interspaces. The sides of the thorax are widely 
explanate, the greatest width (which is towards the front) of 
either explanate margin being about one-third the width of 
the whole space between the explanate margins. The general 
form of the explanate margins is comparatively narrow at the 
base gradually dilating all the way to the level of the anterior 
margin and then running on forwards in a projecting lobe 
which attains the level of the front of the eye, this projecting 
lobe narrowing, to its apex, which is quite acuminate. The 
exterior edge of the explanate margin is serrate, the incisions 
becoming deeper, wider, and more parallel sided from the 
front backwards till in the hinder half they reach half way 
through the explanate margin and are only about four in num- 
ber ; the deepest and widest incision of all, however, is at the 
oniddJe of the margin. The surface of the head and thorax 
appear to be coarsely but very obscurely granulate. The 
margins of the elytra are not explanate but are conspicuously 
serrulate along their whole length. The middle of the disc of 
each elytron is nearly black, and the whole surface is striated, 
also is occupied by a system of coarse transversely confluent 
puncturation which seems to have no relation to the striation, 
and also bears three rows of large but slightly elevated, 
rounded, pale tubercles, the rows (counting from the suture) 
containing six, five, and two tubercles respectively, the inner 
two rows extending the whole length of the elytra, the exter- 
nal one being behind the middle and the tubercles in all 
the rows becoming more defined towards the apex. The whole 
surface is thinly clothed with short erect scale-like setae, which 
tend to gather into pencils on the tubercles. The apex of 
each elytron is separately acuminate and a little produced. 
This extraordinary insect must be very closely allied to the 



193 

!N'ew Zealand Ditoma sellata, Shp., described in the Transac- 
tions of the Eoyal Dublin Society (1886). 

I met with a single specimen under the bark of a Eucalyptus 
on Mount Lofty in December, 1885. 

D. obscurely sp. nov. Minus depressa ; piceo-nigra anteunis 

palpis pedibusque plus minusve rufis ; prothoracis lateribus 

valde explanatis minus fortiter serrulatis, elytris crasse 

punctulatis striatis ; interstitiis subplanis. Long., Ifl. ; 

lat., |1. 

The structure of the antennae head and thorax is almost as in 

D. pulclira, except that it is less strongly defined, the sides of 

the head being less dilated, the explanate margins of the thorax 

not quite so wide, and the serration of the same feebler. The 

elytra also are sculptured very similarly except that they are 

devoid of tubercles and of pencils of hairs, although otherwise 

the insect is similarly squamoso-setose. 

I have two specimens of this species, taken near Eoseworthy, 
South Australia. 

D. perforata^ sp. nov. Sat depressa : elongata ; supra piceo- 
nigra, subtus rufo-picea ; capite antice antennis palpis 
pedibusque plus minusve rufis; prothoracis lateribus sat 
fortiter serrulatis vix explanatis antice baud productis ; 
elytris ad latera vix serrulatis, striatis, striis crasse rugu- 
lose puntulatis. Long., \\ 1. ; lat., -f 1. 
In this species the head is scarcely dilated in front of the 
eyes, its sides running forward nearly in an even line, and the 
front being widely and gently convex. The thorax is sub- 
truncate in front, with the anterior margin, however, widely 
and roundly (though gently) produced in the middle ; the base 
is very little narrower than the front ; the length about equals 
the width ; the sides are not distinctly explanate, but are cut 
into about ten very distinct teeth placed rather evenl}?- along 
their margin, except that the front two or three are smaller 
than the rest ; the surface is even, and covered with coarse but 
not deep puncturation, the punctures being much confluent and 
the space between them tending to run into wavy lines. The 
elytra are gently striate, each stria bearing a row of extremely 
coarse but not deep punctures, which almost meet across the 
interstices. The surface is sparingly clothed with fine short 
erect set^e. 

I have seen about a dozen specimens of this insect, all taken 
in the Adelaide district. 

D. parva, sp. nov. Sat depressa ; elongata ; piceo-nigra ; 
capite antice, antennis, palpis, pedibus, humerisque 
obscure rufis ; prothoracis lateribus vix explanatis, sub- 
tilius serrulatis, antice sat fortiter productis ; elytris for- 

M 



194 

titer costatis, lateribus antice serrulatis. Long., 1^1.; 
lat, il. 

The head does not differ much from that of D. perforata. 
The thorax is a little wider than long, very little narrowed 
hindwards, the middle part of its anterior margin being roundly 
and gently produced ; the sides are distinctly and rather 
finely serrate, and not distinctly explanate except at the ex- 
treme front, where they become so in the form of a kind of 
small lobe, which projects obliquely forward and outward ; 
the surface is obscurely areolate, being intersected by some 
obscure ridges, between which the spaces are a little hollowed 
out. Between the suture and lateral margin, each elytron bears 
four strong costse, of which the first and fourth meet close to 
the apex, and the second and third meet a little in front of the 
apex. There are two rows of punctures in each of the spaces 
between the costae. 

I possess a single specimen of this minute insect ; it was 
taken at Woodville. 

D.liilaris, sp. nov. Sat depressa ; elongata ; picea vel piceo- 
nigra ; capite antice, prothoracis lateribus, elytrorum 
maculis nonnullis, antennis, palpis, pedibusque, rufis ; 
prothoracis lateribus explanatis baud serrulatis antice 
productis ; elytris costatis, interstitiis biseriatim punctu- 
latis. 

Head as in the preceding two species. Thorax rugosely but very 
closely and rather finely punctured, disc depressed, the depressed 
space being margined on either side by a very obscure elevated 
ridge. These ridges commence near each other on the anterior 
margin, run back a very short distance parallel to each other, 
then turn outward and describe a semicircle returning to their 
original distance apart at a point about two-thirds the length of 
the thorax from the anterior margin, and thence run parallel to 
the base, so that the depressed discal space is parallel-sided 
near the anterior margin, and near the base and is almost 
circular in the middle. Between these discal cost?e and the 
lateral margins there is on either side another costa nearly 
parallel to tlae margin. The sides of the thorax are narrowly 
explanate and nearly straight ; the front margin is in the middle, 
rather strongly elevated and arcuately produced and the ex- 
planate margins are produced forward, so that the front out- 
line of the thorax is strongly bisinuate. The thorax is quite 
strongly transverse and scarcely wider in front than behind. 
There are four fine and not very conspicuous costae on each 
elytron ; the first commences at the base some distance from 
the suture and runs obliquely to the suture which it nearly 
joins at a distance from the base of about a third of the length 



195 

o£ the elytron, and then runs (close to the suture) to the apex. 
The other costae are straight, all commencing on the base o£ 
the elytron. ; the second quite reaches the apex, the other two 
not quite. On the first interval between the costse there is a 
red spot near the apex, on the second a red spot a little further 
from the apex and another somewhat in front of the middle, 
on the third a red spot just behind the middle and another 
near the base. 

In respect of sculpture and puncturation this insect closely 
resembles the European D. crenata, Eab., but is much narrower 
a,nd more elongate. 

I bave a single specimen from Roseworthy, and also one 
from Port Lincoln, which was taken under tbe bark of a 
JEucali/ptus. The latter specimen has all the sculpture better 
defined than the former, the anterior red mark on the third 
interstice of the elytra scarcely traceable, and the lateral mar- 
gins of the thorax obsoletely crenulate, but I have no doubt 
■of its specific identity with the Eoseworthy example. I have 
also seen the species among some insects submitted to me by 
Mr. Eothe. 

D. lineatocollis, sp. nov. Sat depressa ; elongata ; nigra vel 
piceo-nigra; capite antice (nonnullis exemplis), antennis, 
palpis, pedibusque, rufis ; prothoracis lateribus leviter ex- 
planatis, vix distincte serrulatis, antice minus fortiter 
productis ; elytris fortiter costatis, interstitiis crasse trans- 
versim biseriatim punctatis. Long, li-lj 1. Lat. -|-^ 1. 
Closely allied to the preceding ; I observe very little differ- 
ence, except in the following characters : — The head is more 
roughly punctured ; the elytra are devoid of red markings and 
have the costse more sharply defined ; and the punctures in the 
two rows in each elytral interstice are transverse, running 
into each other and scarcely leaving any distinct intermediate 
space between them. The thorax also is very differently 
sculptured on the surface ; on either side a strong longi- 
tudinal costa springs from the base a little nearer to the 
middle than half way between the middle and the posterior 
angle and proceeds nearly parallel to the lateral margin more 
than half way to the apical margin when it turns at an angle 
iind runs obliquely towards the centre line, but before reaching 
it becomes parallel to the margin again and then turns out- 
ward towards the lateral margin and runs in an irregular slight 
curve back to the base which it reaches at a point rather nearer 
to the lateral margin than to the point where the inner costa 
takes its rise. 

I have taken this insect occasionally both in the Port Lin- 
coln district and also near Adelaide. 



196 

EOTHKTDEEES. 

jB. variahiJls, sp. nov. Subopacus (elytrorum interstitiis alter- 
nis exceptis) ; niger, antennis tarsisque rufopiceis ; pro- 
thorace transverso longitudinaliter corrugato, postice 
linea curyata impresso, lateribus augulatis ; elytris 
postice rotundato-truncatis, apice x^roductis. Loug. 1 — 3 1. 
Tar. Colore piceo vel testaceo. 
The thorax is gently transverse, tlie front margin strongly 
bisinuate and in the middle elevated, the anterior angles pro- 
duced and acute ; the outline of the lateral margins is very 
peculiar — from the apex of the anterior angles it is convex for 
a fifth part of its length, then it is slightly concave to just 
behind the middle where it is of the same width as at the com- 
mencement of the concavity, and at that point it is angulated 
and thence proceeds with a slightly concave curve to the base 
in such fashion that from the angle the thorax is gently con- 
tracted backwards. There is a slight vague depression on the 
front part of the disc and a little in front of the base there is 
a clearly cut arched line (its convex side turned towards the 
base) from which two fine lines run backward to the base. The 
elytra are strongly striated, the stria3 rather indistinctly punc- 
tured. The alternate interstices are slightly shining, the 
third roundly convex — the fifth and seventh strongly, the ninth 
feebly, carinated. The interstices are devoid of distinct punc- 
turation. The apex of each elytron is rather strongly produced 
(so that the hinder part of the lateral margin is deeply sinuate) 
and roundly truncated. 

I know few insects more variable than this in respect both 
of size and color. It is widely distributed in South Australia 
and common. I have taken it also in Western Victoria. It 
occurs under the bark of Eucalypti. 

I am not acquainted with B. illusus, Newm., and on that 
account should have hesitated to describe this species as new 
were it not that Mr. Pascoe (Journal of Ent., I., p. 465) in 
distinguishing his B. equinus from Newman's insect implies that 
the latter is totally unlike my B. variabilis. 

B.Uhialis, sp. nov. Sat nitidus ; piceo-brunneus ; prothorace 
subcordato leviter transverso, sat fortiter crebrius punc- 
tulato, punctis longitudinaliter confluentibus, latitudine 
majori antice posita, lateribus rotundatis, impressione 
obscura postice posita ; elytris striatis, interstitiis punctu- 
latis, his alternatim elevatis ; tibiis fortiter dilatatis. Long. 
1-21 1. 

Yar. Colore plus minus ve rufo. 
The thorax is widest immediately behind the anterior margin 

whence it narrows with a curved outline nearlv to the base • 



197 

its sides then become parallel and the posterior angles are suh- 
dentif orm ; there is a scarcely noticeable impression on the front 
part of the thorax and a well marked one in front of the base. 
This latter consists of a short parallel-sided fossa, which is a 
little longer than wide and is not limited either before or be- 
hind by a definite line. In some examples the middle part of 
the fossa is scarcely depressed, so that the appearance is that 
of two short, parallel, longitudinal striae. The sculpture of 
the elytra is exceedingly similar to that in B. variabilis ; the 
elytra, however, are evenly glossy, the stride are impunctate, 
and the interstices are punctate. The elytra are evenly 
rounded at the apex as in most other species of the genus. 
The widely-dilated tibife furnish the most striking character of 
this insect, by which it may be at once distinguished from all 
other species known to me ; the antennae also are exceptionally 
short and thick. This latter character probably differentiates 
it from B. illusus also — but however that may be, Mr. Pascoe 
(who appears to have examined the original type of B. illusus) 
states that that insect has .a "deeply-impressed crescent- 
shaped mark " on the posterior part of its disc, and seems to 
speak of it as a decidedly larger species than B. tibialis. 

I have taken this species in South Australia (Pert Lincoln) ; 
also in Western Victoria. 

B. cosfatus, sp. nov. Xitidus ; piceo-rufus, elytris (sutura 
infuscata excepta) dilutioribus ; prothoracis postice angus- 
tati disco late concave, spatio concave postice in medio 
elevate, lateribus subrectis ; elytris costatis, hand evidenter 
striatis, obsolete seriatim punctulatis, costis angustis. 
Long. H— If 1. 

The colouring of the elytra (chestnut, with a dark sutural 
stripe), which seems to be constant, will distinguish this 
species from all its Australian congeners, having the disc of 
the thorax similarly sculptured, except vitfatus, Xewm., which 
has the elytra quite differently sculptured. 

Thorax about as long as wide, widest in front, thence gradu- 
ally narrowed to the base, sides nearly straight, obsoletely 
angulated about the middle ; front margin strongly elevated 
and produced in the middle, anterior angles somewhat promi- 
nent, hind angles obtuse and well defined, surface coarsely 
punctured with oblong punctures tending to longitudinal rows, 
disc occupied by a very wide depression which commences and 
is at its deepest a little behind the anterior margin, from the 
base a nearly impunctate space not depressed below the general 
level of the surface (and so elevated above the floor of the 
depression) runs up the depression to about the centre of the 
thorax. The sculpture of the elytra (which are of ordinary form 



198 

at tlie apex) is peculicar. At tlie base of eacli elytrou close to tlie 
scutellum a strong costa commences edged externally by a kind 
of stria, bnt both soon become obsolete, the stria being repre- 
sented in the hinder three-quarters of the elytra by a scarcely 
traceable row of punctures ; then follow at intervals three 
costje, which at the base are about equally strong with the ab- 
breviated costa, and run evenly to the apex ; outside the last 
of these (which commences at the shoulder) on the lateral 
declivous surface of the elytra are some more obscure slender 
costfe. The intervals between the costse are non-striate, wide, 
and shining, and are devoid of puuctures excepting that a faint 
ill-defined row of punctures can be traced quite close to each 
costa. 

I have seen only a few specimens of this insect, which occurs 
rarely under Eucalyptus bark near Port Lincoln, but probably 
a long series would show great variety in respect of size. 

JB. r if tat us, Newm. I am not sure whether I know this 
species, of which I have not seen the original description, Mr. 
Pascoe, however (in the paper on " Bothrideres," already re- 
ferred to), tabulates it as having on the pro thorax a broad 
shallow depression more or less raised along the median line, 
and on the elytra a dark sutural stripe ; and in distinguishing 
from it some of his own species he appears to intimate that it 
has the elytra (at least near the suture) punctate-striate. A 
common and widelj^ distributed South Australian Bothrideres 
presents the above characters, and I should consider it almost 
certainly B. vittatus, except that it has the side of the thorax 
very strongly angulated in the middle, a character that I can 
hardly suppose Mr. Pascoe would have failed to refer to if it 
were present in jS'ewman's type, B. vittatus is said to be a 
Victorian insect. 

CUCUJIDiE. 

CRTPTAMOEPHA. 

C. Lindi, sp, nov. Minus elongata ; sparsim longe pubescens ; 
rufo vel brunneo-testacea ; capite sparsim crasse obscure 
punctulato ; prothorace quam latiori hand longiori, con- 
fertim fortiter punctulato ; elytris sat fortiter punctulato- 
striatis, transversim obscure pone medium infuscatis. 
Long, 1|1., lat. -1-1. 
The head is very shining, with some sparse and lightly- 
impressed but coarse puncturation ; a strongly impressed line 
extends from the origin of the antenna^ to the base, and a 
smaller oblique furrow runs towards the eye. The length and 
width of the thorax are equal, and it is scarcely narrowed 
behind ; the sides are almost parallel nearly to the base, whence 
they converge gently ; they are set with about six long hairs 



199 

springing from minute obscure prominences. The striation o£ 
the elytra is very slight, but the serial puncturation very large 
and strong, the interstices between the punctate strise very 
narrow, scarcely convex, smooth, and shining. The transverse 
infuscation behind the middle is very obscure (in some speci- 
mens scarcely traceable) ; it crosses the suture, but does not 
nearly reach the margins. The antennae legs and under-side 
scarcely differ in colour from the upper surface. 

Much less elongate, and much less narrowed behind than 
C. DesjarcUnsii, Gruer., with the head and thorax much more 
coarsely punctured, the antennae differently coloured, &c.: from 
C. triguttata, Waterh., and C. optata, Olliffe, it differs in the 
puncturation of its head, and the long erect pubescence with 
which its whole surface is sparingly clothed. 

Not very uncommon at Port Lincoln. 

C. Olliffei, sp. nov. Sat elongata ; sparsim longe pubescens ; 

rufo vel brunneo-testacea ; capite sparsim distincte punc- 

tula-to ; prothorace quam latiori hand longiori, prof unde 

minus crebre punctulato ; elytris sat f ortiter punctulato- 

striatis, transversim obscure pone medium infuscatis. 

Long. 21., lat. |1. 

I do not observe any difference in colour or markings between 

this species and the preceding. It is, however, considerably 

more elongate and narrow, with the puncturation of the head 

evidently stronger and more defined, and that of the prothorax 

very much larger and more sparing. In other respects it 

agrees very well with the description (above) of G. Lindi, 

differing from the other Australian species in respect of the 

same characters that distinguish C. Lindi from them. 

I have taken this insect both at Port Lincoln and near 
Adelaide. 

C Victories, sp. nov. Minus elongata ; sparsim longe pubescens : 

fusco-testacea ; oculis valde prominentibus ; capite pro- 

thoraceque rufescentibus confuse infuscatis ; hoc (leviter 

transverse) creberrime subtilius rugulose, illo crebre for- 

titer, punctulatis ; elytris sat fortiter punctulato-striatis. 

Long. 21., lat. |1. (vix.) 

The single specimen before me of this insect is of a dull 

testaceous colour, the head and thorax reddish; much infuscated, 

but more on one side than the other, so that the infuscation is 

evidently abnormally distributed ; there is a little obsolete 

infuscation about the base of the elytra also. The general 

form is somewhat intermediate between that of the preceding 

two, the prothorax by measurement being comparatively a little 

wider, however, while the head is much more strongly and 

closely punctured than in either of them, and the puncturation 



200 

of tlic prothorax is even closer and more rugose (tliougli not 
coarsely so) than in C. Lincli. The eyes are even more promi- 
nent than in C. Desjardinsil. In other respects resembles the 
preceding two. 

I have taken a single specimen in Western A'ictoria. 

C. delicatula^ sp. no v. Minus elongata ; sparsim longe pubes- 

cens ; rufo-testacea, pedibus dilutioribus, prothorace 

cuprescente ; antennis gracilibus ; oculis prominulis ; 

capite crebre fortiter, prothorace (quam latiori vix 

longiori) creberrime obscure, puuctulatis : elytris sat 

fortiter punctulato-striatis. Long. 1^1., lat. |1. 

In general form this little species resembles C. Lincli, though 

its elytra are a little narrowed at the base, and consequently 

less pp.rallel. The eyes are almost as prominent as in C. Victories, 

and the head is even more closely and strongly punctured than 

in that species, although the punctures are individually smaller. 

The thoracic puncturation somewhat resembles that of C Lindi, 

but is very much closer and finer. It's comparatively long and 

slender antennae distinguish it from all the other described 

Australian species of the genus. There is some obscure infus- 

cation about the elytra which takes the form of several scarcely 

traceable fasciae crossing the suture at intervals down its length, 

but not nearly reaching the margins. 

Port Lincoln. 

silta:n'us. 

>S'. advena, "Waltl. This widely distributed insect has occur- 
red to me several times at Port Lincoln, doubtless introduced 
through the agency of commerce. I have not seen any previ- 
ous mention of its occurence in Australia. 

>S^. unidentatus, Fab. ? I have taken, both in South Australia 
and in Victoria, an insect which I should have no hesitation in 
referring to this species were it not that Mr. Macleay has 
described a closely allied form under the name S. castaneus, 
W'hich Mr. Olliffe in his recent " List of the Cucujidcd of Aus- 
tralia " distinguishes from the cosmopolitan insect by several 
characters — some of which my examples certainly present. I 
find that the thorax is decidedly longer and on the sides more 
sinuated than in average European specimens of /S. unidentafus, 
also that its anterior angles are more prominent ; but I do not 
observe the peculiarities of colour and puncturation that Mr. 
Olliffe mentions as characterising S. castaneus. Among 
European examples of S. iinidentatus there is some tendency 
to variation in length of the thorax, and in Hawaiian speci- 
mens (which Dr. Sharp confirms me in referring to this species) 
the thorax is certainly longer than in ordinary types, and there 
is a tendency to other variety, such as some elongation of the 



201 

antennse. Taking all these considerations into account I do 
not think that the specimens before me should be treated as 
specifically distinct from S. unidenfatus, Eab., and it would 
appear that they are certainly not in all respects similar to 
those which Mr. Olliffe speaks of under the name S. castaneus, 
Macl. 

CKYPTOPHAGIDiE. 
CETPTOPHAGTJS. 

C. qffinis, Sturm? (var. ? Australis), Brevis; sub-ov^atus ; con- 
vexus ; pube sat longa vestitus ; ferrugineus ; elytris sub- 
dilutioribus obscure f usco-notatis ; prothorace dense punc- 
tato, lateribus bidentatis, dente anterior! obtusiusculo. 
Long. 1 1. 

This little representative of a genus not hitherto recorded, 
T believe, as occurring in Australia is so extremely close to the 
European G. affinis that I hesitate to treat it as a distinct 
species, all the more since Cryptopliagios is a genus very liable 
to be disseminated through the channels of commerce ; at the 
same time it presents tangible characters that entitle it to be 
named as being at least a localised variety. Compared with 
affinis it is slightly wider and shorter, and the anterior lateral 
projection of the thorax is evidently (though not very much) 
less strongly developed. The sixth, seventh, and eighth joints 
of the antennae also appear a little more slender as compared 
with the preceding joints than they are in affinis, and there is 
a little obscure infuscation about the elytra of most specimens, 
forming an obsolete triangle about the scutellum (discernible 
still more faintly in some examples of affinis) and a scarcely 
traceable fascia across the middle of the elytra (not at all 
indicated in,any of my specimens of affinis). 

I have met with this species near Adelaide, and also in the 
Port Lincoln district. 

LATHEIDIID.E. 
MONOTOMA. 

M. rufa, Eedt. I have a specimen taken by me at Port Lin- 
coln, which I am unable to distinguish from European examples 
of this insect. It is, however, extremely small, measuring 
barely one line in length, and the antennse appear a little 
elongate, so that it is just possible it may be a distinct closely 
allied species. The genus Monotonia has not, I think, been 
previously recorded as occurring in Australia. 

LATHEIDIUS. 

L. nodifer, Westw. This ubiquitous insect has not, so far 
as I know, been mentioned hitherto as Australian. At any rate 



202 

its name does not occur in Mr. Masters' catalogue. I have, 
however, taken it not uncommonly near Port Lincoln, generally 
under tlie bark of Hiicaly^tus. 

L. costatiijennis, sp. nov. Sat nitidus ; minus elongatus ; con- 
yexus ; brunneus ; antennis brevibus ; capite longitudinal- 
iter canaliculato ; prothorace areolato pone medium con- 
stricto ; ely tris iucTqualibus sat crasse seriatim punctulatis ; 
interstitiis alternis subregulariter costatis. Long. 11. 
AntenucT of tbe length of the thorax ; basal joint large, the 
second a half smaller, joints three to eight much smaller still 
and subequal, nine and ten cor siderably larger and produced 
on the inner side, scarcely diiferent from each other in size ; 
apical^ joint about double the size of the tenth, equal to the 
basal joint, obliquely truncate at apex; head rather roughly and 
coarsely punctured, with a median channel ; thorax moderately 
constricted behind the middle, its length and breadth scarcely 
differing, widest across the front, its anterior angles somewhat 
rounded but by no means effaced, its surface intersected by 
costse (the interspaces of which are for the most part concave), 
there being a well-marked wavy costa on either side of the 
median line, another well marked formings the lateral marojin, 
and some obscure ones besides ; elytra with a vague transverse 
depression a little behind the base, and another immediately 
before the middle, marked with rows of rather large coarse 
punctures, the alternate interstices being sharply and evenly 
cariniform ; the first and third of the costie thus formed unit- 
ing at the apex, the second much shorter. 

This insect bears much resemblance to L. nocUfer, from which 
I observe the following distinctions : — The thorax is compara- 
tively wider in front, with better marked anterior angles, and 
on the elytra the interstices of the rows of punctures are alter- 
nately quite flat and evenly keeled. From many other species 
of the genus it is distinguished by the two transverse depressed 
spaces (one behind the other) in the front part of the elytra. 

I have taken a single specimen in "W^estern Victoria. 
L. satelles, sp. nov. Minus nitidus; minus elongatus; convexus ; 
brunneus ; antennis brevibus ; capite longitudinaliter 
canaliculato ; prothorace areolato, pone medium constricto ; 
elytris 8equalibus crasse seriatim punctulatis ; interstitiis 
alternis regulariter costatis. Long. -f-ll. 
Yery closely allied to the preceding, but I think certainly 
distinct. The elytra are entirely devoid of transverse depres- 
sions, and have evidently larger punctures forming the longi- 
tudinal rows, and the alternate non-carinate interstices are not 
quite so flat and shining. The colour varies from dark blackish 
brown to light brownish testaceous. In the darker examples 



203 

tlie antennae are pitcKy at the apex. The thorax is about 
equally wide across the front and the base. 
Port Lincoln ; not rare. 

L. semicostafiis, sp. nov. Minus nitidus ; minus elongatus 
minus convexus ; piceo-niger ; labro mandibulis palpis et 
antennis testaceo-rufis ; capite longitudinaliter canalicu- 
late ; prothorace longitudinaliter costato pone medium 
minus fortiter constricto ; ely tris seriatim punctulatis ; in- 
terstitiis 3° (apicem versus), 5° et 7° costatis. Long, -fl. 

Much more depressed than either of the preceding two ; the- 
antennae and head scarcely different from the same parts in 
L. costatipennis ; the thorax (evidently wider in front than 
behind) with some distinct, though only slightly raised, longi- 
tudinal cost?e, no evident transverse costae, and the interspaces 
hardly concave ; the elytra with very distinct rows of rather 
large punctures ; the interval between the second and third of 
these rows scarcely raised except near the apex, the intervals 
between the fourth and fifth and between the sixth and seventh 
rows finely but distinctly keeled throughout their length. 

The cost?e on the thorax and elytra are very much less raised 
than in either of the preceding. The almost complete disap- 
pearance of the costation, in its anterior two-thirds, of the- 
interval between the second and third rows of punctures on the 
elytra is a marked character. 

Port Lincoln ; a single specimen under bark of Eucalyptus. 

L. nigromacidatus, sp. nov. Minus nitidus ; sat elongatus ; sat 
convexus ; testaceus, nigro-maculatus ; capite longitudi- 
naliter canaliculate ; prothorace obscure areolato, pone 
medium constricto ; elytris sat fortiter punctulato-striatis,. 
interstitiis convexis. Long, f 1. 

The basal part of the thorax is quite as wide as the front ,-. 
the raised lines and convex spaces on its surface do not seem to 
differ much in pattern from those on the thorax of L. costatipennis,. 
but they are quite faint, and not easy to trace even under a 
Coddington lens. The elytra are distinctly striated ; each stria 
has a row of large coarse punctures ; the interstices are decidedly 
convex, but the alternate ones scarcely more so than the rest. 
A transverse depression crosses the elytra a little behind the 
base. The black markings on the elytra consist of an elongate 
blotch in front of the middle, between the second and fifth 
strisD, two or three spots near the lateral margin in the front 
half, the hinder part of the suture, and an irregular fascia 
which crosses the suture a little behind the middle, but does 
not nearly reach the lateral margins. Examples thus marked 
bear a striking resemblance to some of the small species of 



204 

HelopJiorus, but in some specimens tlie dark markings are more 
obscure, and the resemblance to Helopliorus less noticeable, 

AVoodville, among dea.d leaves, &Q.. Not common. 

L. onino7\ sp. no v. Sat nitidus ; minus elongatus ; minus con- 

vexus ; rufus ; capite baud canaliculato ; protborace an- 

gusto, antice quam postice paullo latiori, obsolete areolato, 

pone medium constricto ; eljtris seriatim punctulatis, 

interstitiis alternis subtiliter costatis. Long., |-f 1. 

Kesembles L. semicostatus in sbape but smaller, of a lively 

red colour, tbe tborax mucb narrower and tbe elytra differently 

costate. Tbe tborax is scarcely a tbird tbe widtb of tbe elytra 

at tbeir widest part, its surface is obscurely areolate, but tbe 

raised lines limiting tbe concave spaces are so faint tbat tbey 

cannot be traced continuously. Tbe punctures in tbe rows on 

tbe elytra are shallow and ratber small, tbe elevated alternate 

interstices very fine and sligbtly raised but quite clearly 

traceable. Tbe tbird of tbese costsB is tbe most conspicuous ; 

it commences at tbe sboulder and near tbe apex turns inward 

towards tbe suture, wbicb it nearly reacbes. In some examples 

tbe bead and tborax are a little infuscated. 

Port Lincoln ; also near Adelaide. 
L. apicalis, sp. nov. Minus nitidus ; minus elongatus ; sat 
convexus ; f usco-brunneus ; capite canaliculato ; protbor- 
ace antice quam postice paullo latiori, distincte areolato 
pone medium constricto ; elytris seriatim punctulatis, 
interstitiis alternis costatis ; costis puncturisque apicem 
versus deficientibus. Long., ^ 1, 
Eatber closely allied to tbe preceding ; apart from colour, 
however, tbis insect differs from it in being of a less parallel 
form (baving tbe elytra considerably narrower at tbe base tban 
bebind) and in tbe sculpture of tbe elytra. Tbese bave tbe 
rows of punctures mucb more obscure and tbe raised alternate 
interstices evidently wider ; tbe sculpture moreover becomes 
sligbt and sub-obsolete near tbe apex, wbereas in L. minor it is 
most strongly defined in tbat part. 

Port Lincoln. 
L. pimctipennis, sp. nov. Sat nitidus ; sat elongatus ; sat con- 
vexus ; piceo-ruf US ; capite canaliculato ; protborace an- 
tice quam postice paullo latiori, areolato, pone medium 
constricto ; elytris seriatim crassissime punctulatis ; inter- 
stitiis alternis costatis. Long., 4- 1. 
Very similar to L. apicalis in sbape, but differs strongly from 
it and from all tbe preceding by tbe extremely coarse punctura- 
tion of tbe elytra. Tbe punctures in tbe pairs of rows between 
tbe cost* are so large tbat tbe rows run into eacb otber trans- 
versely and present tbe appearance of eacb interval between 



205 

tlie costse being occupied by a single row of large quadrangular 
transverse pits, about 20 in each. row. Tbe costae are very well 
marked. 

Port Lincoln. 

MTCETOPHAaiD^. 

Typhcea fumata, Linn. I bave taken tbis widely distributed 
insect at Port Lincoln. I believe it has not been previously 
recorded as occurring in Australia. 

HETEEOCERIDiE. 

HETEEOCEEIJS. 

H. 'Flindersi^ sp. nov. Elongato-oblongus ; niger, griseo- 
pubescens ; protboracis angulis posterioribus marginatis ; 
elytris subtiliter puuctulatis, testaceo-notatis ; pedibus 
(genubus tibiarumque margine exteriori exceptis) pro- 
tboracis angulis anticis testaceis. Long. If — 2 1. 
Head and protborax opaque, excessively finely punctured, 
tbe latter narrow in front, wide bebind ; its sides gently 
arcbed, its posterior angles obtuse. Elytra not much wider 
tban tbe thorax, finely (but as compared with most species of 
the genus not particularly so) and evenly punctured. The 
lateral margins are testaceous, the testaceous border dilated 
and running out towards tbe disc of the elytra just in front of 
and just behind the middle j on the disc of eacb elytron are five 
narrow elongate testaceous marks ; two in front of the middle 
almost parallel to each other, the external one a little nearer 
the front than the other, two bebind the middle, side by side, 
parallel, and in some examples coalescing, and one near the 
apex (varying in form from a mere line to the shape of the 
Greek letter gamma) wbich in most examples runs into the testa- 
ceous lateral border. On the underside the hind-body has a 
testaceous border . The legs are pale testaceous, the external 
margin of the tibiae and (in many examples) the knees and 
even the inner margin of the tibicT infuscated. 

Port Lincoln ; also on the banks of the Torrens near Ade- 
laide. 

H. multimacuJatus, sp. nov. Sat elongatus ; fuscus, griseo- 
pubescens ; protboracis angulis posterioribus marginatis ; 
huic margine laterali, antennis, pedibusque, testaceis ; 
*elytris pallide fuscis, longitudinaliter fusco multimacu- 

* While this paper was in the press, I received from Mr. R. H. Pulleine a 
specimen Heterocerus, in bad condition and quite denuded of pubescence, 
which I beheve to be H. midtimaculatus. In that case, the species is evi- 
dently variable in respect of colour, as the example which forms this note 
has elytra entirely blackish-brown, except a longitudinal line from the base 
on either side the scutellum, a semicircle between it and the margin, the- 
margin itself, and a few spots near the apex, all which are testaceous. 



206 

latis, coiifertim subtiliter puuctulatis, leviter striatis. 
Long., If 1. 

In shape and sculpture the head and thorax do not differ 
much from the same parts in the preceding species but they 
are rather more shining. The elytra are scarcely wider than 
the thorax, and the whole insect has an elongate parallel f acies. 
The suture is broadly blackish in its anterior fifth part, the 
remainder of its length being very narrowly blackish. A 
fuscous line commences about the middle of each elytron close 
to the suture and runs parallel to the suture, almost to the 
xipex, where it merges into a fuscous cloud, which overspreads 
the hind part of the suture but does not quite reach the apex. 
On each shoulder is a dark fuscous mark shaped like a horse- 
shoe, its convex edge touching the anterior margin. Im- 
mediately in front of the middle of each elytron, near to the 
lateral margin, is a large blackish spot between which and the 
suture is a narrow longitudinal blackish line. A little before 
the apex there is a dark mark shaped like z. The blackening 
of the anterior part of the suture and the horse-shoe-like mark 
on each shoulder produce together the appearance of five short 
iind somewhat parallel longitudinal lines running out from the 
base, of which the external two on either side are joined on 
the anterior margin. The puncturation of the elytra is finely 
rugose and very close — much closer than in S. Flindersi. 

This insect seems to resemble H. Australasi(S, AVaterh., in 
general form, especially in the slight narrowing of the elytra 
behind the shoulders, but to be distinguished from it by having 
the elytra evidently striated, and very differently marked. It 
is difficult to specify the differences from the Queensland 
H. Mastersi, Macleay (which it resembles in having striated 
•elytra), owing to the brevity of the description of that insect; 
but the first word in the description, " black," would seem to 
preclude the identification with it of a species in which there 
is no genuinely black colour at all. Indeed, except for this 
expression "black," and the mention of the striation of the 
elytra, there is nothing in the description to show that 
li. AustralasicB may not be identical with it. 

I possess a single specimen, taken near the G-range, on the 
banks of the Torrens. 

LAMELLICOKNES. 
PACHTGASTKA. 

I have before me three specimens of an insect which I cannot 
doubt is that described by G-ermar under the name Facliygastra 
Tasmanica. The author is unsatisfactorily brief in character- 
ising the elytral sculpture, saying merely that the elytra are 
faintly seriate-punctate, with interstices confusedly punctured, 



207 

and a single sutural stria. In the species that forms the sub- 
ject of this note the rows of punctures (besides that in the 
strongly marked sutural stria) are eight in number on each 
elytron, and are placed in very obsolete striae, running in pairs, 
the interval between the tw^o of each pair being slightly con- 
vex, narrow, and scarcely punctulate, while the intervals 
between the pairs are wide, flat, and distinctly punctured. 
Germar, moreover, gives no information regarding the propy- 
gidium and pygidium of his insect. In the specimens before 
me the former is finely and closely punctured, the latter 
coarsely and sparingly, but not deeply ; and both are densely 
clothed with long hairs. The great width and strong external 
bidentation of the anterior tibiae, and the peculiar structure of 
the antennae, together with the long dense villosity of the 
underside and legs are well marked characters mentioned by 
Oermar, the presence of which in the specimens before me 
seem to justify their identification with P. Tasmanica. more 
especially as I know that one (at least) of them was taken in 
the immediate vicinity of the place where most of the species 
described by Grermar were collected. 

Assuming the correctness of this identification, I think that 
this insect must be regarded as the type of a distinct genus, 
for which, of course, Germar's name Facliygasira must be used. 
Burmeister assigns the insect to Haplonycha. According to 
Schaum, Germar used the name Facliygastra by accident for 
Frochehjna^ to which genus however that great authority, 
M Lacordaire, greatly doubts its appertaining. Having dis- 
sected a specimen, I am able to say that it cannot be referred 
either to Haplonyclia or ProcJielyna, the six- jointed club of the 
antennae (in one sex at least) and the peculiar labrum and 
front tibiae forbidding its association with the species for which 
M. Blanchard founded Haplonycha, while the toothed maxillae 
separate it widely ivomProclielyna. This last named character 
seems inconsistent with any close relationship to the insects 
associated by Dr. Sharp under the name Systellopides, to which, 
nevertheless, I believe it in reality allied. [It is worthy of 
note that in one genus of that group, Systellopus, the learned 
author meutions the presence on the maxilla of a "small ob- 
scure black tubercle or tooth."] In one of the specimens 
before me the apical ventral segment is evidently longer than 
in the other specimens, from which I conclude that both sexes 
are represented in this short series, and that the differences 
between them are very slight. The following characters no 
doubt include some that may be considered generic ; clypeus 
very strongly concave, separated from the forehead by an 
almost straight impressed suture ; its outline nearly semi- 
circular, its margin scarcely elevated close to the forehead, but 



208 

(owing to the forward deepening o£ tlie concavity o£ the sur- 
face) becoming more so towards the front, till in the middle of 
the anterior edge it forms a rampart about half as high as the 
whole clypeus is long. The front face of the clj^peus is per- 
jDcndicular, and somewhat higher than the apical joint of the 
maxillary palpi is long ; at the bottom of this perpendicular 
face the labrum projects in a plane exactly at right angles 
with the plane of tlaat face. The labrum is a thin plate 
scarcely at all thickened in the middle, and only very slightly 
bent into an arch transversely ; it is widely gentl}^ and trian- 
gularly emarginate in front with rounded front angles and 
sides, its width about three times its greatest length ; 
it projects forward from the perpendicular face of the 
clypeus in such manner that each of its lateral mar- 
gins is about as long as the apical joint of the maxillary 
palpi, and that its length down the middle is about half 
that of the sides (I do not know any other Australian 
Melolontlia whose labrum approaches this form). The mentum 
is a little longer than wide, with its ligular suture not defined, 
abruptly narrowed at the insertion of the labial palpi and con- 
tinuing to contract slightly thence to xhe apex which is sub- 
truncate and about half as wide as the base ; the surface is 
clothed with long hairs, and a membranous lobe projects 
obliquely on either side underneath the basal joint o£ the 
labial palpi. Of these latter the basal joint is elongate-cylin- 
dric, the second almost globular, the third subconic, and about 
equal in length to the first. The maxillas are of the same 
length as the mentum and of a very simple form, the outline 
externally being a slight even curve and internally an almost 
straight line ; there are three or four distinct sharp teeth on 
the inner margin near the apex. The maxillary palpi are in- 
serted very near the apex of the maxilla, than which they are 
not much longer ; the basal joint is very small, the second and 
fourth about equal to each other, the third decidedly shorter 
than the second or fourth. The club of .the antennae is much 
longer than the other joints together, and is scarcely shorter 
than the entire head ; its basal joint is a little shorter than the 
rest ; of the joints not belonging to the club the first is longer 
than the other two together, and in shape is bent piriform ; the 
second joint springs from the inner side of the first a little 
before its apex, and resembles the first in shape ; the third is 
equal to the second in length, and is somewhat parallel-sided, 
in one example, however (probably a male), having a strong 
sharp tooth projecting from its inner face. The anterior tibia& 
are very peculiar ; the external margin is strongly dilated with 
a curved outline to a distance from its base about equal to the 
length of the antenna! club, at which point the tibia is about 



209 

two-tMrds as wide as the antennal club is long ; at this point 
a deep external emargination cuts the tibia half through, 
which thus reduced in width continues gradually contracting 
with a curve outwards till this lower contracted piece is a little 
more than half as long as the part above +he external emar- 
gination, and is narrowly rounded off at the apex. The anterior 
tarsus is inserted at the part where the tibia is at its widest; 
a strong spine (as long as the basal joint of the tarsus) springs 
from the tibia just above the insertion of the tarsus ; this latter 
is considerably longer than its tibia; the apex of its basal 
joint is about level with the extreme apex of the tibia. The 
intermediate and especially the hind tibiae are much com- 
pressed and dilated towards the apex, the greatest diameter of 
the latter at the apex being scarcely less than half the length, 
of the whole limb. These tibiae have only one well-defined 
transverse carina each ; the intermediate tarsi are about half 
again and the hind tarsi twice as long as their tibiae. On the 
upper surface the hinder part of the head bears a number of 
long erect hairs ; a fringe of similar hairs runs along the 
lateral margins of the prothorax ; a dense mass of long woolly 
hairs protrudes from the base of the prothorax over the base 
of the elytra ; the propygidium is thickly and the pygidiuni 
thinly clothed with long pubescence. On the under side the 
whole surface in front of the hind body is buried in very dense 
long and woolly pubescence which extends itself, though with 
less density, along the sides of the hind body. The femora and 
tibiae are fringed with long hairs not very closely placed. The 
abdominal stigmata seem to be of the usual Melolontliid type 
and arrangement. 

For the benefit of anyone who may not possess a copy of 
G-ermar's memoir I will complete the above remarks by saying 
that the insect which forms their subject is from 9 to 10 1. long 
and about 6 1. wide. It is of a clear chestnut brown colour, 
with the head darker, the external part of the anterior tibiae 
and the apices of the other tibiae black, and the pilosity pale 
fawn coloured. The hinder part of the head is closely and 
strongly and the clypeus and prothorax scarcely less strongly 
but much less closely punctured. 

The three specimens known to me of this species were taken 
at various places around Adelaide. 

As far as I can ascertain no insect has been described that 
can be considered congeneric with this. 

MACLEAYIA. 

This genus (described by me on page 29 of the present vol.) 
is evidently near to Microthopus, Burm., with which it is just 
possibly identical, if Dr. Burmeister might bave been in error 



210 

iu regarding as a male the specimen on which he founded his 
genus ; although the antennal characters he gives would not be 
quite satisfactory if regarded as describing even t\\Q female of 
my JSIacleayia. I draw attention to this because there is un- 
doubtedly very little difference between Microthopus and 
Macleayia, except in respect of their antennal peculiarities. 
[Xeither of the insects I described as appertaining to JSIacleayia 
seems to be specifically (even if it should prove to be generically) 
identical with Ilicrothopus castanopterus. 

EHOPJEA. 

This genus is characterised with extreme brevity in the 
^'Insecten Deutschlands (a.d. 1848)," where its author (Dr. 
Erichsen) introduces it (quite casually) into a tabuL.tion of 
the Melolonthid genera, its place in which indicates some par- 
ticulars regarding its antennas, labial palpi, and claws. A 
note is added as follows : " New genus from jVew Holland ; 
antennal club of the male six jointed, pj^gidium blunt at apex." 
Two years later M. Blanchard described the species (from 
N.S.'W.) on which Erichsen had founded the genus under the 
name R. Verreauxi. Pive years later still Dr. Burmeister 
characterised the genus at much greater length, slightly alter- 
ing the definition of its antennae in order to admit into it 
Melolontha heterodactyla of Germar. Finally, in 1856, M. 
Lacodaire mentioned the characters of the genus in his 
" Genera des Coleopteres," but ignored the alteration that Dr. 
Burmeister had made, remarking that Germar's insect ought 
to be the type of a new genus. 

I am acquainted with a species which, I am quite satisfied, is 
R. heterodactyla of Germar, and with another species which I 
am satisfied cannot be generically separated from it, althougb 
the number of joints in its antennal club is different. There 
seems to be no good reason for excluding either of these from 
Rliopaa apart from the difference in the number of joints 
composing the antennal club, and I cannot look upon that 
alone as a valid generic distinction, especially when it is noted 
that the club seems to be formed in each case upon the same 
plan, the basal two and the apical six joints in all these species 
showing little variation, and the difference depending on 
whether joints three and four belong to the dilated or the un- 
dilated series. I think therefore that Dr. Burmeister should be 
followed in this matter, and 1 have no hesitation in attributing 
to the genus Uliopcea the following species although its male 
has an antennal club consisting of eight joints. 
i?. oiiagnicornis, sp. nov. Minus elongata, breviter necdense 
pubescens ; rufescens (nounullis exemplis prothoracis 
disco obscuriori) ; capite prothoraceque densissime, ely tris 



211 

duplo, punctulatis ; subtus sterno dense longe villoso, 
abdomine breviter pubescenti 

Maris flabello 8-articulato. Long. 12 1. Lat. 6 1. 

The resemblance of tbis insect to JR. heteroflactyla, Germ., is 
Tery striking indeed. Placed beside tbat species it is some- 
what wider and less elongate, with tbe thorax decidedly though 
slightly (in heterodactyla it is hardly') lobed behind, its margins 
a trifle less strongly crenulate (perhaps only an individual 
aberration), and its surface distinctly less finely and closely 
punctured. There does not appear to be any tangible differ- 
ence in the sculpture of the elytra or pygidiun.], or in the 
structure of the legs. The antennae are quite different ; the 
basal joint is elongate piriform, the second very small, the 
third not much shorter than the first but prolonged internally 
at the apex into an elongate lamina not much shorter than 
each of the following seven joints, which with it form an 
arched club not much shorter than the anterior tibia. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum 
marked as having been taken in South Australia. 

jN'.B. — The South Australian Museum possesses also a speci- 
men which I cannot doubt is the female of this species. It 
has the clypeus evenly rounded in front, the thorax more 
narrowly and distinctly lobed behind, and the antennal club 
smaller and only six- jointed, the basal two joints as in the 
male, the third longer than the first and cylindric, the fourth 
feebly spined on the inner side. The apical ventral segment is 
very much shorter than in the male. The tarsi do not differ 
noticeably from those of the male, the hindmost pair in both 
.sexes being scarcely shorter than their tibiae. 

HOLOPHTLLA {Mrichseii) . 
This genus is so uncertainly characterised that there is a 
risk in attributing any species to it. It originally appeared in 
the " Ins. Deutsch." merely in a tabulation of tbe " Tanyproc- 
tini " with a note of three lines attached, mentioning two or 
three characters and stating that it was from JSTew Holland. 
From its place in the tabulation it would appear that it has 
the abdominal segmental sutures not soldered together and 
only a single tooth on the claws. Dr. Burmeister (Handb. 
der Ent.) characterises the genus mucb more fully, but states 
that Erichsen was mistaken in saying that the abdominal 
sutures are not soldered together, and also (without remark on 
the discrepancy) attributes two teeth to its claws. Dr. Bur- 
meister, however, does not compare Holopliylla with Bliopcea, 
which from the description it must resemble very closely. In- 
deed, I cannot from the description discover any tangible dis- 
tinction mentioned except that the joints of the palpi in the 



212 

former are miicli swollen, and that the head is wider than in 
BJiopcea. M. Lacordaire (in the " Gen. des Col.") throws no- 
light on the matter, as he has not seen the type, but merely 
remarks on the original description. 

The following species I attribute to Holophylla, as that genus 
is characterised by Dr. Burmeister. It presents all the charac- 
ters definitely assigned to the genus, and differs notably from 
Bhopcca in the shortness of all its palpi, the joints of which 
(except the apical of the maxillary) are conspicuously swollen. 
Whether it be a true HolopJiylla or not it is CAndently new and 
cannot be assigned to any other genus. Evidently belonging 
to the true JMelolonthidce it differs inter alia from Wiopcea, as 
already mentioned, and from Lepidiota and Lepidodenna in the 
entire!}' different structure of its antenn?D. From the species o£ 
Wiopcea it differs as follows (inter alia): — From Verreauxi 
(known to me only by description) in its seven-jointed antennal 
club ; from the other two in its very much more sparingly 
punctured prothorax, &c., &c. ; from the already described 
species of Holojjhi/lla (furfuracea, Burm.) it differs by its larger 
size, spurred anterior tibiae, &c., &c. 

H. Australis, sp. nov. Sat nitida ; elongata-ovata ; supra pilis 
adpressis et setis fulvis longis erectis vestita ; subtus 
antice dense fulvo-pilosa, postice breviter pubescens ; 
nigro-fusca, antennis, oris membris, prothoracis lateribus, 
abdomine (inparte). et pedibus pallidioribus ; supra duplo- 
punctata ; tibiis anticis apice intus unispinosis. Long. 
10 1., lat. 5 1. 
Maris flabello 7-articulato. 

The erect hairs on the upper surface are thick and long on 
the head, prothorax, and scutellum ; on the elytra they grow 
shorter and more sparing backward. The clypeus is sinuately 
truncate in front, its margins strongly elevated, its surface 
coarsely punctured ; the hinder part of the head is closely, 
roughly, and finely punctured ; the declivous front part of the 
clypeus (visible from beneath) is pale testaceous. The pro- 
thorax is a trifle more than half again as wide as down the 
middle it is long, and is nearly twice as wide at the base as in 
front ; its sides are crenulate and moderately rounded ; its an- 
terior angles are little marked, its posterior obtuse ; its surface- 
is sprinkled (closely at the sides, sparingly in the middle) with 
small and larger punctures, from the former of which spring- 
short adpressed hairs, from the latter long erect ones. The 
scutellum is punctured like the prothorax. The elytra are 
similarly sculptured in respect of the small punctures, but the 
larger ones (while similar near the base) are confused behind 
by various obscure ill-defined furrows or wrinkles (somewhat 



213 

transverse near the margins), among whicli may be faintly 
traced some four or five running lengthwise down the el3^tra 
besides a well-defined sutural stria ; the intervals between some 
of these furrows are not quite flat. The pygidium is closely 
Siud obscurely punctuate, and is clothed with very short, very 
closely set, erect hairs. The colour of the hind body varies 
from obscure ferruginous, a little clouded with dark brown, to 
nearly uniform dark brown. The legs do not seem to differ at 
iill from those of Wiopcsa, having the anterior tibiae tridentate 
externally, the four posterior with a small external spine in- 
stead of a carina. The anterior tarsi are a little longer than, 
the intermediate equal to, the posterior a little shorter than, 
their tibise. On the hind tibiae the inner apical spine is no- 
ticeably longer and straighter than the outer one. 

In the male the basal joint of the antennas is pear shaped 
and not very elongate, the second very short, the third nearly 
as long as the first (bent outwards, but with a strong angula- 
tion on the inner margin), the fourth slightly shorter than the 
remaining six, with which it forms a very elongate (as long as 
the anterior tibia down to the insertion of the tarsus) and 
narrow club. 

In the only female before me the club is unfortunately 
broken off both antennas ; the apical ventral segment is very 
short. 

I have received this insect from Mr. Rothe, of Sedan ; there 
is a specimen from Kangaroo Island (taken by Mr. Tepper) in 
the South Australian Museum, w^hich also possesses a specimen 
much paler in colour from Port Victor. 

jST.B. — I should conjecture that the apical spurs of the an- 
terior tibias had been accidentally broken off the type on which 
Dr. Burmeister's description is founded. If this were the case 
jB[. Australis would still differ from it in its much larger size 
(furfuracea is said to be " somewhat smaller than Uliiz sols- 
titialis'") and in the well-defined sutural stria of the elytra, 
j&c, &c. 

LEPIDIOTA. 

Zi. JRothei, sp. nov. Elongata-ovata ; convexa ; supra sparsim, 
subtus densissime, albo-squamulata ; capite prothoraceque 
sparsius profunde, elytris crebre sat fortiter, punctulatis ; 
his singulis quadricostatis. Long. 81., lat. 41. (vix). 

The clypeus is about four times as wide as long, reflexed, and 
emarginate in front ; it and the head are covered not very 
closely with large deep punctures. The prothorax is nearly 
twdce as wdde as down the middle it is long ; its base is nearly 
half again as wide as its front margin; its sides are very 
strongly dilated, the prothorax being at its widest just behind 



214 

tlie middle ; its surface is strongly punctured, very closely on 
the sides, quite sparingly in tlie middle ; tlie lateral margins 
are creuulate. The scutellum is punctured uniformly with the 
disc of the prothorax. The elytra are widest considerably be- 
hind the middle ; they are punctured rather more finely and 
much more closely than the disc of the prothorax, the distinct- 
ness of the puncturation being obscured by a great deal of 
transverse wrinkling ; the system of puncturation is inter- 
rupted, but the transverse wrinkles only partially so by four 
very slightly elevated shining costse on each elytra. The 
pygidium is punctured coarsely and closely, but not deeply, 
the propygidium only very obscurely. Each puncture on the 
upper surface is occupied by a small white scale, which in the 
piunctures about the middle line of the insect scarcely protrudes 
and from those on the sides protrudes only slightly. The 
underside femora and tibiae are punctured, the hind coxae and 
hind body very closely, finely, and shallowly, the rest more 
strongly and sparsely. The pimcturation of the underside, 
however, is quite hidden by mingled white and brownish scales, 
which are very closely packed except on the femora and tibiae. 
The anterior tibi» are strongly tridentate externally ; the four 
hinder tibife have no distinct transverse carina, but an external 
spine on the middle of each of them. The hind tarsi are 
shorter than their tibiae. The basal joint of the antennae is 
quite half as long as the rest together. The club consists of 
three short joints. 

A single specimen has been sent and kindly presented to me 
by Mr. Eothe, of Sedan. From its elongate apical ventral seg- 
ment I think it is a male. 

PAFSCHIZUS. 

P. jjalUdtis, mihi. I think it not improbable that this insect 
(described by me on page 51 of the jDresent vol.) is identical 
with Anoplostethus opaliiius, Brulle, of which I had not seen 
the original description at the time I wrote. The genus 
Anoplostethus is stated by its author to have the claws all 
simple, except that the larger intermediate claw is very slightly 
bifid, and M. Lacordaire (Gen. des. Coleopteres, III., p. 373) 
states that A. opalinus is a very beautiful blue insect. As the 
insect I had before me is of a very pale yellow-green colour, 
and had the larger claw on all the tarsi quite strongly bifid, I 
took it to be certainly distinct from M. Brulle' s species. The 
description of A. opajinus, however (now before me), agrees so 
well in general respects with my P. pallidus that I think they 
are probably founded on the two sexes of the same insect ; as I 
have seen two specimens of it (one of them quite freshly taken), 
both agreeing in colour, and being neither blue nor especially 



215 

beautiful, I am quite unable to account for M. Lacordaire's 
statement. It will be observed that in my description of 
P. pallidus I mentioned its affinity to A. opalinus and its 
differing in colour and in the structure of the claws. 

I^'OVAPL'S. 

N. Adelaides, sp. nov. Late oblongus ; sat nitidus ; subtus 
dense rufo-hirsutus ; prothorace basin versus angustato, 
margine basali integro ; elytris subpunctulato-striatis ; 
scutello vix, vel obscure lineatim, punctulato. Long. 8f , 
111.; lat. (elytrorum) 4i— 5 1. 
Mas. capite cornu lato, erecto, apice leviter dilatato et 
emarginato ; prothorace elytris latiori, medio a margine 
anteriore fere ad basin late profunde impresso. 
'Fern, capite baud tuberculato ; prothorace elytris angustiori, 

baud impresso. 
Closely allied to iV. crassus, Shp., and differing from it 
chiefly by the female having no tubercle on its head and no im- 
pression on the front of the prothorax. The scutellum of 
crassus is said to be " strongly punctured." In this insect the 
extreme scuteliar puncturation I have seen is a line of punc- 
tures following the shape of the scutellum a little within the 
margins, but generally the scutellum has only traces of such 
line or is smooth. The following are characters of JV. Adelaides 
not mentioned by Dr. Sharp as possessed by N. crassus : — ■ 
Pront margin of prothorax suddenly concave behind the 
clypeal horn ; prothorax fringed all round with pale reddish 
hairs, and pygidium similarly fringed round all its edges. The 
thorax of the female as compared with that of the male is more 
strongly punctured than I should from description judge it to 
be in JST. crassus. In both sexes the prothorax is widest in front 
of the middle, and is narrowed thence to the front and base, 
but so that the actual front margin is less than half the width 
of the base. 

I have seen a good many specimens taken in the Adelaide 
district. 

N. striato-punctulatus, sp. nov. Late oblongus ; sat nitidus ; 
subtus dense rufo-hirsutus ; prothorace basin versus minus 
fortiter angustato, margine basali integro ; scutello con- 
fertim rugose punctulato ; elytrorum disco antice sat 
fortiter punctulato-striato. Long. 12^ 1., lat. 6i. 1. 
Mas. capite cornu sat lato erecto, apice leviter dilatato et 
emarginato ; prothorace elytris baud latiori, medio a 
margine anteriori haudquaquam ad basin late profunde 
impresso. 
Eem. Latet. 



216 

Differs from the preceding as follows : — The prothorax is less 
decidedly notclied behind the head, its puncturation being 
coarser, its excavation occupying only its anterior four-fifths, 
and having less elevated sides, and its margins being less con- 
tracted behind (the base is fully seven-eighths of the greatest 
width) ; the scutellum is closely and roughly punctulate. The 
disc of each elytron to near the apex is strongly punctulate- 
striate, the sutural (except the sutural stria) and marginal por- 
tions being confusedly and strongly punctulate. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum. 
The exact locality of its capture is not known. 

PENTODON. 

P. Australis, sp. nov. Piceo-niger ; nitidus ; clypeo antice 
bidentatus, postice bituberculatus ; prothorace vix evi- 
denter punctulato ; elytris irregulariter striatis seriatim 
gemellato-punctulatis. Long. 7 — 8 1. 

Maris tarsis anticis et unguiculo intern o valde dilatatis. 

Var. Corpore toto castaneo-rufo. 

The colour is very variable, some specimens being aAmost 
black, some having the antennae, palpi, and legs (especially the 
tarsi) reddish, some being entirely of a chestnut colour. The 
head is rather finely punctured and transversely wrinkled, 
except near the base, where it is almost smooth. The thorax 
is about one-third as wide again as long, is quite simple in 
both sexes, deeply emarginate in front, rounded and ciliated 
on the sides, with the front angles acute and the hind angles 
rounded ; under a very strong lens the surface is seen to be 
dulled by minute close puncturation on which are some much 
more sparing and larger (but still very fine) punctures. On 
the disc of each elytron are about four strise which are short- 
ened before or behind, or at both ends, and also eight rows of 
gemellated punctures shortened more or less (in a variable 
manner — those near the suture are in some examples entire), 
some of which run in striae ; between the suture and the first 
row of punctures, and still more between the eighth and the 
lateral margin the puncturation is confused and very sparing ; 
close to the apex it is confused and close. The anterior tibiae 
in both sexes have three long, sharp, external teeth, with an 
additional one above and below the upper of the three, these 
additional teeth being usually very small, but in some examples 
not very much smaller than the others. On the underside 
there is scarcely any puncturation along the middle line, while 
at the sides there are rather fine punctures with very large 
ones sparingly intermixed, these last running in rows on the 
ventral segments. 



217 

In the male the ventral sutures are very strongly impressed, 
and there is an oblique membranous interval (very little nar- 
rower than the segment itself) between the fifth and sixth seg- 
ments and another behind the sixth segment ; the front tarsi 
have all the joints deformed (angulated beneath, angularly- 
emarginate at the apex and more or less transverse), increas- 
ingly so from the base onwards to the fifth joint, which is not 
transverse, but is a swollen mass about equal in bulk to the 
club of the antenna3 and quite three times as large as the fourth 
joint. One of the claws is simple, the other a broad bent 
lamina, much like what one of the joints of the antennal club 
w^ould be if similarly bent. 

In the female the apical joint of the front tibiae is a little 
swollen. 

JSTotwithstanding the presence of organs of stridulation (in 
the shape of coarse confused granulation on the middle of 
the prop3^gidium) the under surface of the elytra has the fringe 
of hairs which M. Lacordaire (G-en. Col. iii., p. 389 note) con- 
eiders inconsistent with stridulation. 

I have dissected a specimen and do not find it to differ 
generically from Pentodon. 

This species is widely distributed in South Australia. I 
have seen but one male. 

PSEUJDOPIMELOPTIS ffeu. TIOV. 

Pimelopodi afiinis : differt maris capite cornu armato, pro- 
thorace autice excavate (partis excavatae margine postico 
medio elevate). 
The genus JPimelopus was founded by Dr. Erichsen on a 
female Dynastid from Tasmania. Some time afterwards Dr. 
Burmeister described the male of a species which he called 
JPimelopus notlius. M. Lacordaire, in his great work on the 
genera of the Coleoptera, worked out from the descriptions of 
these two insects a complete diagnosis of the genus Pimelopus. 
The examination of a considerable number of specimens has forced 
me to the conclusion that Pimelopus porcellus, Er., and P. nothus, 
Burm., cannot be treated as generically identical. I am about 
to describe a new species from S. Australia as JPseudopimelopus 
Lindi which is evidently congeneric with and closely allied to 
P. notlius, Burm., but I have before me other species evidently 
congeneric with P. porcellus, Er., the males of which differ 
from the male of Fseudopimelopus in having merely a small 
tubercle on the head, and the thorax undistinguishable from 
that of the female. They possess the character of having 
elytra with a strongly swollen appearance and unusually wide 
in proportion to the thorax (as in the description of 
I*, porcellus, Er.) which Fseudopimelopus Lindi has not, with 



218 

tarsi notably shorter thau in Pseicdopimelopus (another dis- 
tinction noted by Burmeister between Erichsen's P. Porcellus 
and bis P. nothus). In P seudopimelo'pus Lindi, moreover, the 
hind and intermediate tibiae have only one well defined 
transverse keel, and the basal joint of the hind tarsi is shorter 
across the apex than down its central line, while in the species 
I regard as true Pimelopits there are two strong transverse 
keels on the middle and hind tibia? and the basal joint of the 
hind tarsi is decidedly wider across its apex than its length 
down the middle line. I have dissected several specimens 
without discovering any di:fference likely to be generic in the- 
mouth organs. 

P. Lindi, sp. nov. Nitidus ; f usco-castaneus ; capite ruguloso,. 
clypeo antice bidentato ; prothorace (maris parte excavata 
excepta) vix evidenter punctulato ; elytrorum disco sub- 
tilius seriatim punctulato ; subtus castaneo-pubescens. 
Long. 10—11 1. Lat 5— 5J 1. 

Mas. capite cornu recurvo armato ; prothorace antice 
excavate, parte excavata reticulatim rugata, hujus margins 
postico medio angulatim elevate. 

Eem. capite vix bituberculato ; prothorace SDquali. 

The colour varies to some extent, the head and prothorax in 
many examples being darker, and the underside and femora 
paler than the other parts. The sculpture of the head and 
clypeus consists of coarse puncturation or wrinkles which in 
some specimens (mostly males) seems to be partly obliterated. 
The clypeus is strongly transverse and moderately wide in 
front, where it is strongly bisinuate in an upward direction ; 
in the male the clypeal suture forms the well defined lateral 
edges of a stout recurved horn, of which the front face rises 
almost from the front margin of the clypeus and the hind face 
from the level of the front of the eyes. The distance from the 
front of the clypeus to the apex of the horn is about equal to, 
and the height of the hind face of the horn above the head is- 
about half as great as, the greatest width of the clypeus. In 
the female the clypeal suture is not strongly marked, and 
being least evidently defined in the middle gives the head a 
slight appearance of being bi-tuberculate. The prothorax in 
the male is just about, in the female a little less than, half 
again as wide as long ; the front margin is rather more than 
half as wide as the base ; the sides are strongly (male) or 
moderately (female) rounded ; in both sexes the surface is 
very shining and hardly distinctly punctured ; in the male 
there is a large flat-bottomed excavation occupying the middle 
two-thirds of somewhat less than the anterior two-thirds of 
the segment. The floor of this excavation is finely and reticu- 



219 

lately wrinkled, its hind margin is well defined and runs up- 
from either side to a somewhat tubercle-like angulation in the 
middle. The scutellum is impunctate. The elytra are not 
quite twice as long as the prothoras ; their sculpture is as 
follows : a well defined entire sutural stria followed by a 
smooth space, then fire rows of very fine punctures which 
scarcely pass the middle of the elytron (the third of these 
rows is somewhat confused by means of a few scattered 
punctures- outside the row), then a space in which the punc- 
tures of about two rows seem to be mixed together, then 
two more distinct rows a little longer than the rest, then an 
impunctate space extending to the margin ; all the system of 
puncturation is placed somewhat obliquely, inclining towards- 
the suture hindward ; the hinder fourth part of the space 
outside the system of puncturation, and the apex, are finely, 
confusedly, and rather closely punctulate. In both sexes th& 
propygidium is coarsely rugose and clothed with golden hairs, 
and the pygidium is closely punctulate and wrinkled near the 
base (where there is a fringe of long golden hairs) and im- 
punctate or nearly so behind. The underside (except the 
ventral segments which are punctured only near the lateral 
margins) and legs are much clothed with long reddish or 
golden hairs. The intermediate ventral segments are much 
shorter in the male than in the female. The anterior tibiae- 
are strongly tridentate externally in both sexes ; the inter- 
mediate and posterior are unicarinate, with some indication 
of another carina near the base, the carina and the apex 
being fringed with a close-set row of thick scale-like bristles. 

I do not find much tendency in this insect to vary. In 
some examples the sculpture of the head has a blurred appear- 
ance, as though it were rubbed out, and in some it consists of 
puncturation rather than wrinkles, and vice versa. The 
development of the hind margin of the prothoracic excavation 
in the male also varies a little ; in the specimen on which the 
above description was founded that margin rises in a nearly 
straight line from either side to the central prominence which 
is not directed upward so strongly as in some other examples, 
while it is not unusual to find the sides of the hind margin of 
the excavation more or less decidedly sinuous on either side 
of the central prominence. 

Apparently allied to Pimelopus notTius, Burm. (which as 
mentioned above, is evidently a member of this genus). Dr. 
Burmeister distinguishes that insect from the next to it, 
P. lavis (of which only the female is known, and therefore the 
generic position is doubtful), by (among other characters) its 
clypeus not being bidentate in front ; this character, together 
with the presence of some elytral striation, will also distinguish 



220 

P. nothus from P. Lindl, The elytra of P. Icsvis are devoid of 
distinct puncturation. Dr. Sharp has favored me with the in- 
formation that P. Lindi bears close specific resemblance to 
Clieiroplaiijs Fischer i, Montrouzier (from New Caledonia), but 
it is, no doubt, distinct from that insect, being certainl}- not a 
Cheiroplatys. 

I have specimens from Port Lincoln, Fowler's Bay, and 
'Ouldea ; that from the last-named locality was collected by 
Professor Tate. An imticketed female in the South Austra- 
lian Museum has the clypeal suture a little strongly developed, 
but does not differ otherwise from the type. 

PniELOPTJS. 

As I have said above, I have no doubt that Pimelopus 
jiorceUics, Er., is congeneric (not as Dr. Burmeister supposed 
with his P. nothus, but) with certain forms of Bynastidce in 
which the hind and intermediate tibiae are strongly bicarinate 
transversely, and their tarsi very short with the basal joint 
extremel}^ compressed and dilated, while the male has merely 
a small tubercle on the head and the prothorax quite simple. 
In all of them known to me the prothorax has a well defined 
impression at the base on either side. The first species 
described below may be P. porcellus, Er. It agrees fairly well 
with the rather brief description, but if it be identical probably 
Erichsen was in error in regarding the type as a female. In 
.any case a full description will be useful. 

P. porcellus, Er. (?) Oblongus Nigro-brunneus, capite obscure 

rugato ; prothorace hand evidenter punctulato ; elytris 

fortiter crasse punctulatis, disco fortiter striatis. Long. 

9 1. ; lat. 4i 1. 

Mas. Capite tuberculato ; tibiis anticis minus dilatatis externe 

leviter vel vix tridentatis. 
Eem. Capite vix subtuberculato ; tibiis anticis obtuse triden- 
tatis. 
The clypeus is not distinctly bidentate in front, and its 
margins are hardly reflexed ; its suture is scarcely traceable, 
tind in the male is furnished in the middle with a large, but 
-only slightly raised, tubercle. The prothorax is not quite half 
again as wide as long, its base nearly twice as wide as its front 
margin, which is only slightly concave ; its sides are rather 
strongly rounded and it is widest behind the middle ; under a 
very strong lens its surface is seen to be minutely and closely 
coriaceous ; it is margined in front and at the sides ; its anterior 
angles are acute, the hind angles almost rounded off ; its base 
is distinctly bisinuate. The scutellum is large and impunctate. 
The elytra are considerably wider than the prothorax and are 



221 

at their widest behind tlie middle ; their sculpture is as 
follows : — A strong, deeply punctulate sutural stria, then a 
space sparingly and confusedly covered with large, coarse 
punctures, then six strongly punctured striae, separated by con- 
vex interstices, then a space extending to the margin, in which 
the puncturation is confused and much finer, but which con- 
tains (near the front) traces of two seriately punctulata 
striae ; the discal system of punctured striae fails a little 
before the apex, and is very oblique, so that the inner of its 
striae is wide apart from the sutural stria at the base, but 
nearly meets it behind ; the apex is closely, confusedly, and 
rather coarsely punctured ; the humeral calli are almost smooth. 
The breast and legs are moderately clothed with longish red 
or golden hairs. The pygidium bears a puncturation which 
is rather coarse and close about the base, but becomes gradually 
fine and very sparing towards the apex. The front tibia are 
not particularly broad, and in the male are very obtusely tri- 
dentate (perhaps " strongly trisinuate " would be more correct) 
externally ; in the female they are distinctly tridentate. 

This appears to be a variable species. I have specimens 
differing from the types described above, in having the clypeus 
more distinctly bisinuate in front, the thorax perceptibly 
(under a strong lens) punctured, the anterior tibia (in both 
sexes) more sharply dentate externally; the female without 
any trace of a tubercle on the head, the size considerably 
larger (up to 11 1.). It is possible that I maybe confusing^ 
several closely-allied species, but I find the foregoing differ- 
ences from the type so uncertainly and variably blended in 
various specimens that I do not feel justified in treating them 
as distinct. The strong punctulate stride on the disc of the 
elytra do not seem to vary, and are, I think, a leading character 
of the species. 

Appears to be widely distributed in S. Australia, occurring 
at any rate from Port Lincoln to the Adelaide district. 

P. crassus, sp. no v. Late oblongus ; sat nitidus ; rufescens ;. 
capite rugoso ; clypeo antice baud bisinuato ; prothorace 
obsolete punctulato ; elytris minus fortiter punctulatis, 
antice leviter striatis ; tibiis anticis externe fortiter tri- 
dentatis. Long. 11 1. ; lat. 6^ 1. 
Mas. Sutura clypei elevata in medio tuberculata. 
'Fern.. Capite haud tubercuiato. 

In general form and proportions this species resembles 
P. porcellus in all respects except that it is even wider and more 
massive looking, with the sides of the prothorax evidently 
more strongly rounded. It differs as follows : — The clypeus 
is evenly truncate in front, with its suture distinct, in the male 



222 

forming a line, distinct keel from the tubercle to the margins ; 
the elytra have on the space next the sutural stria only a few 
large faint punctures, then three yjairs of rows of rather large, 
lightly impressed punctures placed in feeble striae, both striae 
and punctures failing a little behind the middle of the elytron, 
then a nearly impunctate space extending to the margin, and 
the apex is finely, faintly, and closely punctured. The pygidium, 
underside and legs do not differ noticeably from those of 
P. porcelliis (?). The apical ventral segment in the male (as 
usual in this genus) has a sinuous line (which is ciliated with 
golden hairs) running across it from margin to margin. 

The system of faint puncturation on the prothorax and the 
absence of any trace of a protuberance on the clypeus of the 
female will distinguish this species from P. 2^orcellus, Er. 

I possess a single pair taken by Professor Tate at Ouldea. 
P. (? hujiis generis) duhius, sp. nov. Oblongus ; minus latus ; 
nitidus ; obscure rufescens ; capite rugoso ; clypeo antice 
subf ortiter bisinuato ; prothorace baud evidenter punctu- 
lato ; elytris minus f ortiter punctulatis, vix striatis ; tibiis 
anticis externe fortiter tridentatis. Long. 7i — 9 1. ; 
lat. 3f, 4il. 

Mas. Sutura clypeali elevata in medio tuberculata. 

Eem. Capite baud tuberculato. 

In the few examples that I have seen of this insect the suture 
is rather widely iufuscate, and in some specimens also the head 
and apex of elytra (these latter parts I find liable to infusca- 
tion in all the species of the genus j. The head scarcely differs 
from that of P. crassus, except in having the clypeus very dis- 
tinctly bisinuate in front. The prothorax scarcely differs in 
shape or proportions from that of P. por callus {'^). Under a strong 
Coddington lens it is seen to be sprinkled towards the sides 
with very fine needle-point punctures. The scutellum is im- 
punctate. The sculpture of the elytra is almost exactly as in 
P. crassus. The rows of punctures on the elytra, however, do 
not run noticeably in pairs. The pygidium and underside do 
not differ noticeably from those of the other species I have de- 
scribed. 

I hesitate much to refer this insect to Fimelopus, and think 
it very likely that a new generic name may be required for it 
eventually. It is a distinctly narrower insect than any of the 
species described above, and has not the posteriorly swollen 
appearance that they present. Its middle and hind tibiae also 
are less stout, and are only unicarinate on the external margin. 
In these respects it approaches Pseuclopimelopus, but its tarsi 
and sexual characters are distinctly those of JPimelopus. As I 
have not a specimen that I can devote to dissection, I place the 
species for the present under Pimelopus. 



223 

I liave seen specimens only from tlie Port Lincoln district ; 
ihej were dug up from under the soil near the roots of a 
Eucalyptus. 

CAYOi^IJS. 

'Oavonus Sharpi, sp. nov. Supra nigerrimus ; nitidus ; subtus 
sat dense longe fulvo-pubescens ; elytris obscure punctu- 
lato-substriatis, apice Isevigatis. Long., 8 1. Lat., 5 1. ('vix). 

Mas. Prothorace disco antice excavato, margine anteriore 
in cornu brevi producto. 

Pem. Latet. 

Clypeus deflexed, rounded in front ; it and the head roughly 
and closely punctured ; an obscure transverse keel runs across 
the middle of the vertex, between which and the basal keel of 
the clypeus the forehead is feebly concave. The prothorax is 
about half again as wide as the distance from its base to the 
apex of the horn ; the sides are moderately rounded, the base 
scarcely bisinuate and about twice as wide as the front margin. 
The excavation occupies the anterior three-quarters of the disc 
and its surface is coarsely and somewhat reticulately wrinkled ; 
its sides are not elevated. The frontal horn of the thorax, 
viewed from the side, rises above the head nearly as much as 
the length of the clypeus ; it is inclined forwards and a little 
turned up at the end, which is blunt. The scutellum bears a 
few scattered punctures. The elytra can scarcely be called 
" striate." They are marked with rows of punctures which do 
not nearly reach the apex, but hardly fail in front (except 
absolutely on the humeral callus). The pygidium is not very 
nitid, its puncturation well defined about the base but be- 
coming feebler hindward. Differs from C. armatus, Sharp, in 
the presence of a frontal keel, in the shorter anterior horn of 
the prothorax, and in the absence of horn-like elevations of 
the sides of the excavation ; also in the less indication of 
strise on the elytra, and the greater regularity of the rows of 
punctures on the same. The elytra also are not quite so short 
in comparison with the prothorax. 

A single specimen occurred at Port Lincoln. 
C. sculpt urai us, sp. nov. Supra nigerrimus ; sat nitidus ; sub- 
tus sat dense longe fulvo-pubescens ; elytris fortiter sat 
sequaliter punctulato-striatis. Clypeo postice fortiter 
elevato-carinato. Long., 9 1. Lat., 5 1. 

Mas. Prothorace disco antice excavato, margine anteriore in 
cornu sat elongate producto. 

Pem. Latet. 

The general resemblance of this species to the preceding and 
to C. arinatus, Shp., is so close that it will save useless repeti- 



224 

tion if I merely specify its distinctive characters. The au- 
tennal club is shorter, being not quite so long as the preceding- 
joints together ; the clypeus is quite strongly transverse, and 
is separated from the vertex by a strongly elevated keel ; the 
excavation of the thorax scarcely extends beyond the anterior 
two-thirds of that organ ; the frontal horn of the thorax is 
distinctly longer than that of C. Lincli, and (as in that species) 
is more erect than that of C. armatus, being also much stouter 
than that of either of its congeners ; the scutellam has a 
strongly punctured furrow following its outline a little within 
its margin ; and the elytra are strongly punctulate-striate, the 
sculpture continuing, almost without diminished strength, to 
the apex. The whole insect is a little more elongate than 
either of its congeners. 

I have a single specimen taken by Professor Tate at Ouldea, 

C. parvus, sp. nov. Supra nigerrimus ; subtus sat dense longe 

f ulvo-pubescens ; elytris obscure punctulato-substriatis, 

apice l?evigatis ; fronte transversim concava. Long. 6 1., 

lat. 31 1. (vix). 

Mas. Prothorace disco antice excavato, margine anterior! 
angulatim elevate. 

Fern. Latet. 

The head is very peculiar ; except in being less punctured 
behind, it resembles that of G. Lincli generally, and especially 
in having a transverse concavity running across it just behind 
the clypeus ; this concavity, however, is not keeled behind, but 
the abruptness of its hinder declivity makes it much more con- 
spicuous than that of G. Lincli. The prothorax also scarcely 
differs from that of G. Lincli, save that in place of the anterior 
horn the front margin is merely angularly defined in an up- 
ward direction, and scarcely pointed forward over the head. 
The scutellum, elytra, and antennse also resemble those of 
G. Lincli. The apical joint of the maxillary palpi is distinctly 
less cylindrical and more acuminate at the apex than in the 
other species of Gavonus described. 

I possess two specimens of this insect, one taken at Wallaroo, 
the other at Port Lincoln. 

G. armatus, Shp. In the South Australian Museum are three 
very small specimens (the smallest barely 6 1. in length), 
which I cannot distinguish from this species. The clypeus, 
however, certainly appears narrower, and is more sharply 
margined behind. It may possibly be a distinct very closely 
allied form. There are also two specimens from Kangaroo 
Island, picked up dead in the scrub by Mr. Tepper, which differ 
from typical G. armatus in having the hinder elevations of the 
prothorax much blunter and less prominent ; they do not ap- 
pear to be specifically separable from the type. 



225 

ifEOCATOifUS, nov. gen. 
(Dtnastid^, Obtctomorphid^). 

Cavono affinis ; differt mento antice deflexo, palpis maxillaribus 
incrassatis, prosterno antice vix acute producto, maris pro- 
thorace ad latera liaud angulatim elevato. 
The insect for whicli I propose this name has the general 
aspect of Cavonus, from which I cannot distinguish it by any 
characters likely to be generic except the four alluded to above. 
The first of these is very remarkable ; it is as though the an- 
terior contracted portion of the mentum were bent down and 
folded underneath, so that the organ appears to be widely trun- 
cated just in front of the insertion of the labial palpi (which 
spring from the under surface). The basal three joints of the 
maxillary palpi are like those of Cavonus, but the apical joint 
is remarkable ; it is only about twice as long as wide, truncate 
at the apex, and of even width nearly to the base, where it is 
contracted. I think the mentum must considerably resemble 
that of Teinogenys, but the absence in the males of a frontal 
tubercle and the presence of a thoracic horn seem inconsistent 
with a place in that genus, even if the maxillary palpi be not 
(as implied in the diagnosis of Teinogenys) different. 

JST. niger, sp. nov. Supra sat nitidus, subtus dense sat longe 
brunneo-pubescens; niger, antennis palpis tarsisque piceis ; 
elytris fortiter punctulato-striatis ; clypeo fortiter elevato- 
marginato. Long. 8 1., lat. 41. 

Mas. Prothoracis disco a basi ad apicem excavato, margine 
antico medio in cornu brevi elevato ; antennarum clava 
sat angusta, articulis reliquis conjunctis paullo longiori. 

Pern. Prothorace irregulariter lougitudinaliter canaliculate ; 
antennarum clava brevi. 

Clypeus rounded in front, with an entire elevated edging, 
which is straight across the base. It and the hinder part of 
the head are rather rugosely punctulate. Prothorax about half 
again as wide as long, moderately finely, and closely punctured 
about the sides, the disc almost smooth except the excavated or 
depressed part, which in both sexes is largely but very shal- 
lowly punctured ; in the male this is a roundly concave excava- 
tion commencing at the base and terminating in front in a 
conical horn slightly arched backwards and about as long as its 
distance from the clypeal suture ; in the female it is a shallow 
interrupted impression not quite reaching the front. The sides 
of the prothorax are strongly rounded, the base gently bisin- 
nate and about twice the width of the front edge, which is 
strongly concave and roundly produced in the middle. The 
scutellum is punctulate about its base and middle. The elytra 



226 

are decidedly wider than the prothorax, with nine rows of large 
coarse punctures, those on the disc running in stride, which are 
well defined near the base, but fail near the apex. There are 
also some coarse punctures scattered about the elytra inde- 
pendently of the rows. The pygidium in both sexes is punc- 
tured in front and smooth behind. The legs do not appear to 
differ in the sexes ; the anterior tibiae are tridentate externally. 
The ventral segments are very much shorter in the male than 
in the female. 

Taken by Mr. Eothe, near Sedan. 

iV^. (?) occidentalism sp. nov. Supra piceo-niger ; antennis palpis 

pedibusque ferrugineis ; nitidus ; subtus longe sat dense 

fulvo-pubescens ; elytris vix evidenter striatis, obscure 

seriatim punctulatis. Long. 6f 1., lat. 3^1. 

Mas. Prothoracis disco antice impresso, margine anterior! 

breviter acute elevate. 
Eem. Latet. 

Clypeus transverse, its front margin subtruncate and quite 
as wide as its base, its sides and front angles somewhat 
rounded, its edges not sharply defined, its surface somewhat 
concave transversely. Head abruptly depressed behind the 
clypeus, so that viewed from behind there appears to be a 
raised keel (which does not really exist), limiting the clypeus 
behind ; the frontal depression is not distinctly limited behind, 
and is vaguely narrowed backwards. The head and clypeus are 
rather closely roughened, but hardly distinctly punctured. 
Prothorax sparingly and very finely punctured (scarcely per- 
ceptibly without a very strong lens), except in the depression, 
where the puncturation is coarser ; the depression is nearly 
round, and occupies the middle third part of the width and the 
anterior third part of the length of the thorax. The anterior 
margin of the prothorax is scarcely half as wide as the base, it 
is moderately emarginate and is raised into a sharp tubercle 
in the middle; the sides diverge backward for the first 
third part of their length and then (viewed from above) 
appear to continue nearly parallel to the base, which is 
scarcely bisinuate. The real margin is invisible from above 
and is regularly rounded. The anterior angles are acute, the 
posterior roundly obtuse. The scutellum is roundly triangular, 
smooth, and with an impressed line down the middle. The 
elytra have a well-defined sutural stria and faint suggestions of 
other strias here and there. The}^ are sparingly and faintly 
punctured, the punctures in places tending to run in rows. 

I attribute this insect only with hesitation to the genus 
Seocavonus. It is a narrower and more elongate parallel spe- 
cies than any other Oryctomorjphidce known to me. Its mentum, 



227 

maxilla, and maxillary palpi, however, are exactly those o£ 
JN'. Qiiger, while the apical joint of the labial palpi is distinctly 
shorter and more ovate, the legs (as in N. niger) are those of 
a Cavonus. The antennae (as in N. niger) are ten- jointed ; their 
club is not very wide, and in length scarcely exceeds the rest 
of the joints taken together. The shape of the clypeus is very 
different from that of Cavonus and Neocavonus, but there is 
sufficient clypeal variation among species that seem otherwise 
inseparable from Cavonus to render it prudent at present to 
make as few genera as possible until the structural characters 
of more species have been recorded. At a first glance this in- 
sect is distinctly suggestive of male Isodon, from which the 
elongate subcylindric basal joint of its hind tarsi, its totally- 
different clypeus, the elongate club of its antennae, and the 
complete dissimilarity of its maxillse, of course, separate it 
very widely. 

I possess a single specimen taken by Professor Tate at 
Eowler's Bay. 

COETNOPHTLLUS. 

G. Andersoni, sp. no v. Convexus ; nitidus ; castaneus ; capita 
prothoraceque nigro-piceis ; subtus dense fulvo-pubescens ; 
prothoracis lateribus subtus concavis ; elytris punctulato- 
substriatis. Long. 81., lat. 4|1. (vix). 

Mas. Capite medio f ortiter transversim carinato ; prothorace 
antice impresso, margine anteriori medio acute tuber- 
culato. 

Fem. Latet. 

The clypeus appears to the eye scarcely transverse, but by 
measurement it is decidedly so. Its outline viewed from the 
front is a continuous curve, except at the base, which is 
straight, and is raised gradually (from a little within its ex- 
tremities on either side) into a keel which is somewhat less 
elevated than the projection on the front of the thorax, and of 
which the upper outline is sinuate. The head behind the 
clypeus is flattened down the middle. The whole head is shal- 
lowly and coarsely, but not closely, punctured. The pro thorax 
is very finely and very sparingly punctured, the puncturation 
more pronounced down the middle, and especially in the de- 
pressed part. Its base is about half as wide again as its front 
margin, its width quite twice its length down the centre. 
Viewed from above, its sides (which diverge from the anterior 
angles much more strongly than in any other of the genus 
known to me) seem to form three curves, meeting each other 
at roundedly obtuse angles ; viewed from the side the margin 
appears to form from the base to the apex a strong even curve, 
the convex side of which is the upper (not the lateral) outline 



228 

of tlie protborax — i.e., as tlioiigli one were looking tlirough the- 
arch of a bridge. The limits of the thoracic impression are very 
imclefiued, but it occupies something like the middle fourth 
part of the anterior third part of the surface. The front 
margin is very strongly bisinuate, and bears in its centre a 
sharp erect horn, which rises above the surface of the head a 
little more than the length of the second joint of the antennae. 
The base of the thorax also is strongly bisinuate, and there is 
a vague impression on the surface at the base on either side. 
The scutellum is puncturated, but is entirely covered by a 
bunch of long yellow hairs which project from under the 
thorax. The el5'tra are scarcely striated, and are marked with 
rows of moderately large shallow punctures, which become very 
obscure near the apex. The basal third part of the pygidium 
is moderately punctured, the apical two-thirds smooth, or 
nearly so. The legs are rather long and slender, especially the 
tarsi. 

In the specimen before me the basal seven joints of the 
antenna> together are nearly two lines in length, the club is 
nearly three lines long, one and a half wide, being very much 
longer than the entire head. 

Port Lincoln, a single specimen. 

A second male example of Corynophyllus from the Port 
Lincoln district differs from the preceding in being smaller 
(7 1.) and of an uniform chestnut colour, with the pro thorax 
proportionally narrower, its surface more strongly punctured 
and its sides less abruptly diverging from the anterior angles. 
As, however, it possesses the remarkable form of prothorax 
which makes that segment appear arched upwards when viewed 
from the side, and in other respects closely resembles- 
C. Andersoni, I hesitate to regard it as really distinct. 

I possess also a female Dynastid taken at Port Lincoln 
■which I have no doubt is the female of this species. It differs 
from the male in its uniform dark piceous colour, in the clypeal 
suture being scarcely elevated, in the thorax being unarmed 
in front and having no impression on its surface excej)t what 
looks like the middle part of a feeble longitudinal channel 
which is obsolete in front and behind, in its much shorter 
antennae the club of w^hich is shorter than the other joints 
together, in its prothorax much narrower in proportion to the 
elytra, and in the elytra being decidedly at their widest near 
the apex and longer in proportion to their width. The large 
tuft of hairs protruding over, and covering the scutellum, is 
absent. 

C. modesUcs, sp. no v. Convexus ; nitidus ; antennis, palpis, 
tarsis, elytris, et abdominis segmentis ventralibus (seg- 
mento ultimo excepto) rufis vel rufo-piceis; elytris 



229 

striatis, striis fortiter punctulatis ; pygidio aequaliter con- 

fertim subtiliter rugato. Long. 7 L, lat. 4 1. 
Mas. Capite medio cornu brevi armato ; prothorace antice 

profunde impresso, margine anterior! medio acute tuber- 

culato. 
Fem. (? hujus specei). Capite baud cornuto ; protborace 

antice baud impresso, margine anteriori vix angulatim 

producto. 

In tbe male tbe bead does not appear to differ mucb from 
tbat o£ tbe preceding species except tbat tbe clypeus is a little 
blunter in front witb tbe impression on tbe bind part better 
defined ; and tbat tbere is a strong conical born, wbicb is a 
little inclined backward, is blunt at tbe apex, and rises from 
iibe bead on its binder (perpendicular) side quite as mucb as 
balf tbe lengtb of tbe clypeus, being fully twice as bigb as tbe 
frontal elevation of tbe protborax. Tbe protborax is ratber 
more tban balf again as wide as its lengtb down tbe middle ; 
its base (wbicb is scarcely bisinuate) is more tban balf again 
as wide as its front margin, wbicb is strongly bisinuate, and 
raised in tbe middle into a small sbarp tubercle ; its frontal 
impression is very little larger, but mucb deeper, tban tbat of 
i:be preceding species ; its anterior angles are well defined, tbe 
posterior rounded off ; its sides, viewed from above, appear 
somewbat regularly, but not strongly, rounded ; tbe true 
margin, viewed from tbe side, appears somewbat sickle-sbaped, 
proceeding backward in a ratber straigbt direction for a little 
distance from tbe anterior angle and tben making a strong 
■curve outward, wbicb is continued rigbt round to tbe base of 
tbe protborax ; tbe surface is very finely and very sparingly 
punctured, except in tbe frontal impression wbere tbe punctura- 
^ion is coarser and closer. Tbe puncturation of tbe scutellum 
is coarse, and varies a good deal in closeness, some specimens 
baving only about a dozen punctures on tbat organ mostly near 
tbe base, otbers baving tbe same pretty closely punctured. 
Tbe elytra are irregularly and not strongly striated, and are 
marked witb rows of strong punctures, tbe punctures near tbe 
suture and margin tending to lose tbeir serial arrangement. 
Tbe pygidium is somewbat uniformly and strongly sculptured, 
tbe sculpture being of sucb sort as to give tbe segment a 
worm-eaten or corroded appearance. Tbe antennal club is as 
long as tbe tborax, its widtb being about balf its lengtb. 

Tbe Soutb Australian Museum contains a specimen wbicb is 
certainly, I tbink, a female Corynopliyllus. I refer it to tbis 
particular species cbiefly on account of its possessing tbe same 
peculiar colouration of tbe ventral segments, of wbicb tbe last 
is black wbile tbe rest are red. It differs from tbe male in 



230 

having the anteunal club scarcely longer than the cljpeus, the 
horn on the head replaced by a transverse keel, the thorax 
evenly convex, with scarcely any indication of a projection on 
its anterior margin, the sides of the thorax more regularly 
rounded, the pygidium more distinctly punctured with a less 
corroded appearance, and the ventral segments considerably 
longer. 

There are several specimens of this species in the South 
Australian Museum, one of which is ticketed as having been 
taken at Port Victor. 

ANEURTSTTPUS ffeu. nov. 
CorynopliylJo affinis ; differt mento angusto elongato, palporum 

maxillarium articulo secundo quarto hand breviori, hoc 

apice truncate ; antennarum clava angusta. 
The greatest width of the mentum is less than half its length, 
its surface is concave. This genus appears to differ from 
Teinogenys by having the mentum differently shaped, also by 
its palpi (the description of Teinogenys implies that the palpi 
in that genus do not differ from those of Corynovhyllus) , and 
by the absence (in the male) of a tubercle from the head and 
the presence of one on the front of the thorax. From Cavoniis 
and Neocavonus it differs {inter alia) widely in the shape of 
the mentum. 
A. calvics, sp. nov. Castaneus ; subtus dense longe fulvo- 

hirsutus ; capite crasse nee crebre, pygidio (apice excepto) 

prothorace et scutello subtilius sat sparsim, punctulatis ; 

elytris punctulato-substriatis. Long., 8 l.,lat., 4^ 1. (vix) 
Mas. Prothorace antice impresso, margine anteriori acute 

elevate. 
Pem. Latet. 

The clypeus is transverse, rounded in front, and with a 
strongly turned up edge ; it is separated from the rest of the 
head (which is flattened or a little concave) by a strong trans- 
verse keel. The prothorax is nearly twice as wide as down 
the middle it is long, and the base (which is bisinuate) is not 
much less than twice as wide as the front margin ; this latter 
also is bisinuate, and bears in the middle a short sharp horn 
the height of which on its front (or more perpendicular) face 
is about equal to one- third the length of the clypeus ; the 
frontal impression is shallow, ill- defined, and variable in size, 
its surface being punctured as the rest of the thorax ; the sides 
are somewhat evenly curved ; the front angles are prominent 
but not acute, the hind angles nearly rounded off. A bunch 
of long hairs projects over the scutellum and a fringe of 
similar hairs reaches out backward from the base of the 



231 

pygidium. The sculpture of the elytra varies, being almost 
obsolete in some specimens, but it is never strong ; the 
punctures in the rows are shallow, a little transverse, and not 
close. The club of the antennae is nearly twice as long as the 
entire head, and is nearly parallel sided, and about four 
times as long as wide. The legs resemble those of 
Corynophyllus. 

I have received from Mr. East two specimens taken at 
Mallala and there are several examples in the South Aus- 
tralian Museum — one of which is ticketed '' CorynopJiyllus 
calvuSj' but the name does not appear to have been published. 

SEMANOPTEKIJS. 

No Australian genus of Dynastidcs presents greater difficulty 
than this, for the descriptions of the three species on which the 
Eev. E. W. Hope founded the genus are too short and vague 
to be of much use. I have succeeded, however, in identifying 
one with some certainty, and I subjoin a detailed description 
of it, adding descriptions of two more which are certainly new. 

S. SubcBqualis,llo^Q. Sat convexus ; nitidus; obscure brunneus ; 
capite crasse transversim rugato, cornu conico brevi 
armato; prothorace canaliculato (canalicula crasse punc- 
tulata), antice transversim rugato, postice subtiliter punc- 
tulato ; elytris vix costatis sparsim punctulatis. Long. 
11—13 1. ; lat. Q—Q^ 1. 

The length of the horn varies, but never exceeds that of the 
basal joint of the antennae. The prothorax is decidedly more 
than half again as wide as down the middle it is long ; it is 
nearly twice as wide at the base as across the front margin ; 
its sides and hind angles are rounded, its front angles sharp ; 
its impression occupies its front half (in the male) or third 
part (in the female), this portion of the segment being strongly 
declivous ; the puncturation of the longitudinal channel is con- 
fined to the broad hinder part. The elytra are distinctly at 
their widest behind the middle ; their sutural, external and apical 
parts are confusedly, finely and sparingly punctured (in some 
examples this puncturation is almost obliterated) ; the disc is 
occupied by about six rows of fine, and not close, punctures 
(in some examples very obscure), the first, third, and fifth 
interstices between which are quite smooth and scarcely or not 
at all convex, the second and fourth interstices being quite 
level, and confusedly and very sparingly punctured. The 
scutellum is coarsely punctulate about the base (and in some 
examples in the middle). In both sexes the antennae are short 
with the club shorter than the preceding joints taken together, 
and the anterior tibiae are strongly but rather bluntly triden- 



232 

tate on their outer margin. The underside and legs are much 
clothed with rather long ferruginous hairs. 

In the male the pygidium is glabrous, shining, and impunc 
tate, except about the sides and base, while the apical Yentral 
segment is widely and roundly emarginate at its apex ; in the 
female the former is closely rugose over its whole surface, and 
is clothed with reddish pubescence, while the latter is evenly 
rounded off behind. 

The absence of elytral costae seems in itself sufficient to 
distinguish this from all the other described species attributed 
to the genus except S. convexiusculus, Macl. in which, however, 
the elytra are said to be " strongly striato-punctate." 

The maxillse have the intermediate tooth deeply bifid, and the 
basal one feebly trifid. 

I have received two examples (taken in Sedan) from Mr. 
Bothe ; there are also two in the South Australian Museum. 
>S'. angustatus, sp. nov. Sat convexus ; nitidus ; obscure brunneus ; 
capite, prothorace, pedibus, et abdomine postice (nonnuUis 
exemplis) plus minusve piceis vel nigris, capite transversim 
rugato, tuberculo conico armato, prothorace canaliculato 
punctulato ; elytris vix costatis sparsim punctulatis. Long. 
8i 1. ; lat. 4 1. 

The protuberance on the head is no more than a smooth 
conical tubercle ; in other respects the head resembles that of 
the preceding, being rather evenly narrowed from just in front 
of the eyes to the apex, where it is truncated wdth a perpen- 
dicularly thickened front and somewhat elevated margin. The 
pro thorax is scarcely more than half again as wide as down the 
middle it is long, and its base is about half again as wide as 
the front margin ; its sides are rounded, its surface rather 
sparingly and very finely punctured, the puncturation, how- 
ever, becoming large and coarse in the longitudinal channel, 
which is wide behind, punctureless, and almost interrupted at 
the middle, and in the front becomes in the male a large round 
concavity, in the female a vague wide depression (this is very 
likely not to be a reliable sexual character) ; the front part of 
the prothorax is not conspicuously declivous (as it is in the 
preceding species) ; the front angles are sharp, the hinder 
obtuse, and preceded by a short, gentle sinuosity of the lateral 
margin. The scutellum is sparingly and coarsely punctured. 
The sculpture of the elytra consists of a strong, scarcely punc- 
tured sutural stria, followed by a smooth space, on which are 
a few punctures near the base, then a row of fine punctures reach- 
ing two-thirds down the elytron, then a smooth scarcely convex 
space (slightly punctured near the base in one example), then 
a row of punctures similar to the first row (or a little shorter), 



233 

fhen a space sparsely punctured iu front and followed by a 
third short row of punctures, beyond which are three rows of 
punctures, the first very short, the external two nearly as long 
as that nearest the suture ; outside these rows a wide marginal 
space is finely, obscurely, and sparingly punctulate ; the ex- 
treme apex of the elytra is rather strongly and closely punc- 
tured. The pygidium bears some long hairs, and is rather 
finely and closely wrinkled all over in both sexes. 

The underside is much clothed with long reddish hairs. In 
both sexes the basal five ventral segments have a little close 
:and rugose puncturation on the sides, and also a transverse 
row of punctures running out from the sides towards (but not 
reaching) the middle, which is smooth. In the male the apical 
segment is a little shorter than the penultimate, is very widely 
and scarcely noticeably emarginate at the apex and is finely 
wrinkled about its base, the apical portion being smooth and 
separated from the wrinkled part by a transverse deeply im- 
pressed sinuous line whicb runs from side to side ; in the 
female the apical segment is rounded behind, and is evenly and 
coarsely wrinkled, hardly punctulate. The legs are like those 
of S. suhcsqualis. 

The maxillae, like those of the preceding species, have three 
strong teeth, of which the intermediate is deeply bifid, and the 
basal feebl}' trifid. 

The convex parallel form of this insect is suggestive at the 
first glance of a female Isodon, but the tubercle on the head of 
both sexes, the strongly punctured prothoracic channel, the 
mentum strongly emarginate in front with the insertion of the 
labial palpi invisible from above, and other characters are 
clearly those of Semanopterus. 

Two specimens were taken by Mr. East at Mallala. 
B. minor, sp. nov. Brevis ; minus parallelus ; sat convexus; 
nitidissimus ; piceus ; capite transversim rugato, tuber- 
culo conico armato ; prothorace canaliculato punctulato ; 
elytris antice fortiter oblique costatis, interstitiis sub- 
triseriatim punctulatis. Long. 8 — 8^ L, lat. 4 — ^\ 1. 
The colour varies from nearly black to reddish pitchy, the 
underside and femora especially inclining to a reddish colour. 
The head does not differ much from that of the preceding ; the 
clypeus is truncate in front, its anterior edge being a little 
raised, in such fashion that while the truncation is very notice- 
able if the clypeus be viewed from a point perpendicularly 
above its surface, from a point behind that (say perpendic- 
ularly above the scutellum) the eye catches the raised margin 
and the clypeus appears rounded in front, while viewed from 
in front of the head the outline of the whole clypeus appears 



234 

to be a continuous tri-sinuate curve, two of tlie sinuationa 
being formed by the elevated edges of tbe oblique lateral mar- 
gins of tbe clypeus ; this clypeal structure is common to all 
the species known to me of the genus, though in varying pro- 
portions, the elevated margin of the clypeus being strongest 
in S. l(svis. The prothorax closely resembles that of 
S. angustatus, but the distinctness of the puncturation varies 
to some extent, as also the size of the anterior impression 
which does not appear to depend on sex. On the disc of each 
elytron there are two strong smooth, wide, and rounded costae- 
which commence a little behind the front and run rather 
obliquely towards the suture, but fail altogether a little behind 
the middle of the elytron, and outside these is a third costa, 
similar in form but much feebler ; between the sutural stria 
and the first costa, and between the first and second, and second 
and third costae, there is strong puncturation which runs, more 
or less irregularly, in three rows ; outside the feeble external 
costa the puncturation is fine, confused, and rather sparing^ 
and this system of sculpture is continued widely round the 
apex, there being a space almost smooth between the apical end 
of the costse with their intermediate rows of punctures and the^ 
apical confused puncturation, which space is bounded laterally 
by the suture and the confusedly punctured marginal space. 
The pygidium, underside, and legs do not seem to differ notice- 
ably from the same parts in >S'. angicstatus. In all the species 
known to me of the genus it is an occasional thing to find on 
one or more of the second, third, and fourth ventral segments 
(not always on the middle line) a short longitudinal im- 
pression. In this species it is scarcely ever absent, and is 
nearly always very strong and sharply defined ; in the other 
species it is generally absent, and when present is quite feeble. 

S. mino7' differs, inter alia, from all Mr. Hope's species in 
being very much smaller, from S. depressiuscidics, Macl., in not 
having four costae on each elytron, from S. convexmsculus, 
Macl., in not having the elytra "strongly striato-punctate," 
and from S. IcBvis and angustatus in having well defined costae 
on the elytra. It is a shorter and less parallel species than 
S. anguBtatus. Its maxillae are similar to those of the last- 
named species. 

I have taken this insect near Port Lincoln, and have seen 
specimens from Kangaroo Island (taken by Mr. Tepper) and 
from the neighbourhood of Sedan (taken by Mr. Eothe). 

BUPEESTIDiE. 
MELOBASIS. 

Jf. Andersoni, sp. nov. Lata ; sat nitida ; aenea ; nonnullis 
exemplis elytris versus latera plus minusve cupreis ; subtus 



235 

senea vel cuprea, antennis tarsisque cyaneis vel nigro- 
cyaneis ; capite piano confertim sat fortiter punctulata 
longitudinaliter rugato ; prothorace quam longiori paullo 
plus dimidio latiori, postlce quam antice pauUo plus- 
quarta parte latiori, fortiter sat crebre (praesertim ad- 
latera) punctulato, a basi ad apicem arcuatiin angustato, 
inargine antico leviter emarginato, margine basali vix. 
bisinuato ; elytris pone medium leviter dilatatis, sat for- 
titer striatis, interstitiis convexis sparsissime punctulatis, 
striis sat crebre subtilius punctulatis versus latera et 
apicem obsoletis, spatio laterali crebre subtilius punc- 
tulato transversim rugato, lateribus pone medium serratis ;; 
pro et metasternis disco sparsim subtilius, versus latera 
crebre crasse, punctulatis, illo antice transversim fortiter 
declivi ; abdomine disco antice sparsim, ad latera apicemque 
crebre, squamose punctulato. Long. 5-| — 7^1. 

I know no species previously described bearing much resem- 
blance to this. The six raised interstices between the striae on 
the elytra and the wide space outside them free from distinct 
striation and transversely wrinkled, together are sufficient to 
characterise the insect. The external non-striate space is in 
some specimens a little copper coloured. The apical segment 
of the hind body is of the structure usual in Melohasis. 

I owe my type to the liberality of Mr. J. Anderson, who cap- 
tured it near Port Lincoln. There are two specimens in the 
South Australian Museum, and I have seen a fourth taken by 
Mr. Eothe, near Sedan. In the last-mentioned example the- 
curve of the apical portion of the lateral margins of the elytra 
is somewhat sinuate. 

31. semistriata, sp. nov. Sat lata; nitida; senea vel cupreo- 
senea, capite prothoraceque viridibus vel obscure cupreis ; 
subtus cuprea, pedibus anticis antice, antennis, tarsisque 
plus minusve viridibus; capite piano confertim punctulato ; 
prothorace quam longiori paullo plus dimidio latiori, 
postice quam antice quinta parte latiori, fortiter sat 
crebre (ad latera etiam fortius subconfluenter) punctulato, 
lateribus sat rotundatis ; margine antico sat fortiter 
postico vix evidenter bisinuato ; elytris pone medium 
leviter dilatatis, apice acuminatis, sparsim subtilius 
(latera transversim rugata versus, crebrius) punctulatis, ini 
parte media punctato-striatis, sutura (basi excepta) et 
interstitiis convexis, lateribus pone medium serratis ;. 
subtus obscure albido-pilosa, prosterno antice vix trans- 
versim declivi, medio sat sparsim crassius nee fortiter, 
metasterno medio sparsissime subtiliter, abdomine sparsim- 
squamose, punctulatis. 



236 

This is an obscure looking insect ; its affinity seems to be 
•witb M. Andersoni, from whicli it differs in having the thorax 
less narrowed in front and pretty strongly rounded on the 
-sides, the elytra rather sharpl}^ pointed at their apex, and the 
front of the prosternum scarcely bent over or depressed, but 
very nearly continuing the plane of the general surface of that 
segment. It differs from M. Ande^'soni (and from other allies) 
also in the sculpture of the elytra which is as follows : — the 
suture is well elevated from a little behind the scutellum ; 
next to this there is a flat sparingly and confusedly punctured 
space, outside which follows a punctate striate region contain- 
ing (though they are not very well defined) five striae, the 
four intervals between which are convex. The external one of 
the raised intervals is very obscure, the first and third are the 
longest ; they are all wide and only slightly Iconvex in front, 
becoming narrower and more strongly elevated behind. 
Between the 5th of the punctate striae and the lateral margin 
is a space (about twice the width of that between the suture 
and the first stria^ on which the puncturation is tolerably 
•close, and is obscurely confiuent transversely. 

There are two specimens in the Soutb Australian Museum, 
which, however, are devoid of any record of capture. 

M. Eothei, sp. nov. Sat lata ; minus nitida, senea, cupreo- 
micans ; pedibus anticis antice tarsis omnibus et antennis 
viridibus ; capite sat f ortiter minus crebre punctulato ; 
prothorace quam longiori plus dimidio (ut 5 ad 3) latiori, 
postice quam antice fere dimidio latiori, subtilius sat 
crebre (latera versus crassius) punctulato, a basi ad 
apicem arcuatim angustato, margine antico bisinuatim 
emarginato, margine basali vix bisinuato ; elytris pone 
medium leviter dilatatis, subtilius minus crebre (latera 
versus crebrius, punctis transversim confluentibus) punc- 
tulatis, vix evidenter striatis, interstitiis vix evidenter 
convexis, lateribus pone medium sat fortiter serratis ; 
prosterno minus crebre, metasterno sparsim, subtilius 
in medio punctulatis, illo antice hand declivi ; abdomine 
squamose minus crebre punctulato. Long. 6 1. 

The affinity of this species seems to be with M. Ande?'so}ii, 
from which it differs in being narrower and more parallel, and 
much more finely punctured on the upper surface, with the 
prosternum a little elevated across its front margin instead 
of being declivous. The elytra are scarcely striated, with the 
suture not at all strongly raised behind. Xot far from the 
«uture there is an obscurely elevated ridge traceable nearly 
from the base to the apex in about the position of the second 
mteistice in M. Andersoni ; v^ithin it in front, and outside it 



237 

"beliiiid, tbere are obscure traces o£ raised interstices between 
the scarcely indicated striae. The peculiar form of the thorax 
distinguishes this insect from all other species that bear any 
resemblance to it. 

I possess a single specimen taken near Sedan by Mr. Eothe- 
and generously presented to me. 

M. soror sp. no v. Oblongo-ovalis ; subnitida ; senea velnigro- 
senea, apicem versus nonnullis exemplis obscure cuprea ; 
subtus cupreo-senea, tibiis anticis tarsisque viridibus ;. 
capite piano sat fortiter punctulato, capillis longis albidis 
confertim obsito ; prothorace quam longiori fere duplo 
latiori, antice quam postice minime angustiori, sat fortiter 
sat crebre punctulato, ad latera longe albido-pubescenti 
transversim rugato, antice bisinuato, basi rectilineari, 
lateribus fortiter rotundatis basi subparallelis ; elytris- 
pone medium leviter dilatatis hand striatis, squamose nee 
crebre punctulatis, punctis antice et latera versus trans- 
versim confluentibus, sutura et lineis duabus (externa 
subobsoleta) pone medium leviter elevatis, lateribus 
pone medium serratis : subtus longe albido-pubescens, 
prosterno antice transversim declivi, medio sat crebre 
fortius, metasterno medio sparsim fortius, abdomine 
sparsius squamose punctulatis. Long 5f — 7 1. 
An obscure looking insect somewhat allied to M. nervosa^ 
Boisd. Its characteristic features seem to be — on the upper 
surface a strongly transverse thorax, which is strongly rounded 
on the sides (the curve ending just before the base and the 
sides then being straight), and is not much narrowed in front ; 
and elytra without any distinct striation, but bearing each a 
fairly dejfined convex ridge about where the second interstice 
might be expected if the elytra were striated (which, however, 
is scarcely raised above the surface in the anterior half, and 
does not reach the apex), some faint indication of a second 
ridge very much abbreviated at both ends about where the 
fourth interstice should be, and the suture pretty strongly 
raised in its posterior half; and on the under surface an 
obscure coppery gloss (especially about the hinder part of the 
abdominal segments) together with a presternum gently and 
shortly bent over or depressed along its anterior margin. In 
some species (5. nervosa for instance) the prosternum has its 
front margin quite in the plane of its surface, or even very 
slightly raised. The pubescence is very similar to that of 
JB. nervosa. 

I have received this insect from Mr. Eothe, of Sedan, and 
there are several specimens in the South Australian Museum 
devoid of any record of capture, 



238 

Melolasis sordlda, Blackb.=J/. olscura, Saund (E.M.M., Dec. 
1876). This change of name appears to be necessary, as the 
name ohscura was applied by Hon. W. Macleay to another 
species of the genus in 1872. The insect is evidently a common 
one in South Australia ; I have many specimens before me from 
Adelaide and Port Lincoln districts ; like others of its genus 
it varies greatly in size (from 4 1. to 6 1.), and in colour from 
an unicolorous coppery tint (with only the front of the 
anterior legs greenish and the apex of the tarsi blue) to 
coppery, with the head, front half of the underside and front 
of all the legs bright green. 

M. cufreo-vittata, Saund. There is a nice series of this species 
in the South Australian Museum. The size varies from 6 1. to 
9 L, the ground colour of the upper surface from fuscous to a 
bright copper color, and the spots and vittae on the elytra are 
Tnore frequently bright green than coppery. The structure of 
the apical ventral segment is very peculiar. In one sex the 
excavation (usual in the genus) is extremely wide and deep, 
and the anterior part of its margin is produced backwards in a 
kind of tooth, so that the segment appears to be tridentate 
apically ; in the other sex the incision is narrow, deep, and 
with the anterior part of its margin rounded, and there is a 
small notch on either side of the lateral margin of the segment 
just before the apex. 

M. Meyricki, sp. nov. Sat angusta, postice acuminata; sat 
nitida ; seneo-viridis, prothorace subaurato ; elytrorum 
sutura postice anguste, margine lateral! postice late, et 
apice, splendide purpureis ; pedibus anticis antice, anten- 
nisque, l^ete viridibus ; capi'te ruguloso-punctulato, capillis 
longis albis crebre instructo ; prothorace quam longiore 
dimidio latiore, antice minus fortiter angustato, basi vix 
bisinuato, longe pubescenti, fortiter sat crebre punctulato, 
punctis ad latera crassioribus, margine anteriori bisinuato, 
marginibus lateralibus antice leviter rotundatis, postice 
sub-parallelis ; elytris disco antice sat fortiter minuscrebre 
sublineatim, ad latera apicemque subtilius crebrius con- 
fuse, punctatis, postice minus fortiter denticulatis ; sutura 
postice elevata, regione suturali postice depressa subtilius 
punctulata ; corpore subtus pedibusque longe albido- 
pubescentibus, illo fortiter sat crebre (abdominis seg- 
mentis ultimis 4 subtilius) punctulato. Long. 6f L, lat. 2-yq 1. 
This large and beautiful species is very distinct from any 
other previously described ; its narrow elongate form strongly 
pointed behind, and the margins of the elytra scarcely den- 
ticulate except round the extreme apex, are conspicuous 
characters. It should be noted that the anterior margin of 



239 

tlie thorax is not mucli narrower than the base (as Sf to 4f) 
and that the puncturation of the elytra has a tendency about 
the sides and near the apex to become confluent in a transverse 
manner. The elytra exhibit in different lights various shades 
of brassy and pure green color. 

A single specimen was sent to me from Western Australia 
by E. Meyrick, Esq. 

M. puncticolUs, sp. nov. Augusta, sat elongata ; sat nitida; 
viridis ; prothorace utrinque cupreo notato ; elytris vitta 
lata irregulari cupreo-micante a basi media ad apicem 
attingente, altera marginali, ornatis ; vitta interiori 
suturam attingente multo ante medium elytrorum, hac 
vittaque extera ad apicem late conjunctis ; subtus longe 
albido-pilosa ; capite crebre fortiter punctulato punctis 
longitudinaliter confluentibus ; prothorace quam longiori 
paulo plus dimidio latiori, postice quam antice quarta 
parte latiori, crebre fortiter (ad latera crasse etiam 
crebrius) punctulato, antice et postice sat evidenter 
bisinuato, lateribus antice leviter arcuatis postice fere 
parallelis ; scutello elongato viridi ; elytris pone medium 
hand dilatatis, apicem versus sat fortiter angustatis, 
suturam versus sparsim subtilius (latera versus crebrius, 
fortius, trausversim confluenter) punctulatis, vix evidenter 
striatis, sutura pone medium et interstitio secundo sat 
fortiter convexis, lateribus pone medium subtilissime ser- 
ratis ; prosterno antice ciliato hand declivi ; hoc metas- 
ternoque in medio crebre fortiter, abdomine crasse 
squamose, punctulatis. Long. 4fl. 

Allied to M. verna, Hope. The ruddy coppery markings on 
the thorax and elytra distinguish it at once, but as I have seen 
only a single specimen I cannot say that these may not be very 
variable ; the green colour of the scutellum and underside also 
distinguish it from all the examples I have seen of M. verna. 
Structurally it differs from that species as follows : — It is an 
evidently narrower and more elongate insect, the disc of the 
thorax is much more finely, closely, and deeply punctured ; the 
scutellum is elongate, the surface of the elytra has even less 
trace of striation than in 21. verna, and bears a well-defined 
costa (not far from the suture) which can be clearly traced 
almost from the base very nearly to the apex, and also an 
elongate convexity between it and the suture extending from 
the base for about a quarter the length of the elytra. On the 
under side the hind body is much more finely, closely, and 
obscurely punctured, and (unless the specimen I have described 
is abraded) much less pilose. 

The coppery markings of the upper surface consist of — On 



240 

tlie thorax a, large elongate patcli reacHug forward from the 
base on either side of the central line ; on the elytra a wide 
irregular vitta commencing at the base a little outside the 
scutellum, proceeding obliquely till it reaches the suture about 
a quarter the length of the elytra from the scutellum, and 
thence continuing down the suture to the apex, where it joins 
another wide band of the same colour, which runs the whole 
length of the lateral margin. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum, 
but no record exists of its capture. 

Melohasis suaveola, Grerm., is certainly, I think, the same 
insect as M. verna, Hope, and if I am right in this opinion the 
former name must be dropped, as Hope's is anterior to it by 
two years. Germar's statement that the thorax is nearly twice 
as wide as long was probably not founded on measurement, 
and is a little exaggerated, the actual proportion being as 6J- 
to 4. It is a common insect in the Adelaide district, and 1 
have taken it near Port Lincoln. It varies in size from 3^ 1. to- 
6 1., and in colour from green to coppery, with all intermediate 
shades and mixtures ; but the extreme lateral and sutural 
margins and the scutellum are always coppery, and the under 
side rarely varies from bright coppery with long sparse white 
pubescence. The puncturation of the thorax is sometimes 
more or less obsolete on the disc. 

M. 'i^rofinqiia, Hope. This is said by Mr. E. Saunders 
(Trans. Ent. Soc, 1868) to be identical with IL Porteri, Hope. 
As Mr. Saunders had made a personal examination of the types 
I have little doubt of the [correctness of this determination. 
At the same time I incline to the opinion that there are 
several distinct species very closely allied to M. propinqua, al- 
though I am not at present able to characterise any of them 
confidently. One obstacle to doing so is the want of a really 
satisfactory description of Hope's insect, even Mr. Saunders 
having omitted to mention such important characters as the 
nature of the striation of the elytra. In the South Australian 
Museum there is a specimen (its identification I have not at- 
tained with absolute certainty, but from its position in the 
cabinet I am tolerably sure of it) which some M.S. notes assert 
to have been named M. propinqua by Mr. Gr. E. AYaterhouse ; 
and however that may be, I think it probably is that species. 
There are also in the Museum specimens which I cannot satis- 
factorily separate from it, and I have in my own collection 
others, perhaps identical specifically, taken near Port Lincoln. 
Examining the series thus constituted I find wide variety in 
size and some slight difference in the shape and sculpture of 
the thorax which suggest the idea mentioned above of several 
very closely allied insects, but they all agree in possessing the 



241 

following characters, viz. : — On the upper side a prothorax not 
very strongly transverse {i.e., quite evidently less than twice as 
wide as long), with puncturation more or less strong and 
scanty (as compared with that usual in the genus), and sides 
diverging from the front with an extremely slight curve to 
quite behind the middle, and then continued nearly parallel to 
the base ; elytra coarsely and strongly punctured and trans- 
versely wrinkled near the sides, having the disc rather dis- 
tinctly striated, the second and fourth (in a less degree) 
interstices, together with the suture, rather conspicuously 
convex, the convexity of all of them failing, however, in the 
anterior quarter (or third) of the elytra, and that of the second 
and fourth interstices failing also near the apex ; surface very 
shining, colour various combinations of coppery and green, the 
former colour generally predominating about the hinder part 
of the lateral margins and apex of the elytra ; on the under 
side the presternum and metasternum finely and sparingly 
punctured on the median line, hind body sparingly but more 
coarsely punctured. 

M. o'otundicollis, sp. nov. Oblongo-ovalis ; capite cupreo vel 
viridi ; prothorace et elytris cyaneo, violaceo cupreo viri- 
dique obscure micantibus, his plerisque exemplis Isete trans 
basin anguste rubro-violaceis, nonnullis, rubro-marginatis ; 
subtus CLiprea vel viridis, vel antice viridis postice cuprea, 
antennis pedibusque concoloribus ; capite piano confertim 
fortius punctulato ; prothorace quam longiori fere duplo 
latiori, postice quam antice tertia parte latiori, punctulato 
(in disco sparsim subtilius, ad latera crebre fortiter, hie 
punctis transversim confluentibus), lateribus fortiter 
rotundatis, margine anteriori sat evidenter, basi vix, bisinu- 
atis ; elytris pone medium leviter dilatatis, obsolete stri- 
atis ; striis seriatim, interstitiis prope suturam sparsissime 
versus latera confertim transversim punctulatis ; sutura, 
et interstitio 2°, postice subcostatis ; regione suturali pos- 
tice concave ; margine laterali postice serrate ; subtus 
prosterno crebre subtilius, metasterno sparsim sat fortiter, 
abdomine sparsim squamose, punctulatis. Long. Sf — 4f L 

Although this species is not uncommon, and is widely distri- 
buted in South Australia, it does not appear to have been 
named hitherto. It varies in respect of colour, on the upper 
surface from entirely coppery to almost entirely blue with all 
intermediate mixtures of those two colours. In all the speci- 
mens I have seen, however, when two colours are present on 
the underside they are green in front and copper colour on the 
hinder part, and in nearly all that I have seen there is a quite 
conspicuous narrow transverse border of a rather bright car- 



242 

mme colour across the anterior marpjin o£ the elytra, often in- 
terrupted by a blue scutellum. The carmine (rather than 
coppery) tint of the iridescence, which the whole upper sur- 
face displays in certain lights, the strongly rounded lateral 
margins of the thorax, perfectly straight anterior margins of 
the elytra, and the strong elevation behind of the second elytral 
interstice (no other interstice being distinctly elevated, the 
fourth is feebly so in some specimens) are all characteristic 
features. It should also be noted that the punctures on the 
disc of the thorax are not round but somewhat elongated trans- 
versely, although some specimens have the disc of the thorax 
more roughly punctured, and in these the individual punctures 
hardly display this character distinctly, but there is a tendency 
to transverse wrinkling ; probably this difference in the thor- 
iicic puncturation is sexual. 

I have seen many specimens from Port Lincoln and the 
Adelaide district. 

.71 f. vittata, sp. nov. Oblongo-ovalis ; sat nitida ; capite cupreo 
vel viridi ; prothorace viridi cupreo-notato ; scutello viridi ; 
elytris cupreis viridi-bivittatis (vitta altera communi 
suturali basali, altera discoidali a callo humerali producta 
in parte apicali quarta elytrorum deficiente) ; subtus viri- 
dis vel cuprea vel cuprea viridi-micaus, pedibus concolori- 
bus ; capite piano crebre fortius punctulato, punctis rugis 
confuse conjuuctis ; prothorace quam longiori plus dimidio 
(ut 3i ad 2) latiori, postice quam antice fere tertia parte 
latiori subtilius crebre punctulato (latera versus transver- 
sim rugatis etiam crebrius punctulato), lateribus leviter 
arcuatis, margine antico evidenter, basali vix, bisinuato ; 
elytris pone medium leviter dilatatis, vix evidenter striatis, 
subtilius crebre punctulatis (latera versus transversim 
rugatis, etiam crebrius punctulatis), sutura pone medium 
et interstitio 2^ (parte basali excepta) elevat^.s, lateribus 
pone medium serratis ; subtus in medio sparsim subtiliter, 
ad latera crebrius crassius, punctulata. Long. 4f — 44 1. 
The markings of this species render it incapable of confusion 
wdth any other. I think its affinity is with iLT. rotundicoUis 
mihi, and 21. infricata, mihi, especially the latter, from which, 
however, it differs (independently of the totally different 
markings) in the slighter curve of the sides of the prothorax, 
the much feebler and more sparing puncturation of the under- 
side (especially the prosternum) on the median line, &c. The 
cupreous clouding of the thorax seems to vary. In one speci- 
men that I have before me it consists of a faint longitudinal 
spot on either side, in another it suffuses the whole surface 
except on a portion of the median line. The prothoracic 



243 

puncturatiou resembles tliat o£ M. rotiondicollis, tlie punctures 
in some specimens being like rather line transverse scratches 
^nd in others considerably coarser and not distinctly trans- 
verse. 

I have taken an example o£ this species near Port Lincoln, 
and there are two specimens in the South. Australian Museum, 
of which the particulars o£ capture are not known. 

M. intricata, sp. nov. Oblongo-ovalis ; viridis aureo-micans, 
prothorace elytrisque purpureo-notatis, anteunis tarsisque 
obscuris ; capite leviter convexo, confertim sat fortiter 
punctulato, prothorace quam longiori fere duplo latiori, 
postice quam antice paullo plus quarta parte latiori, sat 
fortiter nee crebre (ad latera confertim) punctulato, disco 
utrinque purpureo-maculato, lateribus leviter arcuatis, 
margine anteriori fortius basi vix evidenter bisinuatis ; 
elytris disco sparsim ad latera crebre punctulatis, obscure 
striatis, perplexe [utrinque antice vittis 2 ante medium 
conjunctis, sutura (parte anteriori quarta excepta), fascia 
post medium et margine laterali postice] purpureo-notatis, 
sutura et inter-stitio 2° pone medium elevatis, marginibus 
lateralibas postice sat fortiter serratis ; subtus antice sat 
fortiter postice squamose punctulata. Long. 4 — 44 1. ; 
lat. If— 2 1. 

Yar. a. Cyanea, purpureo-notata. 

Var. b. Cyanea, maculis purpureis fere obsoletis. 

Yar. c. Cyanea vel viridis maculis x^lns minusve aureis. 

"With a long series of specimens before me of this insect I 
find mucli variety in respect of colour and size, but little in any 
otber respect except that in some examples the thorax appears 
-to be somewhat more strongly rounded laterally than in others. 
A description in English will be desirable of the markings, as 
it is difficult to describe them accurately in Latin, and I do not 
find the slightest essential variableness in their shape, although 
there is mucb in their color and intensity. They are as fol- 
lows ! — On either side of the central line of the thorax a wide 
longitudinal vitta touching the base, but not quite touching 
the anterior margin and extending laterally nearly half way 
to the margin (in specimens where the thorax is bluish this is 
■often very obscure, the ground colour being nearly the same as 
that of the vitta) ; on the elytra an oblique vitta commencing 
on the shoulder just within the base and running in the direc- 
tion of the apex of the suture for about one-third the length 
of the elytron where it becomes wider and turns transversely 
towards the suture which it touches ; between it and the suture 
there is another wider straight vitta which starts from the 
base and joins the other vitta in its transverse portion ; the 



244 

extreme ed.ge of the elytra is concolorous witli tliese vittse, so tliat 
the basal part o£ the two elytra is traversed longitudinally by 
six purple or golden stripes alternated with five stripes of the 
ground colour, all the purple stripes merging into a wide con- 
colorous fascia the hinder edge of which is at about the middle 
of the elytra, but which does not nearly touch the lateral 
margnis ; from this fascia its colour is broadly continued along 
the suture to the apex, where it meets an equally broad vitta 
which commences about the middle of the elytron on the lateral 
margin and follows the margin to the apex; just behind its 
commencement the lateral vitta is connected with the sutural 
one by a wide transverse fascia, so that in the hinder half of 
each elytron the ground colour exists only as a rather small 
spot surrounded by the posterior fascia (in front) and the 
sutural and lateral vittce (on the sides and behind). The ex- 
treme anterior margin also is purple or golden. In some speci- 
mens the ground colour is so nearly the same as that of the 
markings that the latter are difficult to trace except side by 
side with a well marked specimen. This insect is rather close- 
to M. sicperha, L. and C, but is much smaller (the largest 
specimen I have seen being less than 5 1. against 7 1., the length 
of 31. superha^. There are colour differences also (e. g. the 
scutellum being always of the groundcolour), and the markings 
are different, especially in respect of the anterior fascia of the 
elytra not nearly reaching the lateral margins. The thorax is- 
less narrowed in front, and has no raised dorsal line, but in 
some examples faint traces of an impressed one, and the elytra 
are swollen out, and at their widest just behind the middle. 
The pattern of the front half of the elytra scarcely differs 
from the same in M. pyritosa, Hope, but the hinder half is 
very differently marked, the outline of the elytra is rounded, 
and blunt behind, &c., &c. 

There are a number of specimens of this insect in the South 
Australian Museum, but there is no record of their locality. 
It has been taken near Port Lincoln by my friend, Mr. J. 
Anderson. 

31. pretiosa, sp. nov. Lata ; viridis, prothorace elytrisque pur- 
pureo-notatis, notis aureo vel cupreo marginatis ; capite 
crebre sat fortiter punctulato ; prothorace quam longiori 
fere duplo (ut 4| ad2i) latiori, antice quampostice paullo 
(ut 3f ad 4i\) augustiori, sat fortiter punctulato (disco 
sparsim, ad latera crebre, his transversim rugatis), disco 
obscure cupreo-umbrato, lateribus leviter arcuatis, margiue 
anteriori leviter basi vix evidenter bisinuatis, angulis 
posticis acutis ; elytris leviter striatis sat crebre punctu- 
latis, punctis in parte transversim confluentibus ; sutura 
(basi excepta), margine laterali (antice peranguste postice 



245 

sat late), fascia lata ante medium, fascia augustiori post 
medium, et apicem, purpureis aureo vel cupreo marginatis, 
lateribus postice sat fortiter serratis ; subtus antice 
fortiter postice sat subtiliter punctulata, abdominis seg- 
mento ultimo apice obscuro. Long. 5f — 61. 
Yar. Colore plus minusve aurato. 

This insect appears to be distinct from any previously des- 
4?ribed. It is considerably smaller tban M. superha, with the 
markings different, pvud the thorax much less contracted in 
front, &c., &c. The anterior elytral fascia is of rather peculiar 
form, being of a somewhat circular shape on each elytron, and 
its curve scarcely quite touches either the suture or the lateral 
margin ; its front edge is quite clear of the base of the elytra. 
The South Australian Museum contains two specimens of 
this insect ; one of ttem has no record of capture, the other 
was taken by Mr. Tepper, at Dimboola, Victoria. 

jS'.B. — There is a specimen in the South Australian Museum 
with markings, colours, and puncturation so absolutely identical 
with the above that I hesitate to treat it as a distinct species, 
although it is considerably smaller and narrower, and has the 
thorax much more strongly contracted in front. It is labelled 
ras taken at Gawler. 

JLT. speciosa, sp. nov. Sat angusta ; capite prothoraceque aureo- 
viridibus, elytris auratis vel viridibus purpureo vel cyaneo 
notatis; subtus cyanea, abdominis segmento ultimo cupreo, 
antennis tarsisque obscuris ; capite leviter convexo, crebre 
fortiuspunctulato,punctisrugis obscure conjunctis ; protho- 
race quam longiori plus dimidio (ut 2i ad l|)latiori, antice 
quam postice paullo (ut 2 ad 2^) angustiori, disco sparsim 
subtilius ad latera fortius crebre punctulato, his transver- 
sim rugatis, nonnullis exempli s linea dorsali l?evi, lateribus 
sat fortiter rotundatis, margine anteriori et basali leviter 
bisinuatis, angulis posticis acutis ; elytris obsolete striatis, 
punctulatis (prope mediam suturam sparsim, ceteris 
partibus sat crebre), ad latera transversim rugatis; margine 
laterali postice, sutura (basi excepta), macula ante mediam 
partem (suturse conjuncta), fascia pone medium et apice 
purpureis vel cyaneis ; lateribus postice sat fortiter 
serratis ; subtus antice subtilius, postice squamose, 
sparsim punctulata. Long. 24 — 'Sfl., lat. 1 (vix) — IrV 1- 
Var. a. Capite prothoraceque cyaneis. 
A^ar. h. Segmento ultimo obscuro vix cupreo. 
This seems to be a very distinct species. Its small size and 
l^rightly-coloured markings together are almost enough to cha- 
racterise it. The front of the purple colouring on the suture 
•of the elytra expands into a large spot on either side (somewhat 



246 

as in 31. gloriosa, Hope); the marginal purple colour couimencesr 
just behind the middle where the fascia meets the margin ; the 
spot of ground colour near the apex enclosed by the purple of 
the suture, fascia, lateral margin, and apex is moderately large. 
I have seen a good many specimens of this insect, all those 
bearing any record of locality having been taken at no great 
distance from Adelaide, The species does not seem to vary 
much. 

M. semisiititralis, sjd. nov. Oblongo-ovalis ; sat nitida ; IcTte 
viridis, elytrorum sutura (tertia parte antica excepta) et 
magine laterali summo purpureis ; capite piano confertim 
sat fortiter punctulato ; prothorace quam longiori plus 
dimidio (ut 2f ad If) latiori, postice quam antice pauUo 
plus quarta parte latiori, crebre subtilius (ad latera 
crassius) punctulato, antice sat evidenter postice leviter 
bisinuato, lateribus leviter arcuatis ; elytris pone medium 
leviter dilatatis, obscure striatis (striis suturam lateraque 
versus deficientibus), crassius confuse punctulatis, punc- 
tis prgesertim ad latera transversim confluentibus, lateri- 
bus pone medium transversim rugatis ; prosterno antice 
declivi ; hoc in medio crebre, sat fortiter, metasterno in 
medio sparsius sat fortiter, abdomine sparsius squamose, 
punctulatis. Long. 3f 1. 
This is a splendid little insect. The green colour of the 
specimen described is about as full and rich a tint as can be 
imagined. It should be noted that the interstices of the stria? 
on the elytra are obscurely convex, the first, third, and fifth 
very slightly and undecidedly more so than the others. 
M. (?) tlioracica, sp. nov. Oblongo-ovalis ; minus nitida ; atro- 
cyanea ; capite prothoracis lateribus, eljdrorum margine 
summo apiceque, et corpore subtus, olDscure cupreo mican- 
tibus ; capite piano confertim fortiter punctulato ; pro- 
thorace quam longiori dimidio latiori, postice quam 
antice quarta parte latiori, crebre fortiter (ad latera etiam 
crebrius) punctulato, lateribus sat fortiter rotundatis, 
margine anteriori leviter posteriori fortiter bisinuatis ; 
elytris pone medium leviter dilatatis sat evidenter striatis, 
sat fortiter punctulatis, punctis suturam versus sparsis, 
latera versus crebris transversim confluentibus, striis 
punctulatis ad latera deficientibus, interstitiis planis, 
lateribus totis (quarta parte basali excepta) subtiliter 
serratis, margine anteriori fortius obtuse producto ; pro- 
sterno antice vix declivi ; hoc in medio (antice subtilius 
postice fortiter) crebre punctulato ; metasterno in medio 
sparsius sat fortiter punctulato, spatio utrinque pone- 
medium IcTvi 5 abdomine crebre fortiter punctulato. 
Lonof. 44 1. 



247 

The strong bisiniiation o£ the base of the prothorax and the 
evidently produced anterior margins of the elytra in this 
insect are scarcely consistent with a place in the genus 
3Ielohasis. There is, however, an approach to similar charac- 
ters in M. speciosa, which certainly belongs to the genus, and 
the general aspect of M. thoracia, structure of the apical seg- 
ment, &c., are quite of the ordinary type. The lateral 
serration of the elytra carried nearly to the base and the 
shining iinpunctured space on either side of the metasternum 
are also very distinctive characters. There is a very distinct 
impression at the base of each of the intermediate ventral 
segments on either side. 

I have a single specimen in my collection taken by myself 
in South Australia, but unfortunately I have no exact record 
of the circumstances of its capture. 

EIIETBIA. 

E. australis, sp. nov. Elongata ; cylindrica ; senea, vix cupreo- 
tincta ; fortiter punctulata ; prothorace quam longiori 
baud latiori ; elytris baud conspicue 4-costatis ; antenna- 
rum articulo quinto sexto simili. Long. 4 1 . lat. 1 1. 
The head scarcely differs from tjiat of E. chalcodes, Hope ; 
the antennse are a little longer than in that sjDecies, the 
series of dentate joints beginning with the fifth (not as in 
JE. chalcodes, with the sixth). The prothorax is, by measure- 
ment, equal in length and width, and is scarcely contracted 
towards the front ; in other respects it hardly differs from that 
of the older species. The elytra, however, are differently 
sculptured. Outside the two costsB (which are really the 
alternate interstices of an ill-defined system of punctured 
striae) next to the suture, the striae (at least on the posterior 
half of the elytra) become defined, and all their interstices are 
convex, the alternate ones (representing the third and fourth 
costae of E. clialcodes) being very little more so than the rest ; 
the whole puncturation tends to run in longitudinal lines, and 
the apex, which is feebly emarginate, has an obscure spine only 
at the sutural edge of the emargination. The general form is 
narrower and more cylindric than that of E. clialcodes, with 
the elytra less pointed apically. 

Several specimens were taken by Mr. J. Anderson and my- 
self about six miles from Port Lincoln. 

ANILAEA. 

This genus was formed by M. Deyrolle for the reception o£ 
Antliaxia Adelaides, Hope. The truncate hind margin of its 
prothorax, non-spinose apical ventral segment, and basal joint 
of hind tarsi quite strongly compressed (on its wide face wider 



248 

than any other part o£ the tarsus) are characters which, taken 
together, will distinguish it from all its Australian allies. 

A. Adelaides, Hope. I have examples, taken near Adelaide, 
of an insect which agrees very well with the description of 
this species. It is the only Anilara known to me with an im- 
pressed longitudinal line on the vertex. The type must have 
been a very small specimen (li 1.). Those I have seen vary 
from 1-|^ 1. to 2 1. in length. 

A. planifrons. Minus lata ; renea ; sat rugose nee profunde 
punctulata ; prothorace fortiter transverso, elytris latiori. 
Long, li 1., lat. I 1. 

This minute Buprestid is of a blackish-brassy colour, with 
the head and pro thorax a little coppery. The head is evenly 
convex, and is covered not very closely with moderately large, 
round shallow punctures, which seem to be of a dull whitish 
colour within, as though they contained a small scale or 
granule, a similar system of puncturation (rather coarser how- 
ever) extending to the sides of the prothorax, but becoming 
obsolete towards the disc where the sculpture consists of 
scratchy wrinkles, the actual centre space being nearly Isevi- 
gate in most specimens. The prothorax has strongly-rounded 
sides, and is widest a little behind the middle, w^here it is 
wider than the elytra ; across the base it is just twice as wide 
as down the middle it is long, and something less than twice 
as wide as its front margin ; the base is truncate, or rather 
slightly concave all across, causing the posterior angles to 
seem a little produced backwards ; these latter are acutely 
rectangular, the anterior angles acute, but not conspicuous, the 
anterior edge shallowly emarginate. The scutellum is roundly 
triangular and not very small ; the front margin of the elytra 
does not project forward at all beyond it. The sculpture of 
these latter is very obscure ; near the suture it is sparing 
puncturation, which is very fine in front and becomes coarser 
hindward; the lateral portions seem to be very coarsely 
coriaceous, and without defined punctures. On the underside 
the sterna are set laterally with large punctures similar in 
character to those on the head, and are smooth in the middle, 
while the sculpture of the hind body consists of long fine lines 
running longitudinally. 

The evenly convex head and curiously sculptured hind body 
will readily distinguish this species from A. Adelaide, Hope. 
I cannot discover any distinct thoracic margin in this species ; 
in A. Adelaides there is a very fine thread-like one which, how- 
ever, runs entirely on the under surface, but keeps parallel to 
the edge. 

I obtained a few specimens of this insect by beating 
Eucalyptus near Wallaroo. 



249 

NEOCUEIS. 

I have not seen tlie original diagnosis of this genus by M. 
Deyrolle, but the characters are mentioned (probably quoted) 
by M. Fairmaire in the Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France for 
1877. These characters are eminently unsatisfactory. One 
of them is that the head is more widely and deeply excavated 
than in Ciiris, and yet M. Fairmaire makes a section in the 
genus with the head not excavated at all. Another character, 
the less prominence of the labrum, is extremely variable. 
There remain (to distinguish it from Curis) smaller size, a dif- 
ference in the shape of the front of the prothorax, and a pro- 
portional shortness of the basal joint of the tarsi. Of these 
the last only appears to me a good distinction. The following 
characters, however, will distinguish the genus from all other 
Australian genera of the sub-family, and so enable the Aus- 
tralian collector to recognise it, viz., poriferous depressions 
of the antennae terminal (as in Curis, Melolasis, &c.) ; hind 
tarsi much shorter than their tibiae, the basal joint not (or 
scarcely) so long as the following two together ; head more or 
less impressed between the eyes ; prothorax bisinuate behind ; 
apical part of elytra serrulate, simply and separately rounded 
behind (in all species yet described) ; pygidium concave, ex- 
posed ; apical ventral segment evenly rounded off {i.e., not 
produced into spines at the apex) . 

The following two descriptions are founded on species that 
clearly appear to be hitherto undescribed members of this 
genus. I have before me several others allied to, but probably 
distinct from, some of those described by M. Fairmaire (loc. 
cit.), but as M. Fairmaire's descriptions are not precise in 
respect of the proportional length and breadth of the insects 
or of their several segments it is impossible to be certain as to 
their distinctness. 

J^. Fairmairei, sp. nov. Lata; coeruleo-nigra, subtus Isetius 
coerulea ; fortius nee crebre punctulata ; capite sat fortiter 
impresso ; elytris mox post basin fortiter impressis. Long. 
2 1. Lat. 1 1. 

A very short, wide, flattish species, even more so than 
C. discoflava, Fairm., the anterior two-thirds of the elytra 
almost parallel, or rather with sides very slightly concave, the 
body in front of and behind that part somewhat equally nar- 
rowed. The head is a little more transverse than in 
AT. discoflava, with the clypeus scarcely so distinctly emar- 
ginate in front ; it is moderately channelled longitudinally, 
the channel being deepest in the middle so as to appear a little 
f oveiform ; the puncturation is a little less close than in 
discoflava, and a little inclined to run into rows. The pro- 



250 

thorax nt tlie base is strongly bisinuate, is nearly twice as 
wide as it is long down the middle and a little more than half 
again as wide as its front margin ; its sides are arcuately nar- 
rowed from the base to the apex ; its surface is rather strongly 
convex both longitudinally and transversely, and (as in 
i\r. discoflava) is coarsely and rather closely, but not deeply, 
punctured. The elytra are very little convex and are rather 
finely and rather sparingly punctured, the punctures ranning 
in the anterior half entirely in transverse wrinkles and becom- 
ing ver}' faint towards the apex ; the transverse depression 
immediately behind the base is wide, strong, and conspicuous, 
and there are indications of impressions, or unevenness, about 
the middle. The puncturation of the underside is coarse but 
shallow, close on the sides, and sparse in the middle. 

The unicolorous bluish-black tint of this species would place 
it in M. Fairmaire's first division of the genus, but its real 
affinity is certainly with X. discoflava, Fortnumi, &c. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum 

taken almost certainly in South Australia. 

N. inihescens, sp. nov. Convexiuscula ; minus parallela ; nigra, 

obscure coeruleo-tincta ; capillis sat longis albidis vestita ; 

fortiter punctulata ; elytris vix inaequalibus. Long. 2 1. 

Lat. f 1. 

The uniform blackish colour is only slightly tinged with blue ; 
the shape resembles that of N. monocliroma, Eairm., the pro- 
thorax, however, being more convex longitudinally. The head 
is feebly channelled and is covered rather closely with very 
large and very deep punctures. The prothorax is sculptured 
a little less coarsely than the head ; it is at the base slightly 
more than half again as wide as down the middle it is long, 
and only about a quarter as wide again as its front margin ; it 
is slightly and arcuately contracted from the base to the apex. 
The elytra are gently contracted from the base hindward ; 
their puncturation is close and strong, but not nearly so 
strong as that of the prothorax ; in front and laterally the 
puncturation has only a moderate tendency to run in trans- 
verse wrinkles. The erect, rather long, and moderately close 
hairs which clothe the whole u^^per and under surface dis- 
tinguish the species from all others yet described in the genus. 

The sculpture of the underside is coarse. 

A single specimen occurred to me on a flowering Eucali/ptus 
about 20 miles north of Port Lincoln. 

ETHOX. 

U. Qiiaculatus, sp. nov. Latus, antice posticeque angustatus ; 
supra nigro-seneus, albido-maculatus, minus nitidus ; 
subtus £eneo-micans, ad latera albido-pubescens ; antennis 



251 

sat robustis capiti longitudine vix sequalibus ; capite longi- 
tudinaliter profimde sulcato, crasse rugose nee crebre 
pimctiilato ; protliorace quam longiore fere duplo latiore. 
utrinque carina flexuosa a latere remota instructo, antice 
quam postice paullo minus dimidio angustiore, ad basin 
fortiter lobato, crasse confuse nee crebre rugato, crasse 
obscure punctulato, lateribus antice paullo rotundatis pos- 
tice subparallelis, angulis posticis obtusis, margine 
anteriori concave in medio leviter rotundato-producto, 
disco postice late (nonnullis exemplis vix evidenter) 
canaliculate ; elytris obscure striatis, striis carinis minutis 
confertim instructis ; subtus (prosterno crasse fortiter 
rugato excepto) punctulatus, puncturis antice sat crassis 
nee crebris postice gradatim subtilioribus crebrioribus 
notatus. Long. 3f — 4f|-L 
TMs is a very distinct species ; tbe elytra marked witli a con- 
siderable number of isolated (but not very sharply defined) 
small patches of whitish pubescence give it a peculiar appear- 
ance. 

"Western Australia ; sent to me by E. Meyrick, Esq. AlsO' 
near Port Lincoln. 

iS'EO SPADES, gen nov. 
I propose this new generic name for an insect in the South 
Australian Museum, which is said to be Corcehus chrysopi/gius, 
Germ., and which, in spite of some slight discrepancies in 
respect of colour, I have little doubt is that species. It, how- 
ever, is certainly not a CorcBlus, the carina within the lateral 
margin of the thorax on either side being continuous to the 
anterior margin, and straight (as in Cisseis). The tarsi, with 
strongly compressed joints (those of the posterior legs having 
the basal joint scarcely longer than the second), distinguish 
the insect from Cisseis and EtJion, while the strongly transverse 
scutellum, sharply pointed behind, and absence of tubercles 
from the head and thorax, prevent its being placed in Discoderes. 
In respect of the rest of its characters I do not observe any 
notable difference from Cisseis, except that the claws are 
strongly bifid, and that only joints five to eleven of the 
antennas are distinctly dentate. As it is probable that G-er- 
mar's description of his Corcjehus is not familiar to South Aus- 
tralian entomologists, the following description of the speci- 
men on which I found this genus may not be out of place. 
Minus convexus ; sat angustus ; nitidus ; viridis ; elytrorum 
dimidia parte apicali aureo-purpurea, fascia angusta aureo- 
viridi notata ; antennarum articulis 5°-ll° serratis ; capite 
sat fortiter canaliculate, crebre fortius punctulato, postice 
longitudmaliter rugato ; prothorace quam longiore fere- 



252 

duplo latiore, antice minus fortiter angustato fortiter 
bisinuato, fortiter transversim rugato, postice bisinuato, 
lateribus rotundatis ; elytris autice fortiter crebre postice 
sparsius subtilius punctulatis, rugatis, lateribus postice 
crenulatis ; subtus obscure puuctatus, reticulatim stri- 
gosus. Long. 3^ 1. 

There are faint indications of pubescent spots on tbe sides 
of tbe abdominal segments, which would possibly be well de- 
fined in a fresh specimen. 

CISSEIS. 

C. nuhecidosa, Grerm. I have long had a suspicion that this 
.and AT. cJialcopteriwi, Germ., could not be satisfactorily 
separated, the latter being distinguished by their author only 
by size, colour, and the absence of certain impressions from the 
head and thorax. In the last-named respect 31. nubeculosa 
itself varies not a little. The question has, however, been set 
at rest by Mr. J. Gr. O. Tepper, who has shown me two speci- 
mens taken pairiug, one of which is evidently C. nubeculosa and 
the other C cliaJcopteonini. He assures me that he has frequently 
found the two forms pairing together. 

■C obscura., sp. nov. Minus convexa ; senea ; supra quam subtus 
multo minus nitida ; abdomine glabro ; elytris obscure 
aureo pubescentibus postice subcupreis , capite sat crebre 
fortius punctulato, postice undatim rugato, medio vix evi- 
denter canaliculate ; prothorace vix dimidio latiore quam 
longiore, antice minus fortiter angustato subtruncato, 
postice leviter bisinuato, sequali, crebre subtiliter cur- 
vatim rugato, lateribus sat rotundatis ; elytris crebre sub- 
tiliter rugose punctulatis, lateribus postice subtiliter 
serratis. Long. 3 1. 

This little species resembles C notulata, Germ., and 
C. roseocujorea, Hope. It is a flatter and proportionately wider 
insect than either of them, and also differs from them both in 
the perfectly even surface of its thorax, which is entirely 
devoid of impressions, in the absence of pubescent spots from 
the abdominal segments, and in the arrangement of the pubes- 
cence on the elytra, which is evenly though obscurely spread 
(giving those organs an appearance of being frosted) saving 
that there are some denuded spaces forming a vague irregular 
fascia near the front, a second behind the middle, and a third 
occupying the apex ; there is no trace at all of the spots of 
pubescence which are present in all the specimens I have ex- 
amined of the other two species mentioned above. C. obscura 
is also distinguished from them both by the considerably finer 
:and closer puncturation of its elytra, from G. notulata by the 



253 

very slight concavity of its head, and from roseocioprea by tlie 
brighter appearance (and the transverse wrinkles on the hinder 
part) of the same. According to Dr. G-ermar C. notulata has 
elytral margins devoid of serration, but I do not think that 
this is a reliable character, as specimens otherwise identical 
differ from each other in respect of it, and I even possess a 
specimen in which there is serration on one elytron only. The 
sculpture of the abdominal segments is also characteristic in 
G. obscura, consisting of fine longitudinal scratches and trans- 
verse wrinkles, on a very brilliant surface. It resembles 
O. acuducta, Kirby, in many respects (especially in the arrange- 
ment of the pubescence on the elytra), but differs in the 
absence of impressions from the thorax, smaller size, the very 
much more finely sculptured under-surface, <fcc., &c. 

Of this species I have seen only a single specimen, which 
occurred to me near Port Lincoln. 

C. parva, sp. nov. Sat convexa ; senea, ad cupreum colore 
tendons ; sat nitida ; supra obscure pubescens, subtus 
glabra ; capite sat crebre fortius punctulato, postice cur- 
vatim rugato, medio sat f ortiter late canaliculate ; pro- 
thorace quam longiore fere duplo latiore, antice minus 
fortiter angustato postice leviter bisinuato utrinque bi- 
foveolato, curvatim rugato (in medio leviter, ad latera 
fortius), lateribus minus rotundatis, margine anteriori sat 
fortiter rotundatim in medio producto ; elytris crebre 
obscure sat crasse nee fortiter punctulatis, lateribus 
postice vix evidenter serratis. Long. 2 1. 
Yar. Colore seneo-viridi, elytris seneo-purpureis. 
This very small Clsseis is another ally of G. notulata, Grerm., 
and Toseocuprea, from which it may be at once distinguished 
by the absenae of pubescent spots on the sides of the hind 
body. Erom G. obscura, mihi, it differs in respect of its much 
more strongly transverse thorax, which has two wide ill- 
defined impressions on either side at the base (the outer of 
which is the feebler of the two), the much coarser (though 
hardly deeper) puncturation of the elytra and hind body, and 
the much feebler serration of the hind lateral margin of the 
elytra. The whitish pubescence on the elytra of the specimen 
before me is very sparse and obscure (possibly owing to 
abrasion). It seems, however, to shape itself rather after the 
fashion of the elytral pubescence in G. ohscura. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum 
— locality unknown ; also a single specimen of the var. (in a 
similar plight), which apart from colour differs from the type 
only in having the external basal impression on the thorax still 
more feeble, and vaguely connected with the internal one. I 



254 

have in my own collection a specimen taken about 30 miles 
from Port Lincoln. 

The following two new species differ rather conspicuously in 
appearance from the ordinary types of the genus, although I 
do not observe any defined character that renders a new name 
necessary. They are broad about the front of the elytra and a 
good deal narrowed thence both towards the head and towards 
the apex ; they are absolutely devoid of any indication of 
pubescent spots or fasciae, and the lateral carina {i.e., that 
within the lateral margin of the thorax on either side) is widely 
separated from the margin and strongly curved near the base 
of the thorax. The tarsi are somewhat more compressed than 
is usual in the genus, and the basal joint of the hind tarsi, 
though longer than the second, is distinctly shorter than the 
second and third together. 

C. constricta, sp. nov. Nitida ; antice posticeque angustata ; 
breviter a?qualiter sparsim pubescens ; cyaneo-viridis, 
elytris purpureo-nigris igneo-cupreo marginatis ; capite 
subplano vix evidenter canaliculato crebre sat fortiter 
punctulato, punctis rugis longitudinalibus positis ; pro- 
thorace quam longiore fere duplo latiore, antice leviter 
rotundato minus angustato, trans basin depresso, obscure 
squamose punctulato, transversim curvatim nee crebre 
rugato, lateribus leviter arcuatis parte quinta posteriori 
abrupte subrectis, carina laterali postice fortiter arcuata 
marginem anteriorem vix attingente, basi leviter bisinuata; 
elytris antice crasse obscure punctulatis transversim crasse 
rugatis, postice punctis subtilioribus rugis obsoletis ; 
subtus sparsim squamose punctulata, punctis undatim 
rugis conjunctis; prosterno fortius punctulato. Long. 
211. 
Owing to the abrupt declivity of the sides of the thorax the 
•curved carina viewed from above seems to form the lateral 
margin, and this in conjunction with the transversely depressed 
base of the thorax causes the thorax to appear strongl}^ con- 
stricted just in front of the base, the apparent constriction 
seeming to form on the lateral margins a sharply-defined tri- 
angular excision. The fourth joint of the antennae is equal in 
length to the third and longer than the fifth ; it is slightly 
produced on the inner side, but much less so than the follow- 
ing joints. 

I have a single specimen, which was sent to me from ^'estern 
Australia by E. Meyrick, Esq. 

C. Lincli, sp. nov. Sat nitida ; antice posticeque angustata; 
vix pubescens; cupreo-a?nea, antennis (basi excepta) tarsis 
elytrisque purpureo-nigris, his igneo-cupreo marginatis; 



255 

■capite sLibplano vix evidenter canaliculate crebre sat for- 
titer punctulato, pimctis rugis longitudinalibus positis ; 
protborace quam longiore fere duplo latiore, antice leviter 
Totundato sat fortiter augustato, iitrinque in angulo pos- 
tico foveolato, obscure squamose punctulato, transversim 
curvatim nee crebre rugato, lateribus leviter arcuatis 
parte quinta posteriori abrupte subrectis, carina lateral! 
postice fortiter arcuata marginein anteriorem vix attin- 
gente, basi leviter bisinuata ; elytris antice crasse obscure 
punctulatis, transversim crasse rugatis, postice punctis 
subtilioribus rugis obsoletis ; subtus sparsim squamose 
punctulata, punctis undatim rugis conjunctis ; prosterno 
fortius punctulato. Long. 24 — 3 1. 

The resemblance of tbis species to tbe preceding is very 
•great. Apart from colour and size tbe difference seems to be 
•confined to tbe tborax. In C Lindi tbe anterior margin is 
two-tbirds tbe widtb of tbe posterior, tbe surface is even 
(except that there is a fovea close within the posterior angle on 
■either side), and the lateral margins viewed from above appear 
to be narrowed from the base to the apex in a bisinuate curve. 
In C. constricta the anterior margin is three-quarters the width 
of the posterior, there is a conspicuous depression all across 
the base, and the lateral margins viewed from above have the 
peculiar outline already described. In both these species the 
true lateral margin (which cannot be seen from above) is 
gently arched from the front to near the base, then strongly 
rounded inwards, and then proceeds in a nearly straight line to 
the base. This sculpture is best seen from a point of view half- 
way between perpendicular and lateral. The fourth joint of 
the antennae is longer than either the third or the fifth, and is 
scarcely less produced than the fifth on the inner side. 

This is a South Australian species; I have taken it near Port 

Lincoln, and have also seen specimens taken near Adelaide. 

C. occidentalis sp. nov. Sat nitida ; oblongo-ovalis ; glabra; 

viridis, cupreo-micans, antennis pedibusque obscuris; 

capite lato vix concavo anguste canaliculato fortius sat 

crebre punctulato, punctis rugis longitudinalibus vix 

evidenter conjunctis ; protborace quam longiore sat minus 

duplo latiore, antice rotundato minus fortiter angustato, 

squall, obscure punctulato, transversim curvatim sat 

crebre rugato, lateribus vix arcuatis, carina laterali sinuata 

marginem anteriorem baud attingente, basi media breviter 

lobata ; elytris antice subtilius punctulatis transversim 

subtilius rugatis, postice obscure punctatis vix rugatis; 

subtus squamose sat crebre punctulata. Long. 2-?- 1. 

Although this insect has a very ordinary appearance it does 



256 

not seem quite at home in any described genus known to me. 
The apportionment o£ species in genera is, however, so much 
better done when species can be treated en masse that I prefer 
avoiding the creation of new genera when possible in such a 
memoir as this, and I think no great violence is required to 
place the present insect in Clsseis provisionally. It must, 
nevertheless, be noted that its tarsi and antennae are not those 
of a typical Clsseis, the former being rather strongly com- 
pressed, with the basal joint (on the posterior legs) not much 
longer than the second, and the latter having the fourth joint 
scarcely at all produce^ on the inner side, but almost identical 
in shape with the third. In both these respects there is an 
approach to Corcehus, but on the other hand the claws are those 
of a Cisseis, and the inner lateral carina of the thorax is trace- 
able nearly to the anterior margin ; the structure of the 
antennae and of the scutellum (which is that of a Cisseis) for- 
hids an association with Biscode^^es, and the structure of the 
claws as well as the general facies are inconsistent with my 
new genus Neospades. There are undoubtedly large numbers 
of Australian Agrilidce allied to Cisseis still nndescribed, and 
it is likely that as they are brought into notice our ideas of 
the limits of some genera may be a good deal modified. In 
some respects C constricta (described above) is intermediate 
between the present species and a typical Cisseis. 

I possess a single specimen w^hich was sent to me by E, 
Meyrick, Esq., from "Western Australia. 

AGEiLrs. 
A. Aust7'alasice, L. and Gr., and Jiypohucus, L. and Gr. The 
latter of these is quoted as above in Mr. Masters' catalogue, 
but should be, I think, liypoleucus, Hope. The former is stated 
by Germar to occur near Adelaide (the species he refers to is 
by no means uncommon in S. Australia), while the latter, 
under the names assimilis and purpuratus as well as liypoleucus 
(names which Mr. Masters himself quotes as synonymic) is 
attributed by the Eev. E. AY. Hope to Western Australia, and 
also is said to have been taken by Mr. Eortnum, of Adelaide, at 
*'Moriatta" — no doubt a mistake for "Morialta." Yet the 
only locality mentioned by Mr. Masters in the case of each of 
these insects is " New South Wales." Moreover there is great 
doubt, I think, as to the real distinctness of Australasice and 
liypoleucus. 

Cisseis ciqjreicollis, Hope, and ceneicollis, Hope (said to be a 
variety of same) . These names are stated by their author to be 
applied to insects sent to him from "Moriatta." The frequent 
mention of this place by Mr. Hope as a hunting ground of Mr. 



257 

Eortnum, of Adelaide, leaves scarcely a doubt tliat it should be 
''Morialta." 

In Masters' catalogue this insect is attributed to N.S. "Wales 
only. 

&ERMARICA, gen. nov, [Trachydse]. 
ApJianistico affinis, sed antennarum clava 7-articulata, capite 
vix canaliculato, tarsis longioribus, horum articulo quarto 
valde dilatato. 

The insect for which I propose this generic name has quite 
the appearance of the European Aphanisticus pusillus, Herbst., 
but in spite of this striking resemblance cannot be associated 
with it, on account of structural differences in the head, an- 
tennae, and tarsi. The head is hardly channelled; the antennae 
are not longer than the width of the head, and are very stout, 
the apical seven joints strongly produced inward, so that these 
seven joints together form an abrupt club (reminding one of 
the antennal club of Syndesus in the Lucanidcd) scarcely more 
than twice as long as it is wide, and longer than the four joints 
that precede it together. The tarsi are decidedly, though not 
very much, longer than those of Aphanisticus, their fourth 
joint much dilated, the claws very small. I do not know the 
genus Paracephala, Thoms., but its name cannot stand, having 
been previously used for a genus of Fhytophaga. If Mr. 
Masters is right in attributing to it Agrilus pistacinus, Hope, 
the insect I am describing has nothing to do with it. 

G. casuarincd, sp. no v. Elongata, nigro-aenea ; glabra ; pro- 
thorace leviter transverse, lateribus baud explanatis ; 
elytris leviter sparsim punctulatis. Long. 1\ 1., lat. -f 1. 

The whole upper surface is dulled somewhat by a system of 
very fine close puncturation ; over this are sprinkled larger and 
very faint punctures, which are sparse on the head, much more 
so on the prothorax, numerous on the anterior half of the 
elytra, and obsolete behind. The prothorax is about half again 
as wide at the base as down the middle it is long, and has its 
sides gently rounded to the front, which is about three quarters 
of the width of the base; a transverse impression runs imme- 
diately in front of the base, which is bisinuate. The elytra are 
about four times as long as, and not wider than, the prothorax ; 
they are sub-parallel in their anterior two-thirds, and then 
contracted to the apex. They have no trace of sculpture other 
than that described above. The under surface is evenly and 
very finely and closely punctured. 

A few specimens were taken by me near Port Lincoln by 
beating Gasiiarina. There are also two examples, unticketed, 
in the S. Australian Museum. 



258 

MALACODERMID^. 
METRIOEHYNCHUS. 

M. vittatics, sp. nov. (mas). Piceo-niger, elytris (sutura late 
picea excepta) testaceo-fuscis ; rostro quam latiore paullo 
longiore ; prothorace 7-areoiato ; elytris quadricostatis, 
interstitiis biseriatim caucellato-puuctulatis. Long. 5 1. 
The autennse are strongly flabellate ; the produced part o£ 
joints three to ten is slender, that of three equal in length to 
the joint, that of four to ten longer than the length of the 
several joints. The thorax is a little reddish on the sides, 
which are strongly elevated ; its base is strongly trisinuate and 
its area small (the width across the base scarcely equalling that 
of one of the elytra at its widest part). The pitchy stripe 
which runs down the suture occupies its width the w^hole space 
"between the fourth interstices of the two elytra, and terminates 
at a distance from the apex about equal to the length of the 
thorax. The elytra are gently dilated to considerably behind 
the middle. The pairs of rows of punctures between the costse 
on the elytra are separated by distinct lines. The penultimate 
ventral segment is incised nearly to the base by a parallel- 
sided incision. 

A single specimen occurred to me at Port Lincoln, on 
flowers. 

N.B. — I possess a female, also from Port Lincoln, which I 
think must be paired with the above-described male, in spite 
of some structural discrepancies. It is considerably smaller 
(3f 1.); the rostrum is shorter, being not quite so long as wide 
{in the male it is nearly half again as long as wide), and the 
thorax is less strongly sinuate behind, with the hinder angles 
much less pronounced. In spite of these differences the 
specimens agree so perfectly in all other respects — including 
the very distinctive marking of the elytra — that (taking into 
account their having been found on the same day and on 
flowers of the same tree) I do not feel justified in treating them 
as distinct species. The antennae, of course, differ in the 
manner that is usual in the genus. 

M. Meyrichi, sp. nov. (mas). ]S"iger ; elytris (sutura apiceque 

nigris exceptis) rufis; rostro nullo; prothorace 7-areolato; 

elytris basi quadricostatis, costis prima et tertia postice 

subobsoletis ; interstitiis uniseriatim cancellato-punctu- 

latis. Long. 3—31 1. 

The antennae are verj' strongly dentate, each of joints three 

to ten being a trifle longer than wide, and at its apex (which is 

not emarginate) about twice as wide as at its base. The seven 

areolae of the thorax are very clearly defined ; the base of the 

thorax is rather strongly trisinuate, and the hinder angles quite 



259 

«liarp. The black marking of tlie elytra consists o£ a common 
vitta, which covers at the base the space between the first costa 
•on the two elytra, and gradually dilates backward till it 
touches the lateral margins at a distance from the apex about 
-equal to the length of the hind tarsi. The first and third costae 
are at the base scarcely feebler than the other two, but back- 
ward they soon become no more elevated than the transverse 
lines of the interstices. The penultimate ventral segment is 
:semicircularly incised in tbe middle. 

Three specimens (all males) were sent to me from Western 
Australia by E. Meyrick, Esq. 

TELEPHOEIJS . 

The following three species are, I think, not true members 
of this genus, although they are near enough to be attributed 
to it in a general sense provisionally. As it is possible they 
may fall into M. Fairemaire's genus Seleiiurus, of which I can- 
not procure a description (certainly none of them are identical 
with the species he has described), I am not justified in giving 
them a new name. They differ from Telepliorus in the shape 
of the elytra, which are abruptly and strongly contracted from 
the middle to the apex (which is separately rounded), so that 
close to the apex they are not more than half as wide as at the 
base, and leave a wide piece of the upper surface of the hind- 
body exposed on either side ; also they have no trace of a spine 
at the apex of the tibiae. The apical joint of the maxillary 
palpi is subcultriform and three or four times as long as the 
preceding joint. 

I possess six examples presenting the above characters, whicb 
belong, I think, to three closely allied species. i\.mong these 
there appear to be five females and one male, * and the sexual 
differences are very well marked. The male (of course this 
may not apply to the males of all three species, though in all 
probability it does) has the head enormously developed, being 
across the eyes very decidedly wider than the thorax, and quite 
as wide as the elytra at their widest part. Its hind body on 
the underside has the lateral (or pleural) portion very wide 
indeed, and the discal part narrow, and evenly and gently con- 
vex, the penultimate segment being extremely deeply incised, 
with the small apical segment enclosed within the incision and 
protruding beyond it. In the female the head is considerably 
narrower than the thorax ; the hind body resembles that of 
the male in general form except that the middle part is pinched 
together (as it were) into a longitudinal keel on either side of 

* It is just barely possible that I may have reversed the sexes ; I have no 
absolute proof as to which is which. 



260 

TvHicli the surface is longitudinally concave. This appearance- 
is probably caused by the drying up of the soft body, as it is- 
not symmetrical in any of my specimens but it is strongly 
marked in all the females and absent in the male. The seg- 
ment in the female corresponding to the penultimate in the 
male is semicircularly and rather narrowly incised in the- 
middle, and a strong tooth projects from the hinder edge of 
the incision, the cavity formed by this incisiou being filled up 
by an elongate organ which I take to be the ovipositor and 
which scarcely protrudes beyond the end of the segment. 
These insects might be referred to the genus Ichthyurus were- 
it not for the total incompatibility of their sexual characters. 

The fourth species described below {T. pauxUlus) has quite 
the facies of a true Telepliorus, but is not likely to retain its- 
place there when the Australian species come to be dealt with 
en masse by a competent authority. Its tibiae are devoid of 
any distinct apical spine, and the last joint of its maxillary 
palpi is not securiform but oval, with the apex truncate ; and 
is very much wider, and considerably longer, than the pre- 
ceding joint. I do not observe any other very notable differ- 
ence from Telepliorus, but have not dissected a specimen. I 
may add the remark concerning the Australian species in 
general attributed to TelepJioi^us that their place there seems- 
to me only provisional, T. pulchellics, W. S. Macleay, for ex- 
ample, having tibiae devoid of apical spines, peculiar maxillary 
palpi, and sexual organs, &c. 

T. proprms, sp. nov. (mas). Parce pubescens ; testaceus ;: 
capite postice, palpis antennis, pedibus (femoribus basi 
exceptis), metasterno et abdominis segmentis postice, 
piceis vel piceo-nigris ; elytris cyaneo-nigris, hand nitidis,, 
confuse subgranulatis ; antennis corpore vix brevioribus. 
Eeminae capite toto nigro, elytris antice subnitidis ; an- 
tennis corpore evidenter brevioribus. Long. 3 — Si 1. 

The thorax is widest in front, and is gently and roundly nar- 
rowed to the base, with all its angles rounded off. It is slightly 
wider than long ; its surface is smooth and shining, but some- 
what (and undefinedly) uneven. Especially there appears to 
be a vague depression in the middle, the central part of which 
is roundly protuberant, and there are some indistinct depres- 
sions and calli about the sides. On the elytra a scarcely trace- 
able costa runs from the shoulder towards the hinder part of 
the suture. In the male the elytra are nearly opaque at the 
base, and become quite so towards the apex. In the female 
they are subnitid about the base and opaque behind. The sur- 
face is subgranulate or coarsely coriaceous ; more coarsely in 
front than behind. The difference in colour between the male 



261 

:and female is probably an accidental variety ratber tban a 
sexual distinction. 

Tbree specimens occurred on flowers near Port Lincoln. 
T. Andersoni, s^. nov. (femina). Parce pubescens ; testaceus ; 
capite, antennis, palpis, pedibus, lineis in protborace 
nonnullis, et maculis in corpore subtus, nigris vel piceo- 
nigris ; elytris l^ete cyaneis, antice nitidis sublsevigatis ; 
postice opacis, granulatis ; antennis corpore multo bre- 
vioribus. Long. 3 — 3il. 
Tbe antennae are scarcely tbree-quarters tbe lengtb of the 
body. The thorax has the following dark marks : — A short line 
a little within the margin about the middle of each side, a still 
shorter line on either side close to the base, and a small spot in 
the middle (almost obsolete in one of my specimens ; probably 
these are variable). It is decidedly transverse, and is scarcely 
narrowed behind. On the under side the coxag, some marks about 
the apex of the metasternum, and a spot on either side of each 
of the first five segments of the hind body are blackish. Dedi- 
cated to my friend Mr. J. Anderson, of Port Lincoln. 

Two specimens occurred on flowers near Port Lincoln. 
T. vibex, sp. nov. (femina). Parce pubescens; flavus ; capite 
(macula flava postica excepta), palpis, antennis, pedibus, 
maculis nonnullis in coxis, metasterno, abdominisque 
apice, nigris ; elytris violaceis, antice sublaevigatis nitidis 
valde ;in9equalibus, postice opacis granulatis; antennis 
corpore sat brevioribus. Long. 4i- 1. 
The head has a large yellow triangular patch behind, the apex 
of which runs out between the hind part of the eyes. There are 
some indications of similar marking in the preceding species. 
The thorax resembles that of T. Andersoni, but is a little more 
contracted hindward, and entirely testaceous. The underside 
is entirely of a bright canary-yellow colour, except the coxae 
(which are black, spotted with yellow) and the head meta- 
sternum and extremity of hind body (which are marked with 
black). The elytra have the humeral callus well defined, and 
between it and the suture there is a large strongly convex elon- 
gate wheal which runs about a third of the distance to the apex, 
gradually narrowing on its external side. The antennae are 
about three-quarters the length of the body. 

I possess a single specimen, taken in Victoria. The exact 
locality is not known to me. 

T. pauxillus, sp. nov. Sat elongatus ; parallelus ; uiger vel 
seneo-niger, prothorace testaceo, hoc quam longiori plus 
duplo latiori ; elytris pubescentibus crebre rugose punctu- 
latis ; maris antennis corpore vix, feminae sat evidenter, 
brevioribus. Long. 4i 1. 



262 

The liead is shining black, impimctate, or nearly so ; the- 
protliorax is equally wide before and behind, about twice and a 
half as wide as long, with the sides gently arched, the angles 
all rounded off. The elytra are five times as long as the thorax,, 
but not wider than it, their surface rather densely covered with 
whitish hairs. In some specimens there is a tendency to 
fuscous clouding about the front and hinder part of the thorax. 
The underside is shining black. 

Near Port Lincoln ; generally obtained by sweeping low- 
scrub. 

LAIUS. 

L. conicicomis, sp. nov. (mas.) jS'iger, capite prothoraceque 
flavo-notatis ; elytris coeruleis flavo bifasciatis ; antenni.s 
palpis pedibusque plus minusve flavis, abdominis segmentis 
postice flavo-marginatis. 
Antennarum articulis 1° et 2° valde dilatatis, ceteris grada- 
tim angustatis. Long. 3 1. 

The yellow markings on the head consist of a circular ring 
(interrupted in some examples) touching both the eyes, and a 
spot within it (sometimes obsolete) ; the front of the clypeus 
and the labrum also are yellow (black-lined in some examples). 
The thorax has a wide yellow margin all round except at the 
middle of the base (in some examples this margin is infuscate 
along the front). The anterior elytral fascia has the middle- 
(longitudinally) of its narrowest part at about the middle 
(longitudinally) of the elytra but is dilated (a little backward 
and strongly forward) on the suture and the margins, running 
up the suture nearly to the scutellum. At its narrowest part 
its width about equals the length of the basal joint of the 
antennae ; hence its front and hind margins are on each elytron 
concave, the front being strongly and evenly so, the hind less 
evenly and much less strongly. The hinder elytral fascia 
occupies the apex, commencing on either side at a distance- 
from the sutural angle about equal to the length of the hind 
tarsus and being widely and squarely produced up the suture 
about half-way to the hinder edge of the anterior fascia. The 
basal two joints of the antennaD are bright testaceous, the- 
remainder more or less pitchy. The following parts of the 
underside are yellow — the presternum (except sometimes the 
anterior coxfe) a narrow hind margin to all the ventral seg- 
ments except the last, and the middle part (sometimes very 
narrowly) of the basal two segments. The front legs, the in- 
termediate tibiae, and the extreme apex of the hind tibiae are- 
testaceous. The tarsi (except the front ones) are more or less 
pitchy. The basal joint of the antennae forms an elongate- 
triangle placed on the end of a short cylindric stem ; its apex: 



203 

(wMcli is its widest part) is somewliat emarginate and is a 
little wider thau the width of the apex of the front tibia, 
being about two-thirds as wide as the joint is long. The second 
joint springs from the external apex of the first joint, than 
which it is a half shorter ; it is very strongly dilated on the 
inner side, in such fashion that it is fully as wide as the apex 
of the basal joint and is slightly longer on the inner than the 
outer side, its inner face being emarginate. The third joint is 
two-thirds of the length and less than half the width" of the 
second, it is dilated on the inner side and is slightly wider 
than long. The next six joints resemble it in shape and 
length, except that the dilatation of each in succession becomes 
less, and so the joint narrower in proportion to its length. 
The apical joint is quite slender and about twice as long as 
the ninth. Thus the apical eight joints form an aggregate 
wide at the base and tapering regularly to a point at the 
summit. The head is scarcely shining, coarsely and closely 
punctured ; prothorax with the black space shining and spar- 
ingly and strongly punctured, the yellow margins sub-opaque 
and coarsely punctured. The puncturation of the elytra is 
sparing and not very strong about the base and apex ; towards 
the middle coarse and close with a tendency to transverse 
wrinkling. The whole insect is sparingly clothed with long 
hairs. The prothorax is once and two thirds as wide as long 
and is five-sixths the width of the elytra ; the latter are almost 
parallel-sided. The markings vary in colour from yellow to 
yellowish red. 

I have not seen this insect except from the Port Lincoln 
district. The female is unknown to me. 
L. nodiGornis, sp. nov. (mas.) Cyaneus ; antennis, capite, pro- 

thorace, elytris, pedibus, et corpore subtus in parte rufo- 

flavis. 

Antennarum articulo secundo primo plus duplo ma j ore, 
prime exterue dentato. Long. 2 1. 

On the head, the front of the clypeus, and the cheeks are 
testaceous or red ; also on the antennae, the upper external 
margin of the basal and whole upper surface of the second 
joints ; on the prothorax the whole surface except the middle 
of the base ; on the elytra a fascia in the middle resembling 
that of the preceding species but less produced on the suture 
and margins, and a large apical spot ; on the underside the 
hind margins of the ventral segments ; the anterior legs are 
pitchy testaceous. The basal joint of the antennae is of the 
length of the diameter of the eye and is somewhat pear shaped 
with the external margin produced into a large blunt tooth • 
the second joint forms a large roundish disc, in area a little 



264 

larger than the eye, its under surface blackish and sub-globu- 
lar, its upper surface testaceous, flattish, and divided into 
three or four well-defined areola ; the next four joints are 
narrow, sub-conic, a little produced on the inner side and very 
slightly decreasing in width successively ; the remainder are 
broken off in my specimen but probably resemble those im- 
mediately preceding them. The upper surface is shining, the 
head and thorax obscurely punctured, the elytra punctured 
sparingly and largely about the base and apex, much more 
closely and coarsely on the intermediate space. The whole 
insect is clothed with long hairs. The elytra widest behind, 
where together they are nearly half again as wide as the 
thorax. 

The female differs from the male in being darker coloured 
(probably a mere accidental variation in the single example 
before me), having the w^hole disc of the thorax black and the 
legs (except the anterior tarsi) wholly pitchy. Its antennae 
are pitchy black, the external (supposing the antennae directed 
forwards) margin of the basal joints paler, the basal joint 
resembling that of the male, but unarmed, the second much 
smaller than the first, obtusely produced internally, the remain- 
ing joints slightly narrowed in succession, and each rather 
sharply produced internally, so that the internal outline of the 
antennae as a whole is distinctly serrate. 

Taken by Mr. Eothe near Sedan. 

Zi. distortus, sp. nov. Nigro-cyaneus ; antennis, capite, pro- 
thorace, elytris, pedibusque, in parte testaceis (mas.) — 
antennarum articulo secundo primo plus duplo majore, 
primo apice acute spinoso. Long, li 1. 
The basal two joints of the antennae, the cheeks, the whole 
prothorax (except a large black discal spot) and the apex of 
the elytra, are testaceous ; the tibiae and tarsi are more or less 
pitchy testaceous. The basal joint of the antennae about equals 
in length the diameter of the eye ; it is pear-shaped, with a 
strong erect spine at its apex. The second joint is almost a 
parallelogram in shape and is twice as wide as long ; in area it 
is larger than the eye ; it is attached to the first joint at a 
point half-way between the middle and the internal end of its 
base, while the third joint springs almost from the external 
end of its apical edge. The remaining joints are all slender 
and subconical, scarcely differing from each other in width 
but gradually increasing in length. The head and thorax are 
quite shining, and are only obscurely punctured. The elytra 
are subopaque, closely and finely punctured (a little more 
shining and more sparingly punctured about the base and apex) 
nnd are dotted over with small tubercle-like pustules. The 



265 

wliole insect is clotlied with long erect hairs. The prothorax 
is quite twice as wide as long, and is about three-quarters the 
width of the elytra behind the middle, where they are widest. 

The female scarcely differs from the male in size, colour, or 
markings ; the legs, however, are a little more uniformly 
piceous. The antennae scarcely differ from those of female 
L. nodicornis except in the basal two joints being clear 
testaceous. 

Two specimens on the flowers of a species of Acacia near 
Port Lincoln. 

N.B. — It is to be noted that in the above descriptions the 
-second joint of the antennae in the male is supposed to be 
viewed from directly above its flattened upper surface. From 
other points of view its appearance is quite different. 

CISSID^. 

LTCTUS. 

L. {Xylotrogus) Irunneus^ Steph. In Mr. Masters' catalogue 
{Proc. Linn. 8oc., N.S.W.) this species, probably by a clerical 
error, is entered as "i. hmnneus, J. AV. Douglas," followed by 
a reference to the Ent. M. Mag., 1S76. In the article referred 
to, however, Mr. Douglas merely records the fact of his having 
found L. hrunneiis in England under the bark of some logs of 
wood that had been imported from AVestern Australia. The 
species was described by Stephens long ago in the " Illustra- 
tions of British Entomology," and appears to be cosmopolitan. 
I have met with it myself in the Hawaiian Islands (vide Trans. 
Boy. Dublin Soc, 1885), and it has been recorded from many 
other localities. M. Lacordaire (in the Gen. des Coleopteres) 
rejects Mr. Stephens' genus Xylotrogus as a frivolous sub- 
division of Lyctus, saying that it has no other distinctive 
character than the absence of a deep longitudinal fovea on the 
thorax. I have not Stephens' description to refer to, but 
whether it notices the following characters or not the species 
on which the genus is founded differs from typical Lyctus in 
the very evident separation of the anterior coxae ; so that 
either M. Lacordaire's "hanches anterieures contigues" in his 
diagnosis of Lyctus requires to be amended or Mr. Stephens' 
genus must stand. I prefer the former alternative, as it ap- 
pears to me that the degree of contiguity of the anterior coxae 
is not of generic importance in insects of the Lyctus type. 

L. costatus, sp. nov. Subopacus ; elongatus ; piceus ; pro- 

thoracis latitudine majori antice posita ; elytris perobscure 

lineatim punctulatis ; interstitiis 4°, 6°, et 8° evidenter 

elevatis ; coxis anterioribus hand contiguis. Long. 2f 1. 

This species is clothed with short pubescence, less sparingly 



266 

and more evenly tlian is usual in the genus ; the whole surface 
being minutely coriaceous gives it a dull appearance. It is 
almost entirely concolorous, except that the thorax is a little 
the darkest part. The head and thorax are rather coarsely and 
closely punctured ; the latter is strongly convex in front. Im- 
mediately behind the front the lateral margins are curved 
pretty strongly inwards for a short distance, and then curve 
outwards very slightly to the base, so that their outline is 
concave, the widest part being the anterior margin. The sur- 
face of the thorax is a little uneven, the most evident depression 
being elongate, wide and shallow, and occupying the hinder part 
of the disc. Between the suture and what would be the fourth 
interstice if the puncturation ran evenly in rows there is no 
distinct puncturation at all. This fourth interstice is slightly 
elevated and continuously distinct, except at the extreme base 
and apex ; then follow five rows of punctures, clearly traceable 
under a good lens, the interstices between the second and third 
and between the fourth and fifth of them being similar to that 
which precedes them. Hence to the lateral margin the sculpture 
becomes quite faint and confused again, but there are indica- 
tions of two obscure costae near the margin. The sculpture is 
so slight that under a lens of only moderate power none of it 
is noticeable except the three slender raised interstices. The 
anterior coxae are about as far apart as in L. hrunneus, and the 
front part of the prosternum is evenly convex as in that 
species. 

Larger than L. hrunneus^ much less shining, differently 
coloured, the prothorax more coarsely punctured, and more 
noticeably at its widest in front ; the elytra much more 
obscurely punctured, and with the raised interstices very much 
more conspicuous. 

A single example occurred at Port Lincoln. 
L.parallelocollis, ^^.noY. Sat nitidus ; elongatus ; rufo-piceus; 
prothoracis lateribus subparallelis, sub-crenulatis ; elytris 
subtiliter striato-punctatis ; inters titiis vix convexis. 
Long- If— 2il. 

More shining and less pubescent than L. costatus. Head and 
prothorax very strongly but not closely punctured. The latter 
transverse, its front margin strongly convex, its sides nearly 
straight, the hinder portion of its disc widely flattened. The 
elytra are distinctly striated, the striae almost strongly punc- 
tured, the sculpture best defined on the disc, where and towards 
the apex the interstices have a tendency to be convex. The 
anterior coxae are separated a little more decidedly than in 
L. hrunneus. The anterior part of the prosternum is widely 
flattened in the middle. In some specimens (perhaps males) 



267 

there is a conspicuous rounded tubercle on tlie hinder part of 
the under surface of the head, a little in front of the pros- 
tern um. 

I have taken this insect several times under hark of 
Eucalyptus, about 30 miles north of Port Lincoln. 
Zi. discedens, sp. nov. Nitidus ; elongatus ; rufo-castaneus ; 
prothoracis latitudine majori antice posita ; elytris sub^ 
tilissime seriatim punctulatis ; interstitiis planis Igevi- 
gatis ; coxis anterioribus sat late separatis. Long. 1^ 1. 
A very shining species, almost devoid of pubescence. The- 
head and thorax are finely and not at all closely punctured, 
otherwise resembling the same parts in L. costatus. The punc- 
tures of the elytral rows are extremely fine, scarcely discernible 
near the suture ; the interstices smooth and shining, and quite 
flat, except on the hinder part of the disc, where they are 
scarcely convex. The considerable separation of the anterior 
coxae would appear inconsistent with a place in the genus 
Lyctus, but (as I have observed above) there is variation in 
this respect among the species of the K'orthern Hemisphere, 
and I can discover no other difference in this insect from 
ordinary types. 

I have met with this species rarely in the Port Lincoln dis- 
trict under the bark of Eucalyptus. 

CIS. 

C. Australis, sp. nov. Sat latus ; confertim irregulariter sat. 

f ortiter punctulatus ; nigro-fuscus ; sparsim breviter 

argenteo vel albo pubescens ; labro, palpis, antennis (basi 

excepta) pedibusque testaceis ; prothoracis margine antico 

et elytris plus minusve rufescentibus. Long, f — 1 1. 

A broad robust species resembling 0. holefi, Scopoli, in form, 

but with the margins of the thorax not explanate. The eye& 

are very little prominent. The thorax at its base is very little 

(to the eye it appears not at all) wider than its length ; viewed 

from above it seems to be evenly contracted towards the front, 

but when the fine margin is looked at from the side it is seen 

to be rather strongly rounded ; its front margin projects over 

the head about as much as in C. holeti ; its surface is devoid of 

impressions and is evenly, rather strongly, and moderately 

closely punctured. The scutellum is more transverse than that 

of C. holeti. The elytra are punctured a little more coarsely 

than the thorax, the punctures without any tendency to run 

into rows, and being very confusedly and a little rugosely 

mixed together, large and small intermingled ; the punctura- 

tion, however, as compared with that of the elytra of G. holeti y 

being on the whole very much finer and less rugose. The- 



268 

punctiiration of the underside is very sparing, scratcliy, and 
obscure. 

Port Lincoln ; occasionally in hard fungi on trees. As far 
:as my experience goes the commonest species of the genus, but 
I have not found any commonly. 

C (Bqualis, sp. nov. Minus latus ; sat elongatus ; vix pubes- 
cens ; aequaliter, minus f ortiter, minus crebre punctulatus ; 
coloribus ut in O. Australi. Long, f 1. 
The colouring of this little species is exactly that of the 
preceding, than which it is much more elongate in form, and 
much more shining. Under a strong lens a very sparing and 
very short silvery pubescence can be traced, but under an 
•ordinary lens it appears glabrous. The puncturation is very 
even over the whole surface, is tolerably strong, but not at all 
■coarse or rugose, moderately close, and without any tendency 
to run in lines. The thorax (which is decidedly transverse) 
viewed from above appears to be narrowed m something of a 
curve from the base to the apex ; when examined from the 
side the lateral edging is seen to be considerably finer than in 
C. australis and less strongly rounded in outline ; the front 
margin also is much less convex, not projecting conspicuously 
over the head. The sculpture of the underside, as in the pre- 
>ceding, is extremely ill defined and scratchy in appearance. 

C. mimitus, sp. nov. Sat latus ; minus nitidus ; breviter 

pubescens ; subtiliter confertim punctulatus ; f uscus, 

antennis, palpis pedibusque testaceis ; maris capite pro- 

thoraceque lamina transversa erecta instructis. Long. 4- 1. 

This is a wide, very short, species, with elytra not much 

longer than the head and prothorax together. The latter is 

very massive, not much wider than long, contracted in a curve, 

very little from the base to about the middle, and thence 

rather strongly to the front ; the actual lateral margin (which 

is extremely fine) is, as in C. australis, invisible from above. 

The puncturation of the whole upper surface is rugose, fine, 

and very close, without any tendency to run into rows. In 

the male the clypeus is raised in front. into a wide erect lamina, 

emarginate at its apex, about equal in height and width, both 

height and width being about equal to the distance from the 

base of the lamina to the apex of the thorax ; the front of the 

thorax rises into a similar lamina, parallel to, and about equal 

in size with, that of the clypeus. 

Port Lincoln. 
C. Adelaides, sp. nov. Oblongus ; nitidus ; glaber ; sparsim 
subtiliter punctulatus ; nigro-fuscus ; antennis, palpis, 
pedibus, et elytris apicem versus dilutioribus. Long, f 1. 



269 

Somewliat of the same shape as C. cequalis but with the sides 
of the elytra less parallel. The prothorax is rather strongly 
transverse, with strongly rounded sides and front a good deal 
produced over the head (the actual lateral margin is very fine 
and is not visible from above) ; it is also very convex above- 
longitudinally {i.e., viewed from the side) ; under a strong lens- 
the puncturation is seen to be moderately large and not very 
sparse, but shallow. The elytra are very shining, and almost 
punctureless ; under a good Coddington lens there are traces 
just discernible of very fine and sparing puncturation. 

A single specimen was taken by me near Adelaide. 
C setiferus, sp. nov. Sat elongatus ; subopacus ; niger, setis 
brevibus erectis albis vestitus ; antennis (clava excepta) 
palpis pedibusque testaceis ; prothorace sparsius, elytris^ 
sat crebre, rugulose punctulatis. Long. 4 1. 

A rather narrow elongate species, a little wide behind tha 
middle of the elytra, rather evenly beset all over with close 
erect short stout setae of a silvery-white colour which tend to 
run in rows on the elytra. The prothorax is scarcely wider 
than long, a good deal produced over the head in front, con^ 
tracted from the base to the apex (most strongly near the base), 
the sides little rounded, the lateral edging fine, but not ex- 
cessively so, and visible from above, the surface finely coriaceous- 
and also pretty closely set with larger shallow punctures. The 
elytra are obscurely but closely and rather rugosely punctured. 
The puncturation of the underside is ill-defined and obscure 
under a Coddington lens. 

Two specimens in my collection, from Eoseworthy. 

TENEBKIONID^. 
SCYMEjS-A. 

The insect that forms the subject of the following descrip- 
tion appears to belong to this genus, which was founded by 
Mr. Pascoe in 1866, for a species from N.S."W. It was, how- 
ever, only very briefly characterised as follows (I translate 
from the Latin) — " Characters as in Phaleria, but the clypeus 
deeply and squarely excised. Antennae shorter than the head. 
Interfemoral process acute at the apex." Four years later 
Mr. Pascoe described a second species (from Western Aus- 
tralia) in the " Annals of IN'atural History," and describes its- 
antennae as "nearly as long as the ividth of the head," which 
introduces an ambiguity I think into the generic characters. 
In characterizing the species, however, he says, "closely resem- 
bles Phaleria cadaverina.'" The species now before me so 
singularly resembles that insect that I have little doubt of its- 
generic connection with Mr. Pascoe's insects. But if I am 



270 

Tight in this it is evident that Mr. Pascoe had not seen the 
male, the sexual characters of which are inconsistent with its 
being placed in the same family even as Phaleria (according to 
M. Lacodaire's system). In describing as a Scymena therefore 
the following species it will be necessary to premise that its 
antenna) are quite as long as the width of the head, that its 
maxillary palpi have the apical joint subsecuriform, that the 
metasternum is evidently shorter than that of Phaleria^ that 
the elytra are ciliated round the lateral margins, and that in 
the male the anterior and intermediate tarsi are strongly 
dilated, while in the female the external margin of the anterior 
tibia is strongly and roundly dilated at the apex. These 
•characters in conjunction with the quadrate emargination of 
the clypeus would place the insect in the subfamily JPeclinidce 
of M. Lacodaire, which up to the present time I believe has 
had no described Australian representative. It is of course 
qviitQ possible that it may not be congeneric with Mr. Pascoe's 
Scymena, but under all the circumstances I think it is better 
not to propose a new name. 

.8. Australis, sp. no v. Sat nitida, ferruginea, labro nigro ; 
elytris striatis, striis fortiter, interstitiis vix evidenter, 
punctulatis. Long. 3 1. 

The colour is pale ferruginous, in some parts (generally the 
head and scuteHum) inclining to rufous. The labrum is black. 
On the underside there is a good deal of reddish colouring down 
the centre, and the coxae are almost fuscous red in some ex- 
amples, in some examples the metasternum being conspicu- 
ously pallid. The head and prothorax are faintly and mod- 
erately closely, but not very finely, punctured. The latter is 
(across the base) quite twice as wide as it is long down the 
middle. The scutellum is strongly transverse and triangular 
in shape. The elytra are striated, not very deeply, each stria 
containing a row of closely-set strong punctures. Under a 
good Coddington lens the interstices show faint indications 
of fine puncturation ; the two or three nearest to the suture 
are slightly convex, the rest almost perfectly flat. The 
external margin of all the tibiae is ciliated and obscurely den- 
ticulate. 

Several specimens (only one of them a male) occurred to me 
under marine rejectamenta at Port Lincoln. 

Differs from both the previously described species of 
Scymena in the greater length of its antennae. Probably the 
difference in this respect from S. amphibia, Pasc, is not very 
marked, but that insect is said to have " sulcate punctate " 
-elytra. 



271 

C^DIUS. 

C Lindi, sp. nov. Breviter ovatus ; ater, aatennarum apice 
tarsisque rufis ; capite prothoraceque granulatis ; elytris 
obscure rugosis, sparsim subtiliter confuse granulatis, 
punctulato-striatis, interstitiis latis planis. Long. 2^ — 
2fl. 

This species appears to be closely allied to G. splimroides, 
which was described a.d. 184^2 by the Eev. F. "W". Hope, on 
specimens from Adelaide. Unfortunately, Mr. Hope's descrip- 
tion is very brief, consisting of 23 words. In 1859 M. Lacordaire 
incidentally supplied a somewhat fuller, though not a formal 
and detailed description. I think I have identified the insect, 
although if so Mr. Hope's characters are not perfectly exact 
even as far as they go, and on that account I abstain from fur- 
nishing a detailed description of what I take to be C. sphcsroides. 
I may just observe, however, that it differs from the descrip- 
tion in being of a pitchy colour rather than " black," in having 
the elytra minutely covered with fine dust-like brownish scales 
(which might have been rubbed off in the type), and in having 
the thorax not punctulate but granulate when carefully 
examined — a character, however, which is not very noticeable, 
except under a very strong lens. It is the only Ccsdius that 
has come under my notice as occurring near Adelaide. I think 
there is a doubt as to the identity of the specimen or specimens 
M. Lacordaire examined with the type, as the learned French 
author says it is as large as an average- sized Opatrum., whereas 
Mr. Hope gives 2.\ 1. as the size, which would be much smaller. 

The species I have described above is certainly distinct. Its 
colour is deep black, excepting the tarsi, the mouth organs, and 
the antennae, which are reddish, especially the apical joint of 
the last named. The thorax is considerably more than twice 
as wide as long ; it is strongly emarginate in front and nar- 
rowly but distinctly lobed in the middle behind ; its lateral 
margin is broadly thickened, and it is arcuately widened from 
the front nearly to the base, and thence briefly narrowed. The 
elytra are feebly striated, the striae set with rather large but 
feeble punctures, the interstices flat. Under a powerful lens 
the interstices are seen to be set with small, and very small, 
tubercles or granules confusedly mixed together. The anterior 
tibiae are triangularly dilated, at the apex externally ; there is 
a well-defined tooth on the external margin just above the 
middle, above which the margin is obscurely serrate, and in 
some specimens (occasionally on one tibia only) an additional 
tooth just above the apical dilatation. The intermediate and 
posterior tibiae are denticulate, and spined on the external 
margin. 



272 

This species differs from C. sphcdroides as described by Mr. 
Hope in respect of its granular protborax and non-pilose 
elytra. It differs from the insect that I suppose to be- 
C. sphceroides, inter alia, by its larger size, deep black colour,, 
non-pilose elytra — (it is just possible that the few examples I 
have seen were abraded) — and especially by the wide flat 
interstices of the striae on the elytra. 

Port Lincoln, in sandy places. Eare. 

CiEDiOMOEPHA, gen. nov. 
Antennarum articulus IP' 10° minor; prothorax basi baud 
bisinuatus, marginibus lateralibus latis ; tibiae intermediae^ 
et posteriores externe denticulatae ; metasternum brevis- 
simum ; corpus suborbiculare. 
In other respects I do not observe any difference in the 
characters from those of Ccedius as given by M. Lacordaire in 
the " Genera des Coleopteres." The orbicular shape and the- 
very short metasternum are the most striking features. From 
Solas (which is not known to me, except by description) this 
genus may be at once distinguished by the strong anterior tri- 
angular emargination of the clypeus, by the presence of a 
distinct (though small) scutellum, by the posterior four tibiae- 
not being " simple," and by the form of the antennae. 
C. australis, sp. nov. Piceo-nigra ; antennis, palpis, elytrorum 
marginibus et pedibus piceo-rufis ; capite prothoraceque 
crasse squamose nee crebre punctulatis ; elytris obscure 
striatis, striis crasse, interstitiis fortiter crebrius rugose^ 
punctulatis ; subtus crasse crebrius punctulata. 
This insect is sparingly beset with very short and but little 
noticeable hair-like scales of a pale colour, which are a little- 
condensed about the sides of the prothorax ; the prothorax and 
elytra are both ciliated with rather long hairs. The sculpture- 
of the elytra is very peculiar. The entire surface (rather than 
the interstices as such) is pretty closely covered with strong- 
coarse puncturation ; on this a fairly-defined system of striae- 
seems to be added, with their own serial punctures, which are 
evidently larger than (though somewhat mixed up with) the 
punctures of the general surface. The anterior tibiae are very 
strongly and triangularly dilated from the base to the apex, 
the width across the apex being quite half the length. The 
external margin above the middle is cut into teeth varying in 
size and number from one large tooth to four or five small 
ones. The intermediate tibiae are rather strongly, the hind 
tibiae more finely, denticulate externally. The underside of 
the tarsi resembles the same in Ccedius. The general form re- 
sembles that of Cytilus. 
Widely distributed in South Australia. 



273 

PLATXDEMA. 

P. fosmlata, sp. nov. Eotuudato-ovalis ; sat convexa ; sub- 
nitida ; supra nigra ; clypeo antice, autennis, palpis, et 
elytrorum singulorum maculis duabus, testaceo-rufis ; 
subtus briinneo-testacea ; pedibus testaceis ; capite postice 
profunde (maris ?), leviter (feminae ?) concavo. Long. 2 1., 
lat. \\ 1. 
The bead and protborax are moderately strongly, and not 
very closely, punctured. The width o£ the protborax at its 
base is more than twice its length down the middle, and nearly 
twice the width of its front margin ; the front margin is almost 
truncate, the base strongly bisinuate, the sides arcuately 
narrowed from base to front ; the hind corners are rectangular 
and there is a well defined elongate longitudinal fovea on either 
side at the base half-way between the middle and the hind 
angles. The elytra are quite strongly striated, the striae rather 
finely and closely punctured ; the interstices are wide and 
gently convex (more sharply so towards the sides and apex) 
and are evenly, very finely, and not closely punctured. The 
red markings consist of a small ill-defined patch at the humeral 
angle and an irregular wide stripe on the lateral margin com- 
mencing a little behind the middle and extending to the apex. 
The portion of the head between the eyes is occupied in one of 
my specimens by a very deep, somewhat semicircular excavation, 
the sides of which form on either side a strong convex ridge 
between it and the eye, in the other specimen by a wide shallow 
depression. 

This species would appear to be somewhat allied to 
P. limacella, Pasc, and to differ from it, inter alia, in the mark- 
ings of the protborax and elytra, in the absence of depression 
on the part of the protborax near the scutellum, in the 
presence of longitudinal foveae at the base of the protborax, 
and in the characters of the head in the male (supposing, and 
I think there is no doubt, that one at least of my specimens is 
a male). The elougated basal joint of the hind tarsi, the 
antennae much longer than the protborax, the complete epi- 
pleural fold of the elytra, &c., distinguish it from HoplocepliaJa, 
which in some respects it resembles. 

Port Lincoln. In a rotten trunk of Casuarina. 

MESOTEETIS. 
M. ferrugineus, Bates (var. ?). Among a number of Coleoptera 
sent to me from Western Australia last year by E. Meyrick, 
Esq., I. find a single example appertaining to this genus which 
I think is probably a variety of the above species. It differs, 
bowever, in some particulars that it seems desirable to place on 
record. The blackish markings mentioned by Mr. Bates are 



274 

entirely absent ; the puncturation of the underside, while finer 
and closer than that o£ the upper surface, is more evenly dis- 
tributed than I should judge from the description that it is in 
Mr. Bates' insect, and the hinder angles of the thorax, instead 
of being obtuse, are exactly right angles, and owing to a very 
faint sinuation of the sides immediately in front of them ap- 
pear to be slightly directed obliquely outwards. It is quite 
possible that this may be a distinct, very closely allied species, 
but nevertheless the differences are not, I think, inconsistent 
with the possibility of specific identity. 

ULOMOiDES, gen. nov. 
Antennae subfiliformes ; oculi prominentes ; tarsi simplices. 

Mentum rounded iu front, a strongly elevated keel down its 
middle ; apical joint of the labial palpi sub-securiform, of the 
maxillary large and moderately securiform ; mandibles bifid at 
the extremity ; labrum transverse, emarginate in front ; 
epistoma bent down in front, very rapidly widened backwards, 
the suture obsolete ; antennary orbits moderate, not produced 
laterally so much as the eyes ; antennae nearly as long as the 
head and thorax together ; joints two to four, narrow, not 
transverse, three nearly equal to two and four together, five to 
teu about equal in width, but gradually shortening till nine 
and ten are moderately transverse, eleven of same width, but 
longer ; femora very little narrowed at base ; tibiae not den- 
ticulate, tarsi hairy beneath, moderately slender, basal joint 
of posterior pair equal to the next two together, apical joint of 
all moderately elongate ; general form depressed. Trochantins 
of intermedia.te coxae not visible. 

The above-mentioned characters will differentiate this from 
all other described genera. It differs from most of the Ulomidcs 
in having somewhat elongate antennae, and eyes more prominent 
than the antennary orbits, in which respects it resembles 
Jlesotretis, but differs from that genus in respect of its slender 
simple tarsi and antennae devoid of a club. 

JJ. hmneralis, sp. nov. Subparailelus ; sat depressus ; minus 
nitidus ; ferrugineus, capite postice, elytris (humeris 
exceptis) abdomineque picescentibus; capite prothoraceque 
confertim subtiliter punctatis ; elytris leviter striatis ; 
striis fortiter, interstitiis planis subtilius, punctulatis. 
Long. 2 1. 

The prosternum is finely and very closely punctured, except 
its intercoxal process, which slopes downward somewhat behind 
the coxae, and then is turned up at the apex ; the metasternum 
and hind body are finely and rather closely punctured in the 
middle, very sparingly and very strongly at the sides. The last 



275 

two ventral sutures are (as in Alphitohius) excessively strong] j 
impressed and angulated at the sides, the fourth being much 
shorter than the third or fifth. On the upper surface the punc- 
turation (as compared with that of Alphitohius piceiis, 01.) is 
very much finer and closer on the head and thorax, while the 
•elytra are more distinctly punctate-striate, w^ith the interstices 
much more finely and about equally closely punctured. There 
is a fairly well defined longitudinal fovea at the base of the 
thorax on either side. 

A few specimens occurred under the bark of drift logs after a 
flood in the Torrens. 

LiXDiA, gen. nov. 
Antennae clavat^e, clava 4-articulata ; oculi sat prominentes ; 
tarsi simplices ; corpus cylmdricum. 

Mentum truncate in front, not keeled, apical joint of labial 
palpi ovate, of maxillary elongate oblong ; mandibles bifid at 
:apex ; labrum transverse, at apex slightly emarginate and 
ciliated ; epistoma scarcely emarginate in front, rapidly 
widened backwards, its suture obsolete ; antennary orbits 
produced laterally as much as the eyes , antennae as long as the 
head and thorax together, joints one and two short, three equal 
to the preceding two, four shorter, five to seven gradually in- 
creasing in width and length, eight to eleven forming a rather 
strong club nearly as long as all the preceding together, eight 
to ten strongly transverse, eleven narrower, roundly trans- 
verse ; femora very little narrowed at base ; tibiae not denticu- 
late ; tarsi moderately slender, hairj^ beneath, apical joint 
nearly equal to all the preceding together, basal joint of pos- 
terior pair equal to the next two together ; trochantins of 
intermediate coxae not visible ; general form cylindrical, re- 
sembling Sypoji'hlcBUs. 

The little insect for which I found this genus is, I think, 
closely allied to Si/pophlcBus, differing from it chiefly by its 
even narrower form, distinctly four-jointed antennal club, less 
prominent eyes as compared with the antennary orbits, com- 
paratively longer basal joint of the hind tarsi, and more deeply- 
impressed sutures between the apical ventral segments. The 
apical part of the pygidium (but not so much of it as in 
ILypopMcBus) is exposed. 

Zi. angusta, sp. nov. Minus nitida ; cylindrica ; ferruginea, 
capite prothoraceque obscurioribus : confertim subtiliter 
punctata ; prothorace quam latiore paullo longiore ; 
elytris sparsim transversim rugatis. 

There is a tendency in the puncturation of the head and 
thorax to become longitudinally confluent ; that of the elytra 



276 

is evenly distributed and not at all inclined to linear arrange- 
ment, although the elj'-tra present some obscure indications of 
longitudinal striation ; the transverse wrinkles on the same are 
very noticeable. The tibiae are very like those o£ Hypoplilcsus, 
but the anterior pair are a little more dilated towards the apex, 
with the margins a little more sinnated, and the inner apex of 
all the tibicT is briefly spined as in Alphitohius. 

A few sj^eciineus have occurred to me under bark of 
JEucalt/2)tus, near Port Lincoln. 

TOxicrM. 
T. curvicorne, sp. nov. Nigrum opacum ; cornibus capitis sat 
elongatis ; prothoracis apice leviter lobato ; antennarum 
clava quadri-articulata. Long. 5 1. 

The thorax is about one-fifth wider at the base than long ; it 
is distinctly though not strongly lobed in front ; the sides are 
nearly straight, and are parallel to each other ; the posterior 
angles are sharply rectangular, the anterior roundly obtuse 
and little prominent ; just within the posterior angles on either 
side is a rather short and ill-defined longitudinal fovea ; the 
surface is feebly and sparingly, but distinctly, punctured. The 
elytra are striated, the stride becoming better defined as they 
recede from the base and the suture. Each stria is set with 
moderately large and strong punctures, about 50 punctures in 
each of the striae near the suture, a smaller number in the 
external ones. In the male the entire upper surface of the 
head is flattened, or rather very slightly concave, and is 
punctured somewhat similarly to the thorax, except that the 
punctures are quite sparse in front and become gradually 
closer backwards. The anterior pair of horns are about as 
long as the apical joint of the maxillary palpi and are inclined 
outward and forward. The length of the posterior horns is 
about the same as the length of the head. They are strongly 
compressed, their wide faces turned towards each other. They 
are strongly arcuate (their cojivexity on the outside) and 
nearly meet at their apices, which are clothed with yellow hair. 
In the female the upper surface of the head is flattened, some- 
what uneven, and rather closely punctured, with two slight 
ridges where the posterior horns take their rise in the male. 

I have a single pair of this insect, which were sent to me 
from Victoria. 

T. sjyretinn sp. nov. Xigrum ; femoribus et autennarum 
articulo apicali rufescentibus ; nitidum ; cornibus capitis 
minus elongatis ; prothorace transverse ; elytris punctu- 
lato-striatis, interstitiis convexis ; antennarum clava 
quadri-articulata. Long. 4i 1. 



277 

Thorax at its base about balf as wide again as its lengtli 
down tbe middle, sligbtly lobed in front, widest just behind 
the front, thence ver}^ slightly (scarcely noticeably) narrowed 
backward, its base moderately lobed and on either side 
foveated, its hind corners rectangular and the front ones 
rounded off, its surface covered with moderately close and 
lightly impressed but not particularly fine puncturation. The 
punctures in the striae on the elytra are rather large (a little 
larger than in the preceding species) and somewhat square ; 
the interstices of the striae are distinctly convex (several near 
the middle of the disc being almost keel-like) and are smooth 
and shining. In the male the surface of the head is concave — 
as usual in the genus ; the anterior horns differ little from 
those of the preceding species ; the posterior horns are a little 
shorter than the length of the head, compressed ; they are only 
gently arcuate, and their apices (which are clothed with yellow 
hairs) are as wide apart as their bases. 

T. gracile, Pasc, is the only previously described xlustralian 
Toxicum of a shining appearance, and having an antennal club 
of four joints. This insect differs from it in having the elytra 
not wider behind than in front, the thorax scarcely narrowed 
hind wards, and (I should judge from the not very precise des- 
.cription) in the finer puncturation of its elytra and the convex 
interstices of the same. 

There is a single specimen in the South Australian Museum, 
labelled as having been taken in New South Wales. 

PTEEOHELJEUS. 

p. insignis, sp. nov. Parum nitidus ; depressus ; niger ; an- 
tennis palpis pedibusque picescentibus ; capite rugose 
crebrius, prothorace sparsim obsolete, punctatis ; hoc 
elytris latiori ; elytris transversim rugatis, granalatis, 
jDunctulato-striatis, striis nonnullis j^rofundioribus, sutur-i 
(apicem versus excepta) prominula, apice dehiscente. 
Long. 9 1. Lat 4 1. 
Eather elongate and very depressed. Quite black, except 
the limbs, which are a little piceous. The surface of the head 
^and prothorax is rendered opaque by excessively minute punc- 
turation, and has also larger puncturation which on the former 
is rugose, but not strong nor very close, on the latter faint 
iind sparse. The thorax is widest a little in front of the base 
(where it is twice and a half as wide as its length down the 
middle), moderately emarginate in front, the anterior angles 
not passing the front of the eyes and the distance between 
their apices being half the width of the thorax at its widest 
part ; the dorsal line is scarcely indicated ; the explanate mar- 
gins are quite flat, very little narrowed forwards, and together 



278 

iiot quite half as wide as the space between them. The elytra 
are very slightly, but continuously, narrowed from the base in 
their anterior two-thirds and then rounded off to their apex ; 
their surface strongly scored all over with short transverse 
impressions, punctured in 17 rows, the second, fourth, sixth, 
eighth, tenth, and twelfth rows of punctures in rather deep 
stricT, the rest not in stride ; tbe interstices flat ; the explanate 
margin quite narrow, about a third the width of that of the 
prothorax, and not narrowed behind. The elytra are finely 
and sparingly granulate about the sides and apex. The suture 
is distinctly elevated to the beginning of the declivous apical 
portion, which slopes downward more strongly (but still quite 
gently) at its commencement than behind, so that looked at 
from the side the longitudinal outline appears sinuate behind. 
Each elytron is separately pointed at the apex, leaving a wide 
deep gap between the two apices. (It is just possible that this 
is abnormal.) The eyes are only moderately separated. The 
prosternum in my specimen is broken at the end, so I cannot 
characterize it. The tarsi are ferruginous beneath. 

Eoseworthy. 

P. granulatus, Germ. Plentiful in many places near Ade- 
laide. It has a kind of purplish bloom upon it that has nat 
been noticed by its describers. The size varies from five to 
seven lines. 

P. irisfis, Germ. In Mr. Macleay's Monograph (Proc. Linn. 
Soc, jy-iS-W.) there is an error in the translation of Germar's 
Latin description of this South Australian species which might 
render the identification of the insect more difficult than it is, 
to persons not possessing Germar's memoir. The learned 
German says of the thorax, " densely and very finely punctate, 
with somewliat larger jnmctures interspersed,''' not (as Mr. 
Macleay has accidentally rendered the words I have italicised) 
" the punctures rather large and scattered." It is obviously a 
slip of the pen on Mr. Macleay's part, as wbat he has written 
turns the sentence into nonsense. The original description is- 
a very inferior one, so that it is impossible to be quite sure 
what insect its author had before him ; but there is a species in 
the South Australian Museum which I believe to be identical 
with it.* I supply the following particulars concerning it, which 
(important though they are) are not referred to by Germar. 

Perm narrow, elongate, parallel, and rather depressed (Long. 
8i 1. Lat. 4f 1.) Thorax at base twice and a half its length 
down the middle and twice the distance between the apices of 
the front angles which just pass the front margins of the eyes. 
Explanate margins of thorax together decidedly less tban half 

* Since this was written tbe Hon. W. Macleay has confirmed the identifi- 
cation. 



279 

as wide as tlie intermediate space. Explanate inargius of 
elytra very narrow (less tlian half the width of those of the 
thorax) and of even width throughout. Thorax very evidently 
narrower than the elytra. Curve of the prosternum not uni- 
form, the hinder part of the prosternal process being less 
declivous than it should be to continue the curve. If I am 
right in my identification of this insect the transverse stri- 
gosity of the explanate margin of the thorax is hardly notice- 
able in ordinary specimens. 

P. ater, sp. nov. Ovalis ; sat nitidus ; ater, tarsis piceis ; 
capite fortius rugose, prothorace minus subtiliter crebrius, 
punctulatis ; hujus marginibus explanatits recurvis ; elytris 
suturam et latera versus confuse, disco seriatim, fortius 
punctulatis. Long. 61., lat. 3f 1. 
The puncturation of the head is exceptionally strong and 
rugose. On the thorax there is a system of very fine close 
puncturation (hardly distinct under a Coddington lens), and 
also a system of much more sparing and much larger but very 
lightly-impressed punctures, not unlike those on the thorax of 
P. nitidissimus, Pasc. The width of the thorax at the base is 
three times its length down the middle, and nearly three times 
the distance between the apices of the anterior angles, which, 
reach quite fully half way to the front of the head ; the ex- 
planate lateral margins are very even in width, together are 
about equal to a third of the intervening space, and are rather 
strongly turned up at the side (especially in their anterior 
part); the base is rather strongly bisinuate. There is scarcely 
any trace of a central longitudinal impression, but the base has 
a well-marked shallow fovea on either side. The elytra are 
quite strongly punctured, the punctures forming about nin^e 
well-defined longitudinal rows on the disc, outside w^hich, on 
either side, there is no serial arrangement ; the whole punctura- 
tion becomes gradually finer from the base to the apex, where 
it is almost obsolete and quite confused. The explanate lateral 
margins of the elytra are nearly as wide at the extreme front 
as those of the thorax, but are gradually narrowed to the apex. 
The humeral angles are quite obtuse, the humeral callus dis- 
tinct but not very strong. On the underside the arch of the 
prosternum is continuous. 

This species must be near P. vicarius, Pasc, which, however, 
is said to have the explanate margins of the thorax not recurved 
and the antennae " short," with the seriate puncturation of the 
elytra interrupted only about the base and near the suture, in 
all which respects it differs from the subject of the above des- 
cription. 

Two specimens of this insect occurred to me in "Western 
Yictoria. 



280 

P. piceus, Kirby. lu his mouoo;rapli of tlie genus Mr. 
Macleay says of tliis species — " I have specimens of it, or 
closely resembling it, from all parts of N.S. Wales, from 
S. Australia, and from Queensland," thus indicating his 
opinion that it is a somewhat variable species, and a doubt 
whether more than one species may not be included under the 
name. I think I have, and have seen, a good many specimens 
attributable to Ivirby's species, and agree with jNIr. Macleay 
both in his opinion and his doubt. The form that, so far as I 
have seen, alone occurs in S. Australia would not be at once 
recognised as identical with that described by Mr. Macleay, 
although it agrees well enough with Ivirby's original descrip- 
tion, to which Mr. Macleay has very properly added certain 
particulars that distinguish what he considers, I believe rightly, 
to be Kirby's iusect, from allied species since described. It 
will be of importance, therefore, to S. Australian students to 
supplement Mr. Macleay's description by saying that Kirby's 
expression, ''very lightly punctured," in respect of the head 
and thorax, would be more applicable to S. Australian speci- 
mens than Mr. Macleay's "scarcely visibly punctured" in 
respect of the former, and "smooth" in respect of the latter. 
I have seen no specimens from this colony in which the punc- 
turation is not quite traceable with a fairly-good lens, and very 
few in which it is not, though very lightly impressed (as Kirby 
calls it), nevertheless very distinct. In South Australian 
specimens, moreover, there is generally a tendency in the 
fourth, eighth, twelfth, and sixteenth interstices on the elytra 
to be slightly more evident than the rest ; and Mr. Macleay's 
expression, " last joint of the antennae red," is a little mis- 
leading, for though it is true that this joint is as a rule more 
decidedly red than the rest, yet the last three or four joints, 
and sometimes the whole antennae, show a decided tendency 
towards a reddish colour. Some specimens are in a varying 
degree much larger (up to 11^1.), narrower, and more parallel 
than others from which they do not seem to differ otherwise. 
I take this to be a sexual difference similar to that noted by 
Mr. Pascoe in his P. dispar. 

P. planus, Blessig. Concerning this species, Mr. Macleay 
merely remarks that he has never seen a description of it. As 
I have a copy of Blessig's memoir it will be well to supply the 
following abbreviated translation of his description. 

" Oblong oval, sub-depressed, pitchy, head punctured, pro- 
duced on the sides, apical four joints of the antennae dilated ; 
margin of the thorax and of the elytra dilated, obscurely red, 
impunctate ; thorax transverse very finely punctured ; elytra 
closely striate-punctate, interstices flat. Long. 16*5 mm., lat. 
8-5 mm." 



281 

" Very near P. peltatus in build and colour, but twice as 
large and somewhat flatter. Clypeus finely punctured ; fore- 
.head wide between the eyes, more strongly and dispersedly 
punctured than the clypeus. Antennas reddish. Thorax widest 
at base and here fully twice as wide as long, in front strongly 
emarginate, behind gently bisinuate, very convex and extremely 
finely and dispersedly punctured, the explanate margin wide, 
flat but turned up at the edge (flachrinnenformig), dark red, 
smooth. Elytra not quite a half longer than wide, very little 
convex, sometimes reddish; the rows of punctures close 
together (especially near the suture) and becoming obsolete 
near the apex, their interstices flat; the explanate margin 
nearly as wide as that of the thorax, gradually narrowed 
towards the apex, quite flat at the base. Collected in the 
neighbourhood of Melbourne." 

For the sake of brevity I have omitted those parts of the 
description which would not differentiate the insect from 
others of the genus. It is very probable that Mr. Macleay's 
P. peltoides is another name for M. Blessig's species, and must 
therefore be dropped. 

I possess specimens of a JPterolielceus from Melbourne, that 
I believe to be identical with the above, although there is a 
discrepancy in the width of the elytral margin, which only at 
the extreme base nearly equals that of the prothorax, being 
contracted very quicklj^, thence continuing somewha-t evenly 
(about half the width of the thoracic margin) to near the apex 
and then gradually narrowing to the end. 

P. ovalis, sp. nov. Sat nitidus ; ovalis ; piceus, antennis, palpis, 

pedibus et prosterno dilutioribus ; capite sparsius, pro- 

thorace sparsissime, obscure punctulatis ; elytris fortius 

seriatim punctulatis ; his prothoraceque sat late marginatis. 

Long. 5 1., lat. 3 1. 

A remarkably oval form, the lateral outline of the thorax 

and elytra being an almost continuous curve, slightly sinuate 

just behind the shoulder and scarcely more so at the junction 

of the thorax and elytra. Owing to its thinness the explanate 

margin (as in many other species) has a transparent reddisb 

appearance. The head and prothorax are faintly and sparingly, 

but not very finely, punctate ; the latter is at the base three 

times as wide as its length down the middle, rather strongly 

emarginate in front (tbe anterior angles passing the eyes), 

moderately bisinuate behind, with the dorsal line a little more 

evident than usual in the genus, the explanate margins evenly 

wide throughout their length (the two together being quite 

half as wide as the space between them) and not concave nor 

horizontal but sloping outward and slightly downward. Each 



282 

elytron bears 17 rows of strong well-defined punctures, which 
are a little confused near the scutelluui and become faint near 
the apex (the fifth row contains rather more than 40 punctures 
which retain their distinct seriate order almost to the extreme 
apex) ; the interstices are flat, or A^ery nearly so ; the explanate 
margin is as wide at the extreme base as that of the prothorax, 
but immediately is very much contracted ; it is then very 
gradiiallif, but not very evenly, contracted half w^ay to the apex 
and from that point runs evenly without more contraction, and 
about one-third as wide as the explanate margin of the pro- 
thorax, to the end. The curve of the prosternum is not quite 
continuous, owing to the hinder end (behind the coxse) being 
not so much sloping down as it would have to be to continue 
the curve evenly. 
Streaky Bay. 

HYPAULAX. 

H. orcus, Pasc. I have specimens that appear undoubtedly 
to belong to this species (hitherto recorded only from AYestern 
Australia) which were taken at Eowler's Bay and Wallaroo. 

TE^^EBEIO. 

T. Australls, Boisd. The description of this insect consists 
of eleven words, and might apply to a considerable number of 
Tenehrionidce, M. Blessig in 1861 re-described it in a Eussian 
scientific paper. He does not state on what grounds he con- 
sidered his insect identical with Dr. Boisduval's, but as there 
is no improbability in its being so, and as he furnishes a very 
good description, his correctness should be assumed in the 
absence of evidence to the contrary. As he says, the species 
he describes (like others Boisduval attributed to the genus) is 
certainly not a true Tenehrio. It appears, however, to belong 
to the allied genus 3[eneristes, very briefly characterised by 
Mr. Pascoe in the Annals of Nat. Hist., 1869, and is, I think, 
jDrobably the species he names M. laticoJIis, Boisd. — at least I 
have the following reason for thinking so : — Mr. Pascoe states 
that his description is founded on a specimen received from 
Dr. Howitt (of Melbourne) as JBarysceJis laticolUs, Boisd. 
IN'ow, I have in my own collection a specimen bearing that 
name on the same authority, which is certainly the species M. 
Blessig describes as Tenehrio Australis, Boisd. Singularly- 
enough Mr. Pascoe states that there is a specimen of the same 
insect in the British Museum labelled Tenehrio Australis, 
McLeay (under which name Boisduval described the insect 
that is known as T. Australis, Boisd.). It seems probable that 
the explanation of this tangle is to be found in the identity of 
T. Australis, Boisd., and B. JaticoUis, Boisd., the descriptions 



283 

of wLicli present no satisfactory difference from eacli otlier;, 
and might very possibly have been founded on a mature and 
an immature specimen of tbe same species. That Dr. Bois- 
daval committed sucli errors is well known, as witness M- 
Lacordaire's note (Gren. des Coleopteres, v. p. 414) that' 
FochycoeJia siilcicollis, Boisd., and Ilelops sidGicollis, Boisd. 
(described separately, 20 pages apart, in the Yoy. de- 
I'Astrolabe) are the same insect. As M. Blessig was the first 
to furnish a satisfactory description of this insect, I think that 
if my suggested explanation be accepted, his name should 
stand and that the insect should henceforth be known as- 
Meneristes Australis, Boisd. I may add that M. Blessig 
(without giving a new generic name) furnishes excellent 
characters to distinguish Ileneristes from Tenehrio and- 
IlenepTiilus. 

MELANDYEID.^. 
TEMNOPALPUS, gen. nov. 
Antennae ll-articulat?e, leviter clavata?, clava 5 articulata ;; 
palporum maxiUarium articuli 1-3 serrati, articulus 4"^ 
magnus, cultriformis ; caput sat declive ; tarsorum ungues 
simplices ; cox?e anteriores contigu?e prominulse. 
The above mentioned characters will differentiate this genus 
from the rest of the family. The following particulars, how- 
ever, should be added : — Labrum sub-truncate in front ; apical 
joint of maxillary palpi nearly equal in length to all the pre- 
ceding together ; mandibles deeply bifid at apex ; eyes entire ; 
penultimate joint of tarsi sub-bilobed, the basal and apical 
joint of all nearly equal to each other, the intermediate joints 
together being a little shorter in the hind, a little longer in 
the front and intermediate tarsi than either the basal or apical 
joint. The marginal line of the prothorax is excessively 
slender. 

T. licolor, sp. nov. Minus elongatus ; pubescens ; fortius nee 
crebre punctulatus ; niger ; capite subtus in medio, labro, 
oris membris, mandibulis basi, prothorace, et pedibus 
(femoribus intermediis et posticis exceptis) rufis ; pro-^ 
thorace lateribus rotundato, antice posticeque subtruncato. 
Long. 1|1. 
The antennse are equal in length to the head and prothorax 
together. The basal joint is globular and rather large ; joints two 
to six do not differ much among themselves in size (3 being how- 
ever the longest) but are all shorter and considerably narrower 
than the basal joint ; the length of none of them except 3 is 
greater than the width ; joints seven to ten are all moderately 
transverse, equal among themselves, and moderately wider than. 



284 

the preceding five joints ; the apical joint is of equal width but 
longer and pointed at the extremity. The head and prothorax 
ure covered moderately closely with rather large punctures ; 
the punctures on the elytra are a little smaller and about 
equally close. 

Compared with Conopalpus hrevicollis, Kraatz, to which the 
insect bears a certain superficial resemblance, besides the dif- 
ferences in the antennae, palpi, &c., indicated in the generic 
•diagnosis above, the thorax is less transverse (being a little 
more than half again as wide as long), much more rounded at 
the sides, and more coarsely punctured ; the head is much less 
bent down ; the elytra are very similarly punctured; the whole 
insect is also very much smaller. There are some traces of a 
•central longitudinal keel, and some discal farrows ou the 
thorax which are sufficiently irregular to suggest the idea of 
their being abnormal. 

This is a very interesting addition to the Australian fauna. 
Hitherto no member of the family has been noticed as Aus- 
tralian except the Queensland Orchesia elongata, Macl., which 
is about as different from T. hicolor as one species can be from 
another within the limits of the same family. 

A single specimen occurred near Port Lincoln. I have no 
record of the particulars of its capture. 

LONGICORNES. 
ATESTA. 

A. Anqasi, Pascoe. Ihis seems to be a very variable insect. 
In a series before me that appear specifically indistinguishable 
the size varies from 51. to 91., and the apex of the elytra 
Taries from being nearly quite rounded to being distinctly 
truncate or even emarginate (without either apex of the emar- 
gination being spined, however). In some specimens only the 
apex of the pale spot on the elytra is present, so that there ap- 
pears to be merely a very small spot placed behind the middle 
of the elytra. In some specimens, too, the thoracic punctura- 
tion is very sparing, or even almost obsolete, and the tubercles 
are very ill-defined ; in some the base and apex of the elytra 
are rufescent. In the males the hind tibiae are a little arched. 
The third joint only of the antennae carries a defined spine, 
A. Tafei, sp. nov. Subangusta ; nitida ; sparse pubescens ; 
piceo-nigra ; antennis palpis pedibusque ferrugineis ; 
prothorace transverso, subhTvigato, iuaequali ; elytris (basi 
fortiter, apicem versus gradatim subtilius) punctulatis, 
flavo-maculatis, apice unispinosis ; antennarum articulo 
tertio obsolete spinoso. Long. O^- — IIIL 
Black, with a slightly ^^itchy tone ; the antennae palpi and 



285 

legs rusty (one example has the basal joint of the antennae 
pitchy). There is a yellow spot about the centre of each 
elytron. In one of my specimens it is large and obscurely 
continued to the margin, and there is a distinct yellow spot at 
the apex ; in the other it is very small, and the apex is only 
reddish ; the mandibles are a little reddish at the base. The 
puncturation of the head is large, rough, and ill-defined in 
front, close and strong behind. The thorax is very shining and 
almost smooth (having only a few large isolated punctures),, 
except on the sides, where the puncturation is closer and 
coarse ; its surface is uneven with ill-defined smooth swellings, 
and there is a smooth rounded tubercle about the middle of the 
lateral margin on either side. The punctures of the elytra are 
large and moderately close, but scarcely rugose, at the base;, 
they become gradually finer and more sparing towards the^ 
apex, but there is no well-marked commencement of their 
change, and they have very little tendency to a linear arrange- 
ment. The third joint of the antennae carries a short spine, the 
other joints are unarmed. In one of my specimens the antennae 
are of the length of the body, in the other shorter. In one of 
my examples the metasternum only, in the other the whole 
under surface, is red. Femora clavale. 

This species is allied to A. Angasi, Pasc, from which it differs 
in its sublaevigate thorax a little wider than long, in the strong 
spine at the sutural apex of the elytra, &c., &c. 

Two specimens were presented to me some time ago by Prof. 
Tate. They were taken at Fowler's Bay. 

COPTOCERCUS. 

C. fraternus, sp. nov. Eobustus ; longe sparsim hirsutus ,- 
niger ; antennis, palpis, pedibusque fuscis ; elytris ante 
medium flavo-notatis, postice crebre breviter pubescentibus 
sparsim fortius punctulatis, apice truncatis. Long. 13 1. 
A robust species, sparingly clothed all over (including the 
legs and antennae) with long erect hairs of the same colour as^ 
the surface from which they spring. The antennae in one of my 
specimens are decidedly, in the other scarcely, shorter than the 
whole length of the insect ; in both specimens joints three to six 
are furnished with external spines decreasing in size — in on& 
joints 7 and 8 also being obscurely spined. The head is 
closely and roughly but rather finely punctured. The general 
surface of the prothorax is closely, irregularly, and very 
coarsely punctured and it bears some impunctate (and conse- 
quently more shining) elevated spaces ; these consist of a 
longitudinal patch in the middle of the disc and a series of 
tubercles running obliquely forward and outward on either 
side from the base to about the middle of the length of the 



286 

-thorax and then beuding round to the front of the discal 
polished space, but they are very irregular, and in one of my 
specimens are almost connected together into ill-defined ridges. 
The prothorax is equally long and wide, somewhat constricted 
a little in front of the middle, all the unevenness of the sur- 
face being behind the constriction ; the sides are distinctly but 
bluntly tuberculate in the middle. The scutellum is densely 
clothed with pale adpressed pubescence. The elytra are about 
four times as long as the prothorax, with, at the base, punc- 
turation very large, coarse and close, w^hich becomes gradually 
less strong and less close backwards, till at the apex it is 
sparing and rather feeble. Each elytron is traversed by 
three costcT (the outermost not well defined) which are strong- 
est at the base and gradually fade away towards the apex ; the 
basal one-third of the surface is shining, the apical two-thirds 
quite opaque owing to being densely clothed with short ad- 
pressed pubescence similar to that on the scutellum. The 
yellowish markings are confined to the anterior non-pubescent 
part of the elytra ; in one of my specimens they consist of two 
irregular fasciae (not reaching the suture or lateral margins) 
placed close together in the hinder half of the non-pubescent 
surface, and in the other are reduced to two small spots placed 
on each elytron close together near the lateral margin. On 
the underside the metasternum and hind body are densely 
clothed with silvery grey pubescence. 

This species is allied to C. pulescens, Pasc, differing from it 
inter alia in its very much larger size, and in the puncturation 
of the elytra being continued (very distinctly indeed) quite to 
the apex. 

I found two specimens of this fine insect under bark of 
Mucali/ptus on Yorke's Peninsula. 

BIMIA. 

JB. J^emoralis, Saund. I should say there is little doubt but 
that this is a variety of JB. hicolor, White, from which it is said 
to differ in having no black mark on the head, a narrow^ in- 
stead of wide one on the prothorax, and the middle femora 
3-ellow instead of black. A short series before me varies in 
all these respects — no two specimens being coloured quite 
alike, and no one of them being coloured quite exactly as either 
of the species named above is said to be, the lightest specimen 
having a narrow blackish line across the head, and the base of 
the intermediate femora hlacJc, the darkest having the apex of 
the intermediate femora yellow. 



287 

PHYTOPHAGA. 
DiPHYLLOCERA (Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc, v. 213). 
This name lias stood now for nearly forty years, but never- 
theless it was pre-occupied, having been used in 18^1 by A. 
"White in G-rey's " Two Jouruies in Australia" for a genus of 
Lamellicornes. White spelt it wrongly, ''Bipliyllocera,'' but his 
spelling was corrected by Erichson (in the following year, I 
believe), who has been followed by subsequent authors. The 
case appears to be a difficult one to adjust, but I think it should 
be done by substituting a new name for the Phytophagous 
genus. Unfortunately, " WestiooocUa " is pre-occupied. I 
suggest, therefore, that the name ^'Joliannica'' be used, associat- 
ing the learned Professor's insect with his Christian name. 



A D D E ]S^ D U M . 

LAMELLICOENES. 
CCELOTHOEAX. 

C. Ohertliueri, Ancey. This insect is attributed in Mr. 
Masters' Catalogue to South Australia. It was described in 
1880 in a Erench magazine called, I believe, Le Naturaliste. 
Having no other means of identifying it, I have recently ap- 
plied to M. Ancey for information, and he has very courteously 
forwarded to me a MS. copy of his description, with the com- 
ment that he has discovered the insect to be identical witb 
Cavonus armafAcs, Sharp, a determination whicb the perusal of 
his description entirely confirms. The name GoeJotliorax 
Olertliueri therefore must take its place as a synonym of 
Cavonus ar mains. 



288 



Notes on and Additions to the Flora of 
Kangaroo Island. 

Bv J. G. O. Teppee, E.L.S. 
[Read November 4, 1886.] 

The "Botany of Kangaroo Island," by Professor E.Tate, 
F.G-.S., &c., was the first work giving an authentic and com- 
prehensive list of the flora of the island (Trans. YI., 116-171). 
This was published in 1883. Various additions have been made 
from time to time and published in the Transactions of the 
Eoy. Soc, S.A. 

The first-named work enumerates 415 species, of which 11 
were considered as peculiar to the island. The additions 
referred to, after rejecting varieties, &c., comprehended 43 
species, thus raising the sum total to 458, and augmenting the 
endemic species to 12. 

The following list adds 70 species, of which four are new to 
science, and several to the province, besides five varieties that 
may be fairly ranked as species. The number is therefore now 
increased to 526 in all. These additional plants were obtained 
through the kind hospitality of Mr. Hy. A. Harpur, then 
manager, now lessee, of Karatta Station, situated on the banks 
of the Stunsailboom Eiver, and about seven miles from its 
mouth. 

The plants peculiar to the island enumerated in the 
"Botany," 1883, were— 

1. Cheirantliera volulilis, Bentham. 

2. JBei'fya rotundifoJia, F. v. M. 

3. LliotzJcya glaherrinia^ F. v. M, 

4. Melaleuca cylindrica, E. Br. 

5. Cryptandra WaterJiotisei, F. v. M. 

6. " Tiahnafurma, F. v. M. 

7. PeiropliUa omdtisecfa, F. v. M. 

8. Selichryswm adenopliorum, F. v. M. 

9. AclinopJiora Tatei, F. v. M. 

10. Fidten(Pa viscidula, Tate. 

11. Hydrocotyle crassinscula, Tate. 

Of these, Xo. 8 has to be withdrawn, as the writer found it in 
January of 1887 near Coonalpyn, in the so-called jS'inety-mile 
Desert. On the other hand, Xanthorrhoea Tateana, F. v. II., 
at first mistaken for X. quadrangidaris, until the writer 
pointed out some of the differences (see Transactions, voL 



289 

VII., p. 52) and remitted specimens of flowers and fruit to the 
great authority, Baron P. v. Mueller, who established its 
specific rank. It is suspected of occurring on the continent 
in various localities, but the doubt appears not yet cleared up. 

From specimens gathered in my last excursion, Baron Sir 
Ferdinand described three species as new, and the additions 
therefore stand thus — 

XantJiorrTiisa Tateana, ~E. y. M. 
Lliofzhya Smeatoniana, P. v. M. 
Hydrocotyle coonocarpa, P. v. M. 
CandoUea Tepperiana, P. v. M. 
These raise the total of the endemic plants of Kangaroo Island 
to 14. 

A considerable number of species have yet to be named by the 
eminent botanist to whom they were submitted, as he has not 
yet had the time to spare required for critical examination, and 
only a few (of which the specific rank is undoubted) have been 
included in the list under the generic term alone, while some 
others, apparently agreeing with Bentham's descriptions in his 
"Plora Australiensis," have been marked by a query in 
brackets. 

A few remarks about soma plants and natural features may 
not be out of place here. 

Under the specific name of Correct speciosa a number of 
varieties are included, which one may well consider are of so 
nearly a specific rank as to deserve it, for, as far as has been 
ascertained by the experiment of cultivation from seed, they 
show no tendency to run into each other. Those observed at 
Kangaroo Island are : — 

Correa speciosa, Andrews, typical form. 
" var., carclinalis. 

" " viridiflora. 

" glabra. 
" jmlchella. 
All which differ considerably in habit, foliage, and size and 
colour of flower, though all agree more or less in structure and 
form of calyx. 

The interesting monotypic Composite AcTinopJiora Taiei was 
found in great profusion and in full flower in the swampy flats 
formed by the river and its meandering tributaries. It is an 
annual, with long fasciculate roots and rather large white- 
rayed flower-heads raised only two to four inches above the 
ground. 

Mt. Taylor, the locality of many interesting species, is an 
isolated hill a few hundred feet above the general surface ; it is 
distant some eight miles in a north-westerly direction from 



290 

Karatta, aud a conspicuous landmark for miles around. It 
consists of the same limestone as the hills forming the coast 
on the south, but superficially entirely unconnected with them. 
The superficial aspect is also strikingly similar to the coast 
hills, including the worn appearance of the stones, the sand 
filling up and levelling fissures and larger inequalities, and 
tlie peculiar assemblage of plants, many of which do not occur 
in the intervening countrj^ so far as I could ascertain. The 
limestone layers appear to be nearly horizontal and rest upon 
granite or granitoid rocks, and its base is surrounded by 
extensive morasses, overgrown most densely by Cladium filuin 
and other gregarious plants and shrubs. Another similar hill, 
Mt. Stockdale, is a mile further south. A few miles to the 
west of it the handsome Boronia Edwardsii was met with plen- 
tifully, and also Cheirantliera vohihilis, the latter long doubt- 
ful as a species. Its flowers much resemble those of C. linearis, 
but its slender stems, twisting spirally round low shrubs or 
sedges, seldom attain 18 inches in length. 

List of Plants Additiois-al to the Plora of Kangaroo 

Island. 

Hibbertia virgata, U. Br. Karatta. 

Cassytha, sp. Karatta. AVitb rougli papillose stems, fruit 
globular, greenish, with dark streaks ; flowers not seen. 
Eare. 

Billardiera scandens, Sm. Karatta. 

Drosera glanduligera, Lehm. Karatta, and creek near Kinch's 
Station. 

Tetratheca, sp. Karatta. Leafless, virgate, flowers solitary, 
pendulous, petals crimson. On poor sandy soil. 

Zygophyllum ammophilum, F. v. M. Coast hills, Karatta. 

Stackhousia spathulata, Sieher. C. Couedie, A. Molineux. 

Ehagodia parabolica, R. Br. Kinch's, Cygnet Eiver. 

Daviesia corymbosa. Smith ; variety mimosoides, B. Br. 
Karatta ; along the banks of the Stunsailboom Eiver, five 
to seven feet high. 

Pulteusea rigida, B. Br. ; var., angustifolia, F. v. 31. On the 
slopes of Mount Taylor. 

PulteUcTa villifera, Sieler{?). Harriet Eiver. 
" prostrata, Bentli (.^) . Queenscliffe. 

Dillwynia hispida, Lindley. Eleanor Eiver. 

Acacia acinacea, Lindley {^). White's Lagoon. 

" \)Te\iio\i^, Bentli {.^) . Coast hills, mouth of Stunsail- 
boom Eiver. 

Acacia saliciua, Lindley. Karatta. 

[Calycothrix, sp. or var., with extremely small, closely ad- 
pressed leaves and rose-coloured petals. Small, erect 



291 

slirubsj of gregarious liabit. High ground west of "Western 

Eiver, very wet in winter.] 
Baeckia diffusa, Sieher. Dudley Peninsula. 
Lhotzkj^a Sineatoniana, F. v. M. Tvaratta. A low shrub on 

moist, swampy ground, very densely branched. 
Xieptospermum erubescens Schauer. Head of S. Western Eiver. 
Melaleuca squamea, LahUl. S. Western River. 

" ericifolia, Smith. Karatta. 

Eucalyptus uncinatus, Turcz. Scrub, west of the Harriet Eiver. 
Cryptandraamara, Lindley. Scrub S.W. of Kinch's, Cygnet Eiver. 
Spyridium pomaderroides, Ueiss {?) Grrassy Creek. 

" coactifolium, JE'. v. M. Scrub W. of Harriet Eiver. 

bifidum, F. v. M. Karatta. 
Hydrocotyle diantha, DeCand. Karatta, on wet, rich river 

flats ; prostrate, very small. 
Hydrocotyle comocarpa, F. v. M. A lowly prostrate plant, on 

moist rich soil. 
Sautalum persicarium, F. v. 31. C. Willoughby {Sorswill). 
Hakea marginata, R. Br. (J). C. Borda. 
Grevillea lavandulacea, Sclileclit. Var. ? Stiff, much branched 

shrubs, about two feet high ; flowers small, usually 

solitary, pale pink ; leaves linear, pungently pointed, 

about half inch long, and of an ashy tint. In the scrub 

near Birchmore's Lagoon. 
Grevillea aspera, R. Br. Variety? Sandy scrub, Karatta. 

Of tree-like habit, two to four feet high, with few erect 

branches; leaves lanceolate, obtuse or pointed; flowers 

not numerous, pale pink. 
■Grevillea pauciflora, B. Br. In dense thickets of mallee on 

limestone coast hills, mouth of Stunsailboom Eiver and on 

the slopes of Mount Taylor. 

(The Grevillea 'paucijiora noticed in Trans., vol. IX., 
p. 115, from " head of S. Western Eiver," should be 
G. aspera., var.). Of G. halmaturina, Tate, flowers 
were procured for the first time. They are very small 
and pale pinkish. 
Isopogon ceratophjdlum, R. Br. Karatta. 
Pimelea glauca, R. Br. Coast hills, Karatta. 
Opercularia ovata, J. IIooJc. Karatta. 
Aster ramulosus, Lalill. C. Willoughby {Sorsioill). 
Helichrysum apiculatum. Be Oand. Coast hills, Karatta. 
Microseris Fosteri, J. Hook. Coast hills, Karatta, and at the 

coast, Queenscliff, but rare and very dwarfed. 
Lobelia rhombif olia, de Yriese. Karatta. Plentifully on burnt 

ground. 
Candollea Tepperiana, F. v. M. Mt. Taylor, in fissures and 

hollows of the limestone filled with sand. 



292 

[Limuantliemum exaltatum, F. v. M. Eiver banks and clay^ 

pans, liigli ground.] 
Veronica Derwentia, Littlejohi. Eavine des Casoars. 
Utricularia dichotoma, Lahill. S. -Western Eiver and Karatta. 

On moist swampy ground. 
Stjplielia lairsuta, F. v. 31. Karatta. A weak plant trailing 
and winding among dense thickets of Leptospermum, &c., 
on tlie banks of swampy rivulets. The same plant occurs- 
also at Square AYaterhole, S.A., where it was discovered by 
me in 1882, but could not be identified for want of flowers. 
Styphelia fasciculiflora, F. v. M. Moist rich banks, Grassy 

Creek. 
Diuris sulphurea, B. Br. Karatta. Moist ground near the 
river and tributary brooks ; under shelter of dense thickets.. 
Thelymitra flexuosa, Fndh Karatta. In shelter of dense- 
thickets on swampy rivulets. 
Acianthus caudatus, i^. jSr. C. Willoughby (^orsiy?'//). 
Lyperanthus nigricans, B. Br. C. Willoughby {HorswiU) . 
Caladenia Patersoni, B. Br. Karatta. Wet ground. 

" var. clavigera, A. Cunn. [?). C. AYilloughby {HorswiU)^ 

Corysanthes pruinosa, A. Cunn. C. Willoughby {HorswiU). 
Eriochilus autumnalis, B. Br. C. Willoughby {HorswiU). 
Tallisneria sp. Karatta. Leaves very narrow (filiform) and 
short. In a shallow pool without communication with the 
river, except during high floods. 
Elyxa Eoxburghi, Bich. Karatta. Same locality as the last. 
Hydrilla verticillata, Cas^j. Karatta. Same as last. 
Anguillaria dioica, F. v. M. Karatta. Eather scarce along 

the river. 
Thysanotus tuberosus, B. Br. Karatta, Sandy hillsides. An 
erect plant without leaves, and from three to five or more 
flowers of a rich purj^le hue ; root tuberous. 
Tricoryne elatior, B. Br. Mount Taylor. Sandy soil, among 

limestone. Mowers very small. 
Bartlingia sessiliflora, F. v. M. Scarce on sandy scrubland, 

Karatta. 
Typha angustifolia, L. Lagoon, S.W. of Karatta (HarpKr). 
Potamogeton Tepperi, Bennett. [P. natans, Tate.] Cygnet 

and Stunsailboom Elvers. 
Lemna trisulca, B. Karatta. 

" minor, L. 
Juncus maritimus. Lam. Karatta. 
Lepyrodia sp. Grassy Creek. Grass-like, from two to four 

inches, in moist flats. 
Cladium schenoides, B.Br. C. Eorda. Limestone hills. 
Carex pauiculata, L. Bavine des Casoars. 
Poa lepida, F. v. M. C. Willoughby {HorswiU). 
Aristida Behriana, F. v. M. Karatta. 



293 



I.IST OF THK OpHIDIA OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 
By A. ZlETZ. 

LKead April 5th, 1887.] 

The following list is simply intended to enumerate tlie snal^es 
of this province, with the proper localities where caught. It 
may be of some interest, as a similar list has never before been 
published. I have determined the species by reference to the 
following works : — Krefft's "Snakes of Australia," Macleay's 
" Census of Australian Snakes," Prof. McCoy's "Proc. Zool., 
Victorise," and Jan's "Iconograpie des Ophidiens." As this 
list is only the result of three years' observation, it is probable 
that other species may yet be obtained. Four species, viz., 
TypTilops hituherculatus, HopJocepJialus spectahilis, H. ater, 
S. Maste7'sii, seem to be peculiar to this province. 

One species, Hoplocephalicsnigro-striatus, hitherto only known 
from B,ockhampton and Cleveland Bay, seems to be abundant 
at Sedan, South Australia, from which locality I have received 
many specimens. Most of the other species which inhabit 
South Australia are well known and widely distributed. Two 
South Australian snakes, Hoploceplialus ater and H. Mastersii, 
are from Flinders Range, but I have not been able to obtain 
specimens for the Museum collection. 

Only the two species of blind snakes and the carpet snake 
are non-venomous ; all the other South Australian snakes are 
venomous, and four species are dangerous to man, viz., the 
black snake {Pseudechis po^'pliyriacus) , the tiger snake 
{Hoploceplialus curt us), the large- scaled snake {S. superhus), 
and the death adder (^Acantliopliis antarcticci) . 

1. Typhlops bitubeeculata, Peters. 

Peter's Blind Snake. Monatsber der Akademie der "Wis- 
sentsch, Berlin ; Macleay's Census, &c., No. 

Locality. — Koolunga (G. Fullar, August, 18S2), Murray 
Scrub (J. J. East, 1887), Golden Grove (Prof. E. Tate), 
Murray Bridge (W. T. Bednall). 

Hahitat. — South Australia. 

2. Typhlops i^-igresce:^s, Gray. 

Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 17, pi. v., figs. 12, 12«, 26. ; 
McCoy, Prod. Zoolog., Victoria, Dec. XL ; Macleay, Census, 
Ac, sp. 5. 

Loc. — Neales, nearEudunda, Lyndoch Valley (Dr. Eichters), 



294 

Sedan (B. S. Eothe), Teatree Gully (Dr. Angovc), Blue Well 
(C. Y. Thomas), llighbury, near Paradise (Frank Earndell), 
Deep A\^ell, Paratoo (T.H.Stone), Mount Lofty Eanges (H. 
Weste). 

Hah. — Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales. 

3. MORELTA TARIEGATA, Gray. 

Carpet Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 31., pi. ii. ;. 
McCoy, Prod. Zool., Yic. Dec. II. ; Macleay, Census, &c., sp. 9. 

Loc. — Murray Scrub, &c. 

Hal. — Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, ISTew Soutli 
"Wales. 

4. ASPIDIOTES MELA^^OCEPHALrS, Kvefft. 

Black-headed Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 33, 
pis. iii. and v., fig. 4 ; Macleay, Census, No. 16. One large,, 
beautiful specimen, probably from the Murray, and received 
from the Zoological Gardens, is now in the Public Museum. 

Hah. — Port Denison, northwards to Cape York, and interior 
of Australia. 

5. DiEMENIA EETICTJLATA, Grai/. 

Grey Snake. Krefft, Snakes of iV-Ustralia, p. 40, pi. xii., fig, 
10 ; Macleay, Census, &c., sp. 43. 

Loc. — Edithburgh, York's Peninsula (J. G. McDougall^ 
1886) ; Sedan (B. I. Eothe, 1886) ; Melrose (Elliott Coppen, 
1887.) All the specimens from this colony which I have seen 
are marked witb two rose-coloured streaks along the side of the 
bead and neck. 

Hah. — •Erom the Murray to Eockhampton ; very abundant 
about Sydney. 

6. DlEMEI^IA SUPEECILIOSA, Fisll. 

Common Brown Snake. Krelf t, Snakes of Australia, p. 41, pis. 
vii. and ix., figs 10 and 10a ; McCoy, Prod. Zool. Vict. Dec. 
III. ; Macleay, Census, sp. 44. 

Log. — Equally common over the whole colony ; sometimes 
caught in Adelaide and suburbs. The common Brown Snake 
varies very much in colour and markings ; old specimens from 
light brown to entirely black (Krefft). Young specimens show 
the black markings on head and neck very distinctly, and are 
sometimes irregularly black- banded. Banded varieties are 
scarce in S. Australia. One very beautifully banded variety, 
17 in. long, from Sedan (B. S. Eothe) is in the Public Museum. 
The largest Brown Snakes from this colony I bave seen, 
measure 5 feet 6 inches. 

Hah. — All Australia. 



295 

7. DlEMENIA MICROLEPIDOTA, McOoy. 

Small-scaled Brown Snake. Prod. Zool., Vict., Dec. Ill : 
pi. 23, figs. 2 and 3. 
Loc. — Sedan (Eothe). 
Hah. — Junction of Murray and Darling. 

8. PsEUDECHis ArsTRALTS, Gray. 

Orange-bellied Brown Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, 
p. 47, pi. vii., 11 and lla ; Macleay, Census, &c., sp. 48. 

Loc. — Murray ; scarce in South Australia. One specimen 
was found at Hindmarsli Island by Mr. J. R. Ewens. Only 
one specimen, without locality, is in the Public Museum. 

Hah. — Murray E,iver and Port Denison. 

9. PsErCECHIS PORPHYRIACVS Wagl. 

Black snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 46, pis. vii. 
and xi., fig. 8; McCoy, Proc. Zool., Yict., Dec. 1. ; Macleay, 
Census, sp. 50. 

Loc. — Murray, Lake Alexandrina (Dr. Stirling), Onkapa- 
ringa, Coromandel Valley (Alex. Murray), Aldiuga. The 
largest specimen in the Museum collection (a female) was 
caught by Dr. E. C. Stirling on the Murray. It is more than 
five feet long. 

10. Yermicella annitlata. Gray. 

Krefft's Snakes of Australia, p. 78, pi. xi., fig. 12, 12a; 
McCoy, Proc. Zool., Yict., Dec. YII. ; Macleay, Census, &c., 
sp. 66. 

Loc. — Einniss Eiver, Eeedy Creek, scrub six miles JST.E. from 
Kadiua (Mr. Anthony), Koolunga (G-. Eullar, 1881), Neales, 
near Eudunda (1884)^ Murray rocks (B. S. Eothe, Ap., 1887). 
Seems to be scarce in the southern parts of this province. 

Hal). — All Australia. 

11. Yermicella Bertholdi, Jan. 

Jan, Iconographie des Ophidiens ; Macleay, Census, sp. 67. 
Log. — XTno (Mr. C. M. Bagot). Two specimens — one young 
and one matured — in the Public Museum. 
Hah. — South Australia and West Australia. 

12. HOPLOCEPHALUS ATER, Krefft. 

Elinder's Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 55, pi. xi., 
fig. 11 ; Macleay, Census, sp. 7a. (I have never seen a speci- 
men of this species). 

Hah. — Elinders Eange, South Australia (Krefft). 

13. HoPLOCEPHALUS COROXATUS, ScllJec/. 

Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 62, pi. vi., fig. 3. 



296 

Sju. — JElaps coronatus, Grray ; Alecto coronatus, Dum. & Bib., 
p. 1255, pi. Ixxvi., Hg. 2; Macieay, Census, sp. 72. Two speci- 
mens in the Public Museum. 

Loc. — Port Lincoln. 

JIab. — West Australia and Soutli Australia. 

14. HoPLOCEPHALrs cuRTUS, Sclihg. 

Tiger or Brown-banded Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia. 
McCoy, Proc. Zool., Vict., Dec. 1 ; Macieay Census, sp. 74. 

Loc. — Murray, around Lake Alexandrina, Coorong, Lake 
Bonney, Yorke's Peninsula, sandhills Glenelg, Kangaroo 
Island, &c. The largest sjDCcimen I have seen was four feet 
long. Prom light brown to entirely black coloured, banded or 
without bands. jSText the Brown Snake our commonest snake. 

Hah. — All Australia. 

15. HoPLOCEPHALTJS Masteesii, Krefft. 

Master's Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 63, pi. xii., 
fig. 6 ; Macieay, Census, sp. 79. 

Hah. — Plinders Eange, South Australia. !N'ot represented 
in the Public Museum. 

16. HoPLOCEPHALrs NIGEO-STEIATUS, Krefft. 

Black-striped Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 70, 
pi. xii., fig. 3 ; Jan., &c. ; Alecto dorsalls, Jan. ; Macieay, 
Census, sp. 83. 

Loc. — Sedan, Murray Scrub (B. S Eothe, many specimens) ; 
Beetaloo Waterworks (two specimens, Dr. E. C. Stirling.) 

Hah. — Eockhamptou, Cleveland Bay, and South Australia. 

17. HoPLOCEPHALUS SPECTABILIS, Krefft. 

Port Lincoln Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 61., 
pi. xii., fig. 4. ; Macieay, Census of Australian Snakes, sp. 87. 

Loc. — Balhanuah (Guest), Bungaree (Ed. Easton), Ardrossan 
(Cadd), St. Vincent (R. and E. Penbertv), Millbrook (Fred. 
Tippett), Glen Osmond (Ch. and Alf. Stroud), Sedan (B. S. 
Eothe), Murray Bridge (Newman), Belair (O. Tepper), Port 
Lincoln (Krefft), Scott's Creek, near Nairne (Prof. E. Tate), 
Teatree Gully (Dr. Angove). 

Hah. — South Australia. 

18. HoPLOCEPHALrs TEMPORALIS, Gould. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) Vol. II., p. 130, pi. ix. Krefft, 
Snakes of Australia, p. (5o, pi. vi., fig. 5, ba ; Macieay, Census, 
sp. 90. Five specimens in the British Museum from South 
Australia. 

Loc. — L^nknown. 



297 

19. HOPLOCEPHALUS SUPERBUS, Gcilltll. 

Large-scaled Snake. Krefft, Snakes o£ Australia, p. 54, pi. 
tI., fig. 9 ; McCoy, Prod. Zool. Victoria, Dec. I. p. 2 ; Macleaj, 
Census, sp. 89. 

Loc. — Mt. Lofty Eanges (O. Tepper) ; Kangaroo Island (Gr. 
Beazley) ; Marble Eanges; Aldinga (Mr. Duffield). 

Hcih. — New South AYales, Victoria, Tasmania, Soutb Aus- 
i:ralia. *Ivnown in Tasmania as the " Diamond Snake," and in 
Victoria as the " Copper-head." 

20. AcANTHOPHis AJfTAECTiCA, WagUr. 

Death Adder. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 80, pis. x. and 
xi., fig. 7; McCoy, Prod. Zool. Victoria, Dec. II., pi. 12; 
Macleay, Census, sp. 93. 

Loc. — Sand-hills, Glenelg ; Brighton beach ; Yarrow, near S. 
Hummock (Geo. Allen) ; Ardrossan (Cadd) ; Hindmarsh Island ; 
Victor Harbour, Coorong sand-hills; Sedan (B. S. Eothe) ; 
Port Germein (W. T. Bednall) ; Torrens Island. Chiefly in 
sandy localities. (jN'octurnal with erect pupilla.) 

Hcib. — All Australia. 

UNCERTAIN SPECIES. 

TtPHLOPS, S'i). ? 

Lyndoch Valley (Dr. Richters). 

HOPLOCEPHALIJS FLAGELLUM, McCoy ? 

The little Whip Snake. Proc. Zool. Vict., Dec. II. I have 
received only two specimens of this little Snake from Mr. H. 
T. Morris, Anlaby, which differ a little from Prof. McCoy's 
description of the above mentioned species, and therefore I am 
not sure if my snake is the same or not, as I have not seen the 
type specimens. Prof. McCoy mentioned that it seems to be 
very local in its distribution. 

Ilab. — Victoria, South Australia (?) 



ERRATA. 

Page 293, line 16 from bottom:— Instead of "four" read 
"five." 

Page 293, line 13 from bottom, add : —The common brown 
snake {Diemenia superciliosa). 



296 

Syn. — JElaps coronatus, Grv^y \ -^^ecio coronatus, Diim. & Bib., 
p. 1255, pi. Ixxvi., fig. 2; Macleaj, Census, sp. 72. T\\'o speci- 
mens in the Public Museum. 

Zoc. — Port Lincoln. 

Ilab. — West Australia and Soutli Australia. 

IJr. HoPLOCEPHALrs cuRTUS, ScliJeg. 

Tiger or Brown-banded Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia. 
McCoy, Proc. Zool., Yict., Dec, 1 ; Macleay Census, sp. 74. 

Loc. — Murray, around Lake Alexandrina, Coorong, Lake 
Bonney, Yorke's Peninsula, sandhills Glenelg, Kangaroo 
Island, &c. The largest specimen I have seen was four feet 
long. From light brown to entirely black coloured, banded or 
without bands. Xext the Brown Snake our commonest snake. 

Hal. — All Australia. 



15. HoPLOCEPHALUS Masteesii, Krefft. 

Master's Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 63, pi. xii., 
fig. 6 ; Macleay, Census, sp. 79. 

Hah. — Plinders Bange, South Australia. Xot represented 
in the Public Museum. 

16. HoPLOCEPHALrs K"rGEO-STEIATUS, Krefft. 

Black-striped Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 70, 
pi. xii., fig. 3 ; Jan., &c. ; Alecto dorsalis, Jan. ; Macleay, 
Census, sp. 83. 

Zoc. — Sedan, Murray Scrub (B. S Eothe, many specimens) ; 
Beetaloo Waterworks "(two specimens, Dr. E. C. Stirling.) 

Hah. — Eockhampton, Cleveland Bay, and South Australia. 

17. HoPLOCEPHALrs sPECTABiLis, Krefft. 
Port Lincoln Snake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 61., 
pi. xii., fig. -1. ; Macleay, Census of Australian Snakes, sp. 87. 
Loc. — Balhaunah (Guest), Bungaree (Ed. Easton), Ardrossan 




297 

19. HOPLOCEPHALUS SUPEEBUS, Gaiith. 
Large-sealed Suake. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. 54, pi. 
tI., fig. 9 ; McCoy, Prod. Zool. Victoria, Dec. I. p. 2 ; Macleaj, 
Census, sp. 89. 

Loc. — Mt. Lofty Eanges (O. Tepper) ; Kangaroo Island (Gr. 
Beazley) ; Marble Eanges; Aldinga (Mr. Duffield). 

Hah. — New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Aus- 
"tralia. *Known in Tasmania as the " Diamond Snake," and in 
Victoria as the " Copper-head." 

20. AcAiiTHOPHis a:s^taectica, Wagler. 

Death Adder. Krefft, Snakes of Australia, p. SO, pis. x. and 
^l, fig. 7; McCoy, Prod. Zool. Victoria, Dec. II., pi. 12; 
Macleay, Census, sp. 93. 

Loc. — Sand-hills, Glenelg ; Brighton beach ; Yarrow, near S. 
Hummock (Geo. Allen) ; Ardrossan (Cadd) ; Hindmarsh Island ; 
Victor Harbour, Coorong sand-hills; Sedan (B. S. Eothe) ; 
Port Germein (AV. T. Bednall) ; Torrens Island. Chiefly in 
sandy localities. (Nocturnal with erect pupilla.) 

Hah. — All Australia. 

UNCERTAIN SPECIES. 

Ttphlops, sp. ? 
Lyudoch Valley (Dr. Richtersj. 

HOPLOCEPHALTJS ELAGELLUM, McCoy ? 

The little "Whip Snake. Proc. Zool. Vict., Dec. II. I have 
received only two specimens of this little Snake from Mr. H. 
T. Morris, Anlaby, which differ a little from Prof. McCoy's 
description of the above mentioned species, and therefore I am 
not sure if my snake is the same or not, as I have not seen the 
type specimens. Prof. McCoy mentioned that it seems to be 
very local in its distribution. 

Hah. — Victoria, South Australia (?) 



*Vide Macleay, '* Census of Austral. Snakes.' 



29S 

Descriptions of NK^^r Species of Soutk 

Australian Crustaceans. 

By A. ZiETz. 

[Read April 5 and May 3, 1887.J 

Plate XIV. 

Gryllopagurus lithodomus, gen. et sj). nov. 

The liermit crab about to be described differs so much from 
any known sj^ecies that I have found it necessary to form a new 
genus for its reception. The essential features may be defined 
as follows: — Front, acute in the middle; ophthalmic segment 
exposed, with a mobile scale ; eye-peduncles of moderate 
length, rounded ; chelipedes of equal size ; fingers, on the tip, 
s230on-excavated and black coloured ; first and second pair of 
ambulatory limbs longest, with the end joint spiniform and 
black ; third pair short, with the end-joint roundish, and with 
a roundish rugosity ; fourth pair somewhat longer, with a 
similar rugosity, and a shovel-like prolongation on the basal 
joint or coxopodite ; abdomen soft, roundish, with indistinct 
calcareous square plates and, only in the fcDiale, with four bifid 
appendages on the left side of the abdomen ; the tail-fins narrow 
and symmetrical. 

The only known species lives in self-made burrows in loose 
stones. 

Gryllopagurus litliodomus is a short, robust animal found 
near tide-mark in shallow water of St. Vincent Gulf. "When 
attacked, the animal retires into its burrow, closing the same 
perfectly with its chelipedes and first pair of ambulatory limbs, 
which form when laid together a circular flat operculum when 
viewed from above. The anterior portion of the crrapace, which 
is marked by a deep cervical groove from the other regions, 
shows the form of a heart, but its width is greater than its- 
length. Ths pericardial cavity is marked by the branchio- 
cardiae groove as a red shield. The branchial regions are of a 
pale horny colour. The abdomen is soft, roundish, not spirally 
coiled, with four indistinct broad transverse plates in both 
sexes, and, in the female, only on the left side, with four bifid 
appendages. The tail-fins consist of the telson, of which the 
first part is divided by a cross' groove into two parts, of which 
the posterior one is again divided by a longitudinal groove ; the 
hind portion of the telson is bilobed. It possesses two pair of 
tail-fins, of which the first is narrow, with its external part 
directed backwards, and provided with a patch of small 
papillae. The colour in spirit specimens is reddish, and especially 
the limbs, are marked with large dark-red spots, some of 
them encircling the limbs, forming bands. 



299 

The stones in wliicli tliis crustacean burrows vary in size, hut 
not always in proportion to the size of the animal. In texture 
these stones are generally coarsely granular, somewhat loose, 
and of a calcareous character, often covered with minute algae. 
As Mr. J. G-. McDougall, of Edithburgh, to whom I am in- 
debted for the specimens, observed, it does not drag the stone- 
about with it. Length of the largest specimen from front to 
end of tail-fin, 45 mm. Length of its burrow, 65 mm. ; width 
of the same, 15 mm. 

Dromia bicavernosa, sp. nov. Plate xiv., figs. 5 and 6. 
This well-marked species may be described as follows : — 
The cephalothorax is broader than long, its anterior border 
being divided into three wide lobes, of which the middle lobe 
is formed by the protogastric region. The outer lobes are 
formed by the hepatic regions. On each side, between the- 
middle and outer lobes, in front of the carapace, and somewhat 
more deeply situated, are two reniform red marginal cavities, 
the bottoms of which are covered with short adherent hairs. 
The whole carapace, as well as other parts of the animal, are 
covered with chocolate-brown coloured short hairs, which gives 
a velvet-like appearance to the animal, from which the cavities 
are strongly marked off by their bright red borders. Viewed 
from above, these cavities are only partially visible. The 
anterior part of the margin of each cavity shows in the middle- 
a short inwardly- directed ridge, which is thickest at its ter- 
mination, where it is somewhat deeper situated, and provided 
with a tuft of hairs, surrounded by a row of minute impres- 
sions semicircularly arranged. On the right-side cavity I 
numbered 12 impressions, on the left side only 11. The func- 
tion of these curious cavities is not known, as, unfortunately, 
the specimen received was in such a bad state of preservation,, 
and internally all the soft parts were so destroyed, that a more- 
careful examination was quite impossible. The specimen 
examined was a male, and is, as far as known, unique, and I 
am indebted to Mr. H. Bates, of Hog Bay, Kangaroo Island,, 
for kindly forwarding it. 

Eig. Desceiptiois- of Plate XIY. 

1. G-ryllopagurus litbodomus ; male. 

2. " " female. 

3. " " position when in its burrow. 

4. " " front view of burrow when. 

closed. 
Figures 1 and 4 natural size. 

5. Dromia bicavernosa ; dorsal view. 

5«, " " inner view of fifth right ambulatoryjleg.. 

6. " " front view. 

Figures 5 and 6 half natural size. 



800 



INTOTES ON SOME RARE VARIETIES OF SoUTH 

Australian Snakes. 
By a. Zietz. 

[Read October 1st, 1887.] 
Diemenia superciliosa, Fischer. 

This specimen is a rare and remarkable variety of tlie com- 
mon brown snake. The marks on the neck (usually black) 
are brown and confluent, but with the superciliary and 
posterial nasal scutes black. The back, along its whole length, 
is marked with alternately broad black and yellow bands, each 
nearly one inch wide, and the light spaces between are decorated 
with, generally, five undulatiug and transverse black lines, the 
anterior and posterior ends of which join the margins of the 
broad black bands. These marks are particularly distinct 
upon the posterior two-thirds of the body. The belly is straw 
coloured, with brick-red spots irregularly distributed, and in 
several cases they are confluent. 

Length of specimen, 17 inches. 

It was found at Sedan, South Australia. 

Vermicella Bertholdi, Jan. 

Two specimens of this very rare snake were forwarded from 
TJno, by Mr. C. M. Bagot, and are now in the Adelaide Museum. 
It is figured in Prof. Jan's " Iconographie Generale des 
■Ophidiens," under the name. Maps Bertlioldi, locality, Ade- 
laide, Australia meridionale. The type specimen is in the 
Museum of Gottingen, Germany. One of our specimens is 
probably a matured specimen, and the second a very young 
one. The habit is stout, with a very short tail. The whole 
length 25 ctm., of which the tail is only two ctm. ; 15 scales 
around neck, 124 ventral scales, 16 pair of caudals, two anals. 
The whole body is very smooth and glossy, and alternately 
black and bright orange, ringed by 29 black and the same 
number of orange rings ; each scale of the orange rings has 
a light yellow spot in the centre. The lower surface is not 
nearly so brightly coloured, and the orange rings change into 
yellowish. The head is, both by its markings and colour, well 
distinguished from all the other parts of the body, light 
brownish, with some regular darker markings. The throat 
lias, alternately, indistinctly lighter and darker longitudinal 
markings. The young specimen, which measures ten ctm., is 
yellowish white and black banded, but shows the same mark- 
ings on head and neck as the adult. Our specimens are the 
first, with exact locality given. This snake has not been 
figured in its natural colour. 



301 



MISCELLANEA. 



Some I^ew South ArsTEALTA.x Plaj^ts from Kaxqaeoo^ 
Island. Abstract from the piiblislied descriptions. 

Sydrocotyle comocarpa, F. v. M.; Yictorian Xaturalist, Jan., 
1887. Karatta ; on moist flats along fhe Stimsailboom 
Eiyer, Xoy., 1886, Tepper. A small, few-flowered plant, 
with leaves 3-5 lobed, and the summit of the roundish 
fruit surrounded by a series of flattened bristly hairs. 

Lhotzhya Smeaioniana, F. v. M. ; Austr. Jour, of Pharmacy, 
Jan., 1887. Pive miles X.W. of Karatta; wet localities 
in dense scrubs. ISTov., 1886, Tepper. A small, very 
densely branched shrub, with small,^ much crowded, threes- 
sided leaves, and allied to L. genetylloides, but smaller in 
all its parts, the tubes of the calyces, among other charac- 
ters, constricted at the summit, and the lobes very mucb 
smaller. 

Candollea ( Stylidium) Tepperiana, P. v, M. ; Chem. and Drugg. 
of Aust., Jan. 1st, 1887; Mount Taylor, Nov., 1886,. 
Tepper. A small tufted plant, witb the linear leaves 
small, solitary, collected in two tufts, viz., one radical and 
one on each trunk, and the pink flowers on slender, stiff: 
pedicels. It approaches nearest to C. spinulosa, which, 
however, has its larger leaves not all collected into tufts, 
the corolla longer and the upper calys lobes not highly 
connate. 

I^ota?noyeton Teppe^H, 'Bennett; Journ. of Botany, 1887. Cygnet 
and Stunsailboom Pivers, lagoons, &c., Peb., 1886., Tepper ; 
interior of Queensland, Bailey (?). An aquatic plant 
much resembling P. natans, L. The lower, submerged 
leaves narrow, lanceolate, about four inches long by one- 
half inch wide, brownish; the floating leaves pale green, 
from oval with cordate bases to ovate witb tapering bases, 
about three inches long by one and a quarter wide, 21-23 
veined, coriaceous. Petals long, gradually dilated up- 
wards ; stipules soon decaying. Peduncles two to three 
inches long, thickening uj^wards ; spikes three-quarters to 
one inch long ; dense in fruit, the latter nearly straight on 
the inner face, rounded, three-angled on the outer, semi- 
obovate, with a short beak formino^ a continuation of the- 



302 

inner face, witli projecting processes distributed irregu- 
larly on tlie outer angles. Upper part of the embr}-© in- 
curved to half its length. Two other species from South 
Australia — one probably new, and near P. •polygonifoUiis, 
the other unrecorded for the colouj'-, and probably JP. 
flaleUatus — could not be determined with certainty from 
the incomplete specimen. 

JLydrocotyle diantha, F. v. M., discovered at the same time at 
Kangaroo Island, was previously only known from Western 
Australia. 



Additioi^s to the Queensland Flora, et F. M. Bailey 

From 2 Suppl., Syn. Qu. FL, Sept., 1887. 

Afzelia aicsfraUs/Bail. Johnstone Eiver. Hitherto considered 
identical with A. hijiiga, A. Grray, but conspicuously dif- 
fering by the bark exfoliating in hard, thick, oval, or 
oblong patches, while the bark of A. hijiiga is grey, thin, 
and peels off in fine, papery scrolls. 

Yallisneria caulescens, Bail, and F. v. M. 

Teucrlum ajiigaceiun, Bail, and F. v. M. 

Hihheriia MiUari, Bailey. Tery closely allied to Hemistemma 
angustifolia, E. Br. 



!N"OTES ON THE StAPHTLINIDJE CONTAINED IN THE PUBLIC 

jMuseijm, Adelaide, by Eev. Thos. BLACKBrsN, B.A. 

In the course of recent studies of South Australian StapTiy- 
linidce I have made a careful examination of the specimens in 
the Adelaide Public Museum belonging to the tribes I-Y. of 
M. Lacordaire, and it will probably be not without interest to 
furnish the following list of such species found among them 
as do not ajDpear to have been previously recorded from South 
Australia. Most of the insects in question were captured by- 
Mr. Tepper: — Aleocliara speculifera (Er.), Calodera incequaJis 
(Fauv.), Quedius fidgidus (Fab.), Q. rujicollis (Grav.), Q. iridi- 
ventris (Fauv.), CreopliUus oculahis (Fab.) [X.B. — There is no 
note of locality attached to this specimen.] Fliilonilnis ceneus 
(Possi.), P. antipodum (Fauv.), P. longicornis (Steph.), P. 
maceUus (J^iiMY.?), Cojius pacijicus (^v/t), XantlioUnus plioeni- 
copterus (Er.), Latlirohhim AiistraJicum (Solsky), Pinopliilus 
irapeziis (Fauv). 



303 

List of Species of Agaeicus and Pamis discovered by Miss 
Wehl near Lake Bonne j, and described in tlie " Grrevillea" 
for 1887 by Dr. M. C. Cooke. Forwarded by Baron Sir 
Ferd. Y. Mueller. 

Agaricus olivaceo-albus, Fries ; A. ozes, Fries, var. crassipes ; 
A. suhcorticalis, Cooke and Mass. ; A. leptosperini, F. v. 
Mueller ; A. Wehlianus, F. v. Mueller ; A. olidus, Cooke 
and Mass. ; A. limoneits, Cooke and Mass. (non Fries). 

J*amis carhonarius, Cooke and Mass. 



jS'ote ox Caecharias hemiodon as A>f Australian Species, 

BY A. ZlETZ. 

An interesting addition to our knowledge o£ the local fauna 
lias been made by the capture of an undoubted specimen of the 
above-named shark. CarcJiariaa liemiodon is mentioned by Hon. 
Macleay in the Proc. Liu. Society, jN'ew S. AVales, vol. IL, as 
l)eiDg an Australian species, but in his descriptive catalogue of 
Australian fishes he refers the specimens thus named to 
Carcliarias melanopferus, Mull, and Henle. The above species 
resemble each other very much, but according to the descrip- 
tions in Gunther's catalogue of fishes in the British Museum, 
Carcliarias melanopferus belongs to the section Prionidae with 
the base as well as the cusp of some or all the teeth serrated. 
In the section Hypoprion, to which our fish belongs, the upper 
teeth are denticulated on the base only. Lower teeth without 
denticulation. There is only one specimen of this species in 
the Museum collection ; it is 17 in. in length, and was obtained 
from the Port Adelaide Creek, this being the first observation 
of its occurrence in Australian waters. 



304 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

.0pl ^mttv of ^mtl\ ^ustviilia. 



Foe 1886-8^ 



Oediis-aey Meeting, K'oyembee 4, 1886. 

H. T. Whittell, M.D., in the chair. 

Exhibits. — J. Gr. O. Teppee, P.L.S., some uew and rare- 
plants from Kangaroo Island. A. Zietz, Aglaia JineoJata from 
the Port Adelaide Creek. 

Papee. — "A revision of the recent Lamellibranch and Pallio- 
branch Mollusca of South Australia," bj Prof. E. Tate, P.GrS.,. 
&c. 



Oedinaet MEETi]!TCi, Decembee 7, 1886. 

Prof. Eejs^nie in the chair. 

Exhibits. — J. G. O. Teppee, E.L.S., JPoJapliiis sj). new. Sir 
species of indigenous bees from Kangaroo Island, including the 
Yucca bee. Two butterflies, new for the province, and other 
insects. Eive species of Grevillea. A. Zietz, Gryllopagiirus 
litlwdomus from Edithburgh, T.P. 

Papee. — E. C. Stielii^g, M.D., on the " Generation and 
Method of Parturition of the Kangaroo." Thomas Black- 
BrEN", M.A., on the " Staphjlinidse" contained in the Public 
Museum, Adelaide; also, "Descriptions of Twenty Xew 
Species of South Australian Coleoptera." E. H. Pulleii^e, 
on the " South Australian Species of the genus Calosoma'' 
"W. H0WCHI17, E.G.S., a " Geological Sketch of a Section of 
Eletcher's Graving Dock at Glanville, with special references 
to some old beaches." Prof. EE:tfNiE exhibited and explained 
the standard apparatus for testing the flashing point of 
petroleum. 



Oedhs-aey Meetii^Ct, Febeuaey 1, 1887. 
J. S. Lloyd in the chair. 

Ballot. — A. E. Eobin, D. J. Adcock, S. Dixon, Eev. Thomas 
Blackburn, M.A., were elected Eellows. 



305 

Exhibits. — A. Zietz, specimen o£ Duloisia Hojnooodii 
(pituri) from the Eiver Darling, N.S.TV. ; dissections of Euro- 
pean and Australian crayfish for comparison of exo-skeletonal 
structure. J. Gr. O. Teppee, E.L.S., a Mantis, probably new ; 
three new plants from Kangaroo Island, Lhotzhya Smeatoniana, 
Stylidiicm Tepperiana, Sydrocotyle comocarpa. 

Papees. — J. G. O. Teppee, E.L.S., on "Alcoholic Eermentation 
in Living Trees," by Dr. E. Ludwig (translated). D. B. Adamsok, 
" The Measurement of Eye-pieces for Telescopes." The writer 
referred to the difficulties of accurately determining the mag- 
nifying powers when these became high, and then proceeded 
to explain the most approved methods for so doing. He ex- 
hibited Berthon's Dynamometer, which he considered the best 
instrument. 



Oedinaet Meetii^g, Maech 1, 1887. 

Prof. Een^nie in the chair. 

Ballot. — Thomas Eyres was elected a Eellow. 

Exhibits. — A. Zietz, eight specimens of Diemenia sitperciliosd 
(brown snake), differing in markings from one another. He 
considered them varieties of one species. J. Gr. O. Teppee, 
E.L.S., musk-beetles (Trox moscliata) from near Eucla. A new 
species of Bactylotum. Specimen of titaniferous iron from the 
bed of the Eiver Torrens. 

Papee. — Prof. Eennie, " Colouring Matter contained in 
Drosera Whittalceri.'" 



Oedin'aet Meetijs'g, Apeil 5, 1887. 

Prof. EENifiE in the chair. 

The State Entomologist at Washington, F.S.A., wrote asking- 
for information with regard to Icerya Furchasi. 

Mr. Brunetti wrote asking for an exchange of Diptera for 
the purpose of completing his monograph. 

Exhibits. — J. Gr. O. Teppee, E.L.S., larval form of a species 
of Phasma. A. Zietz, specimen of Gryllopagurus lithodomus,, 
found at Edithburgh, T.P. 

Papees.— H. Y. L. Beowj^, E.G.S., on the " Geology of Tee- 
tulpa Goldfields." E. Guest, "Notes on a supposed new 
Butterfly." A. Zietz, "Description of species of Snakes 
known to exist in South Australia." W. Eussell, " Observa-^ 
tions on the recent Comet (1887)." 



306 

Oedinary Meeting, Mat S, 1887. 

Prof. Eenkie in the chair. 

The Trustees of the " Elizabeth Thompson Pund " for the 
advaucement and prosecution of scientific research, wrote in- 
viting applications for grants of money for such purposes. 

Exhibits. — J. Gr. O. Teppee, E.L.S., collection of European 
hees. Ova, larva, imago, and cocoons of Zeuzera eucalypti, to- 
gether with a portion of the root of the eucalyptus in which 
the larva had lived. A. Zietz, Dromia hicavernosa, forwarded 
by H. Bates, Hog Bay, Kangaroo Island. Carcharias liemiodon 
from St. Vincent Gulf. 

Papees. — TnoMAS Paekee, C.E., on " Subterranean Waters, 
with Suggestions for their Utilization." Rev. Tho:m:as Black- 
EUEN", B.A., "Descriptions of South Australian Coleoptera, 
chiefly in the S.A. Museum." 



Oedinaey Meeti^^g, Ju:n-e 7th, 1887. 

Prof. Eeis^nie in the chair. 

Exhibits. — J. Gr. O. Teppee, E.L.S., Coelostoma covered with a 
waxy looking substance containing ova ; locusts from the Ear 
North ; specimens of Bruchus lately imported. A. Zietz, two 
specimens of (Edura new or rare ; rare species of Tropidolepisona 
sent by Sergeant McEwin from Morgan ; a species of Gohius 
new to the Museum; rare species of Chcetodon from J. Gr. 
McDougall, of Edithburgh. 

Papees. — E. "W. Dayis, on the '' Advisability of establishing 
a School of Mines." W. L. Cleland, M.B., on the " Polished 
Surfaces and Water Supply of Caroona Hill, Lake Gilles." 



Oedinaet Meeting, July 5th, 1887. 

Prof. Eennie in the chair. 

Exhibits. — J. G. O. Teppee, E.L S., specimens of Agaricus 
incandescens. 

Papees. — Eev. Thomas Blackbuen, B.A., on the " Bem- 
bidiid^ of South Australia.'' J. G._ O. Teppee, E.L.S., 
^'Kerosine Lamps and Experiments with Kerosine ;" also, 
*' Observations of the Habits of the Common Green Mantis :" 
— A live specimen was received on April 14th. It was then 
so fierce that it attacked the finger if approached, spreading out 
its wings partly at the moment. A fly held before it was at 
once seized and eaten, one pair of its large palpi being placed 
above, the other below the morsel next the mouth ; they were 
rapidly and incessantly in motion during mastication. I kept 
it in a small box with a glass lid (9 x 4^ x 2 inches) and fed it 



307 

-with, live flies ; dead ones it would not toucli (thougli on one 
occasion it ate one, still soft, that was jerked past it when 
hungry), nor would it touch moths or woodlicc. On some days 
it would devour eight to ten flies, inclusive of blowflies, on others 
less, usually commencing at the head or side, and biting off the 
wings and legs of its prey in succession as the}^ came in its way. 
"When satisfied, it would catch the flies as vigorously as ever, 
l)ut only eat off the head, and then drop them. During the 
night, from the 30th of April to the 1st of May, it laid the first 
batch of eggs enclosed in a semi- cylindrical case pointed at 
hoth ends, and apparently containing 18 partitions directed 
obliquely towards the base. It was fixed diagonally on the side 
■of the box. For several days before, the mantis exhibited some 
striking peculiarities in its conduct, inasmuch as ifc took no 
food, though striking lazily and aimlessly at approaching flies 
as if it were blind. The day after the deposition of the ova it 
again fed as voraciously as ever, having totally recovered its 
activity, and continued to be very active for several weeks. It 
is to be remarked that it got perfectly tame after it had been 
a short time in captivity, and would exhibit no signs of alarm if 
it were approached by the finger, or the box opened or moved 
about, or even when brought suddenly near the light out of total 
darkness. Xight or day seemed to make no difference in its 
appetite while well, and it caught as readily the flies put in at 
midnight as during any other part of the day. After some four 
weeks subsequent to the deposition of the first ova the same 
symptoms as to sluggishness, apparent blindness, and want of 
appetite were repeated (taking no food for five or six days), and 
on the morning of -May the 28th the second case was found 
deposited on the opposite side of the box (but this time hori- 
zontally) containing the same number of partitions. Plies 
being put into the box, it was so eager to catch them that it 
•changed its position several times, as if very impatient to break 
its fast, which it very seldom did otherwise, usually waiting im- 
moveably till its prey came near enough for striking. 



OEDI^fAET MEETIXa, AUGTJST 2, 1887. 

Prof. EE]!fNiE in the chair. 

Exhibits. — J. G. O. Teppee, P.L.S., cases of insects. 'W. 
HowcHiN, P.Gr.S., new species of Foraminifera from the Car- 
boniferous strata of the North of England. 

Papees. — Peazee S. Ceawfoed, on the ^'Iceri/a Purcliasi, 
with some Notes upon its Parasite." W. Howchi>s", P.Gr.S., 
*' Eemarks on some New Species of Poraminifera." 



308 

Oedinaet Meeting, September 6, 1887. 

Prof. Eennie iu the chair. 

Ballot. — John Bagot was elected a Fellow. 

ExuiBiTS. — Mr. "Wilkinson (Grovernment Geologist, New 
South AY ales), ice-worn pebble from Hallett's Cove. Eeazee 
S. Ceawtoeu, specimen of Colostoma. 

Papees. — Eev. Thomas Blackbuen, B.A., on some "South 
Australian Coleoptera and descriptions of new species." J. 
Dennant, P.G-.S., of Victoria, on the ''Geological Strata and 
Possils of the Beds at Muddy Creek," Victoria. 



Annual Meeting, October 5, 1887. 

Prof. Hennie in the chair. 

ArniTOE. — W. B. Poole was elected auditor of the accounts 
for the past year. 

Exhibits. — Peazer S. Ceaweoed, ^myntliurydcd found on a 
crop of lucerne. A. Zietz, species of snake belonging to the 
order VermiceUa, sent by Mr. Bagot from TJno ; fossil fish-jaws 
from AVaurn Ponds, Victoria, in the Adelaide Museum, which 
appeared identical with those of living species. 

Hon. Sec. read the annual report. 

The Hon. Sec. then read the balance-sheet, duly audited, 
showing that the receipts had been £189 7s. 3d., and the ex- 
penditure £316 14s. 

The reports and balance-sheets of the Pield Naturalist and 
Microscopical Sections were also read. 

The various reports and balance-sheets were adopted. 

Election of Officers: — Prof. Eennie as President, "W. 
Howchin, E.G.S., and E. L. Mestayer, C.E., as Vice-Presi- 
dents ; Walter Eutt, C.E., as Hon. Treasurer ; W. L. Cleland, 
MB., as Hon. Secretarv ; and as Members of Council — H. T. 
AVhittell, M.D., Charles Todd, C.M.G., M.A., D. B. Adamson, 
J. AV. Bussell, Eev. Thomas Blackburn, B.A., and J. Davies 
Thomas, M.D. 

The President (Prof. Eennie) alluded to various points in 
the work of the past session. 

Papers. — Baeon t. Muellee, "Descriptions of Xew Plants 
from South Australia." Prof. E. Tate, " Gastropoda of the 
Older Tertiaries of South Australia." Eev. Thomas Black- 
burn, B.A., "South Australian Coleoptera." 



309 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



The Council has the pleasure of reporting that the work of 
the Society has been carried on successfully during the past year, 
the following papers having been laid before it : — " Eespecting 
the birth of the Kangaroo," by E. C. Stirling, M.D., Cantab.; 
"On the 8taidliylinid(B contained in the Public Museum, Ade- 
laide," by Thos. Blackburn, B.A. ; "Eemarks on a G-eolog- 
ical Section exposed in ^Fletcher's G-raving Dock," by W. 
Howchin, F.G.S. ; " On Testing the Mashing Point of Petro- 
leum," by Prof. Eennie, F.C.S. ; " On Alcoholic Fermentation 
in Living Trees and what originates it," by F. Ludwig, M.D., 
translated by J. G-. O. Tepper, F.L.S. ; " On the Measurement 
of Eye-pieces," by D. B. Adamson ; "The Colouring Matter 
contained in Brosera WhittaTceri,'" by Prof. Eennie ; " The 
Geology of the Teetulpa Groldfields," by H. Y. L. Brown, 
F.G- S. ; "Description of a new Butterfly," by E. Guest; 
"Descriptive List of Snakes known to exist in South Australia," 
by A. Zietz ; " Observations on the Eecent Comet," by W 
IRussell ; " On Subterranean "Waters, with suggestions for their 
utilization," by Thomas Parker, C.E. ; " Descriptions of Cole- 
optera in the Adelaide Museum," by Thomas Blackburn, B.A. ; 
" On the advisability of establishing a School of Mines," by F. 
"W. Davis ; " Caroona Hill : its Polished Surfaces and Water 
Supply," by W. L. Cleland, M.B., Edin. ; "The Bembidiid^e 
of South Australia," by Thomas Blackburn, B.A. ; " Kerosine 
Lamps and Experiments with Kerosine," by J. G. O. Tepper, 
F.L.S. ; "On Icerya Pitrchasi, with some Notes on its Parasite," 
by Frazer S. Crawford ; " Notes and Drawings of some new 
species of Foraminifera from the Carboniferous Strata of the 
North of England," by W. Howchin, F.G.S. ; " On some new 
species of Coleoptera," by Thomas Blackburn, B .A. ; "Ee- 
marks on the Strata at Muddy Creek," by J. Dennant, P.G.S., of 
Hamilton, Victoria ; " Gastropoda of the Older Tertiaries of 
S.A., Part I.," by Prof. E. Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S. : " Eemarks on 
Caelo stoma," by Frazer S. Crawford; "Notes on Australian 
Coleoptera, with descriptions of new species," by Thomas 
Blackburn, B.A.; "Eemarks upon some Teeth of Fossil Fishes 
as compared with other recent forms," by A. Zietz; "Note 
upon a rare Australian Snake in the Adelaide Museum," by A. 
Zietz ; "■ On the S.A. species of the genus Calosoma," by E. H. 
Pulleine. 



310 

During tlie year there have been man}- new and interesting' 
exhibits of natural history, chiefly procured by J. G. O. Tepper 
and A. Zietz. The principal were : — 'Some rare and interesting 
plants from Kangaroo Island, by J. Gr. O. Tepper ; a species of 
Opistiobranchia {^Af/laia Uneolatct) new for Australian waters, 
by A. Zietz ; six species of indigenous bees from Kangaroo 
Island, by J. G. O. Tepper ; two species of Grevillea new for 
the province, by J. G. O. Tepper ; a new species of Dactylotum, 
by the same; a new species of hermit crab i^Gryl}oi:>agiirus 
hthodomus) , by A. Zietz ; a new species of sponge crab [Tfromicv 
licavernosa), by the same. 

The membership of the Society consists of 122 Fellows, 11 
Hon. Fellows, 14 corresponding members, and two associates. 

Six new Fellows have been elected during the year. 

The reports of the two Sections, namely the Field Naturalist 
and the Microscopical Sections, are laid on the table, and show 
that both are flourishing and virtually self-supporting. In 
common with the parent Society, they feel the want of a larger- 
number of individual workers to give them a still greater ad- 
ditional stimulus and vitality. This want seems inseparable 
from a small community, the majority of whose members are 
of necessity actively engaged in other pursuits than those of 
science. 

During the past year the library has been enriched by ad- 
ditional volumes of the " Geological and Natural History Sur- 
veys of Canada and the United States," and " Additional Des- 
criptions of South Australian Extra-tropical Plants," by Baron, 
von Mueller. The Council has also arranged for an exchange- 
with a Japanese publication, namely the " Proceedings of the 
Seismological Society of Japan." 

In the last annual report the Council referred to the fact 
that the many valuable books belonging to the Society were 
about to be transferred to the Public Library when duplicates- 
had been removed. It was found that after this had been done 
there was such a small residuum left as not to be worth while 
carrying out the idea. The space at the disposal of the Public- 
Library authorities is so limited as not to allow of the books of 
the Society being received as a whole. 

The Council has considered itself justified in continuing to 
have plates drawn and printed illustrative of the mollusca of 
the older tertiary rocks of South Australia, a subject to wbich 
Prof. Tate has for some years past applied his extensive and 
special knowledge. In the volume of the current year will be 
found the first part of the division dealing with the Gastro- 
poda. 

The Council has with much regret to refer to the very large 
amount that is due on unpaid subscriptions. The unfortunate 



311 

effect of this neglect ou the part o£ the Eellows is that the use- 
fulness of the Society is very much crippled thereby, and as a 
consequence applications for assistance for scientific research 
received during the past year have had to be most reluctantly 
refused. In connection with this matter the Council deter- 
mined to instruct the Secretary not to forward copies of the 
Society's Proceedings to such Pellows as had not paid their 
subscriptions. It was hoped that this might serve as a re- 
minder, and possibly act as a stimulus to cause arrears to be 
paid up. This is the more important, as each year the Society 
seems to have to depend more upon its own resources and lean 
less on Government support. At present the expenditure is 
far exceeding the income, and in a short time the balance to 
the credit of the Society w411 have disappeared. The Council, 
in concluding its report, trusts that the coming year will prove 
an exception in this particular. 



312 



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313 



DONATIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

Fov the Tear 1886-7. 



I. — Tea2?^sactions, Jouenals, and Eepoets. 

I^ resented hy ilie respecti-oe Societies, Editors, and Governments. 

Baltimore — American Cliemical Journal : vol. YII., No. 6. 
vol. YJII., Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

Johns-Hopkins' University Circulars ; vol. Y., No. 

47 and 49. 
■ Johns-Hopkins' Studies from the Biological Labo- 
ratory ; vol. III., No. 5. 

Johns-Hopkins' Historical and Political Science ; 

fourth series, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6. 
Batavia — Natuurkundig-Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie ; 

vol. XLYII., p. 7. 
Boston — Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and 

Sciences ; new series ,• vol. XIII., parts 1 and 2. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History ; 

vol. XXIII. 

Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History ; 

vol. III., Nos. 12, 13. 
Belfast (Ireland) — Eeport and Proceedings of the Belfast 
Natural History and Philosophical 
Society for 1885-6. 
Berlin — Sitzungsherichte der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie 
der Wissenschaften zu Berlin ; Nos. 1 to 53, 1886, 
and index, &c., 1887, Nos. 1 to 18. 
Brisbane (Queensland) — Plants reputed Poisonous and Inju- 
rious to Stock ; by F. M. Bailey, 
P. M.S., and Eobinsou Garden. 
Buenos Aires — Boletin de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias 
en Cordoba (Eepublica Argentina) ; vol. 
YII.. parts 1 to 4, and vol. YIIL, parts 1 
to 4 (1884 and 1885) ; vol. IX., parts 1, 2. 
California — Bulletin of the Californian Academy of Sciences ; 

No. 4. 
Cambridge, U.S.A. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard College ; vol. 
XII., No. 6 ; vol. XIII., Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 



314 

Cambridge, U.S.A. — Museum of Comparative Zoology at Har- 
vard College. Annual Eeport of 
Curator for 1885-6. 
Canada — Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of the Economic 
Minerals of Canada, by the Geological Corps ; 
Alfred E. C. Selwyn, CM.Gr, LL.D., F.E.S., &c. 

Annual Eeport, 1885, of the U.S. Geological Survey, 

Annual Eeport; vol. I., 1885. Geological and 

N'atural History Survey of Canada, with maps. 
Cbristiania — Eeports of the North Atlantic Expedition of 
1876-78; part XY., Zoology. Crustacea, 
ISo. 2; part XVI., MoUusca ; part XYII., 
Alcyonida ; XYIIa., XYIIb., Depths, 
Temperature, &c. 

Udgivet af den Xorske Gradmaaligskommission 

Yandstandsobservationer ; lY. Hefte, 1887. 

Die Internationale Polarforschung, 1882-3 ; 

Eeobachtuugs-Ergebnisse der Norwegischen 
Polarstation Bossekop in Alten. 
Dublin — The Scientific Proceedings of the Eoyal Dublin 
Society; vol. Y. (N.S.), IS'os. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

The Scientific Transactions of the Eoyal Dublin 

Society (series II.) ; XL, on New Zealand 
Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and 
species ; XII., Eossil Eishes of the Chalk of 
Mount Lebanon in Syria ; XIII. , on the Cause of 
Iridiscence in Clouds. 
Edinburgh — Proceedings of the Eoyal Physical Society, 

1885-6. 
Gottingen — Nachrichten von der Konigl. Gesellschaft der 
Wissenchaften und der Georg - Augusts - 
Universitat zu Gottingen ; 1885, Nos. 1 to 13. 
Halle — Leopoldina, Amptliches Organ der Kaiserlichen 
Leopoldino - Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie 
der Naturforscher ; 1884 and 1885. 
Italy — Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia com- 
parata della E. Universita di Torina ; vol. I., Xos. 
9 to 15. 
Japan (Yokohama) — Transactions of the Seismological Society 
of Japan ; vol. IX., parts 1 and 2, 
1886. 

Memoirs of the Literature College, L^ni- 

versity of Japan ; Xo. 1. 
Journal of the College of Science, Im- 
perial L^niversity of Japan ; vol. I., 
part 2. 
Lausanne — Bulletin de la Societe Yaudoise des Sciences Xatu- 
relles. Series 3, vol. XXIL, Xos. 94, 95. 



315 

Leipzig — Mittheiiiingen des Vereins fiir Erdkuude zu Leipzig^ 

1883, parts 1 aud 2, 1884, 1885. 
London— Proceedings of the Eoyal Society ; Kos. 238 to 246,. 
247 to 255. 

Journal of the Eoyal Microscopical Society ; Series 

2, Yol. YI., parts 6, 6a., 1887 ; parts ], 2, 3, 4. 

Obseryations of the International Polar Expeditions- 

in 1882-3 ; Fort Eae. 

• Journal of the Eoyal Microscopical Society ; Series 

II., vol. YI., part 5. 

Proceedings of the Eoyal Colonial Institute ; yoL 

XYII. 

Eoyal Colonial Institute. Catalogue of the Library. 

Transactions of the Entomological Society, 1886. 

Meteorological Observations at the Eomdon Observa-^ 

tory, Devon, during 1886. By Cuthbert E. Peek, 
M.A., E.E. Met. Soc, E.E.A.'S. 

Eeport of Proceedings of the Eoyal Colonial Insti-^ 

tute ; vol. XYIII. 
Manchester, England — The Origin of Geometry. By Horace- 
Lamb, M.A., E.E.S., &c. 
Eeport and Proceedings of the Man- 
chester Field ^Naturalists' and 
Archaeologists' Society for 1886. 
Munich — Sitzungberichte der Mathematisch-Physikalischen, 
Classe der k.b., Akademie der "Wissenschaften 
zu Munchen 1886. Heft 1, 2, 4. 

Gedachtnissrede auf Carl Theodor v. Siebold. 

Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-physicalischeu, 

Classe der h.b., Ahademie der Wissenschaften. 
Inhaltsverzeichniss der Sitzunberichte der Mathe- 
matisch-physicalischeu, Classe der k.b. Akade- 
mie der Wissenschaften. Jahrgang 1871-1885. 
New South Wales — Proceedings of the Linnean Society of 
New South Wales. Second Series,, 
vol. L, parts 3, 4 ; vol. II., parts 1, 2. 

Journal and Proceedings of the Eoyal 

Society of New South Wales; vol. 
XIX. (1885) ; vol. XXL, part 1. 

A Catalogue of the Marine Polyzoa of 

New South Wales. By P. H. Mac- 
Gillivray, M.E.C.S., E.L.S. 

Eeport of the Sydney Free Public Library. 

Australian Museum.". Notes for Collectors. 

: " Descriptive List of 

Aboriginal Weapons, Implements, &c.y 
from Darling and Lachlan Elvers. 



316 

New South "Wales — Australian Museum. Eeport o£ Trustees 

for 1886. 
Supplements to the Eeports of the Aus- 
tralian Museum for 1882-3-4-5-6. 

Eeport of Trustees, Free Public Library. 

xV'otes upon the Floods in Lake G-eorge. 

By H. C. Eussell, B.A., F.E.S., &c. 

Notes upon the History of Floods in the 

Eiver Darling. By H. C. Eussell, 
B.A., F.E.S., &c. 

Eesults of Eain and Eiver Observations 

made in New South "Wales and part 
of Queensland during 1886. By H. 
C. Eussell, B.A., F.E.S., &c. 

' Eesults of Meteorological Observations 

made in New South "Wales during 
1885. By H. C. Eussell. 
New York. — Annals of the New York Academy of Natural 
Science (late Lyceum of Natural History) ; 
vol. III., No. 9; vol. Y., Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; 
also, a Eeview of American Diodontidae, &c. 
New Zealand — Transactions and Proceedings of the New 
Zealand Institute, 1884; vol. XYIL vol. 
XIX. 

Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera, parts 

3 and 4. 

■ Twentieth and Twenty-first Annual Eeports of 

the Colonial Museum and Laboratory, &c. 

' Official Eecord of the New Zealand Industrial 

Exhibition of 1885. 

Eeport of the Auckland Institute and Museum 

for 1886-7. 

The Eruption of Tarawera, New Zealand. By 

Percy Smith, F.E.G.S., &c. 
Philadelphia — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia ; part III., August to De- 
cember, 1885 ; part I., January to March, 
1886. 

Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of 

Sciences of Philadelphia ; vol. I. 
"Sacramento — Sixth Annual Eeport of the State Mineralogist; 

parts 1, 2. 
Salem, Mass., U.S.A. — Memoirs of the Peabody Academy of 

Science ; vol. II. 
' Peabody Academy of Science, Nine- 
teenth Annual Eeport. 

Essex Institute, Bulletins (1885) Nos. 

1 to 12. 



317 

Salem, Mass., U.S.A. — The Morse Collection o£ Japanese Pot- 
tery ; published by tbe Essex In- 
stitute. 
Soutb Australia — Forest Department, Annual Eeport for 

1885-6. 
IS'otes on Geological Map of Gumeracba 

and Mount Crawford Groldfields, by H. 

T. L. Brown, F.G-.S. 
■ Eeport on the Uloloo Goldfield, by H. T. L. 

Brown, P.G.S. 
Mining Eecords of South Australia, by 

Henry T. L. Brown, r.C.S., &c., 1887. 
Tasmania — Papers ordered by the Legislature to be printed. 

Statistics of the colony of Tasmania, for 1884. 

Papers and Transactions of the Eoyal Society of 

Tasmania for 1886. 

Abstract of Proceedings of Eoyal Society of Tas- 

mania, June and July, 1887. 

Annual Eeport by the Conservator of Porests,. 

1887. 
Tokio, Japan — Journal of the Col]ege of Science. 

Imperial University, Japan ; vol. I., part 2. 

Trenton, U.S.A. — Journal of the Trenton Natural Historjr 

Society ; vol. L, jSTo. 1. 
Turin — Bolletino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia compa- 
rata della Universita di Torina ; vol. IL, Nos. 19 
to 26. 
Victoria — Transactions of [the Geological Society of Victoria ;. 
vol. L, part 1. 

Australasian Statistics for 1885 and Eeport. 

Do., part 5 interchange. 

• Eeport of the School of Mines, Ballarat, for 1886. 

Victorian Year Book, 1885-6, H. II. Hayter. 

• The Australian Journal of Pharmacy; vol. IL, ]N'o. 

15. 
Transactions and Proceedings of the Eoyal Society 

of Victoria ; vol. XXII. 

The Victorian Naturalist ; vol. IV.. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4,. 

5, 6. 
• List of Members of the Geological Society of Aus- 
tralasia, &c. 

Annual Eeport of the Field Naturalists' Society of 

Victoria for 1887. 

Patents and Patentees, with Index, for 1886. 

Vienna — Kaiserlich Academic der Wissenchaften in TVien. 
Sitzung der Mathematisch-naturwissenschaft- 
lichen Classe; Nos. XIX. to XXIV., 1886, 25,. 
26, 27, and index, 1887, Nos. 1 to 8, 11 to 14. 



318 

Tienua — A^erliaudluugeii der Kaiserlicli-Konigliclien Zoo- 
logisch-botanisclieu Gesellscliaft in "Wieu ; 
XXV., Baud 2 ; XXVI., Band 1 and 2. 

. Yerliandluugen der K. K. geologischen Eeichanstalt; 

Xos. 1 to 12, 1886. 
Washington — Report of tlie Board on belialf of United States 

Executive Departments at the International 

Exhibition, 1876 ; vols. L, II. 
Bulletins of the United States Geological Survey; 

:N'os. 15 to 26—29. 
Eiftb Annual Eeport, U.S. Geological Survey of 

the Territories, 1883-4^. 
~ U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories ; vol. 

IX. — Bracbiopoda and Lamellibrauchiata of 

Baritan clays and greensand marls of Xew 

Jersey. 
. Annual Eeport of the Board of Eegents of the 

Smithsonian Institute for 1884 ; vols. I. and 

II. 



319 



LIST OF FELLOWS, MEMBERS, &c. 

XOTEMBEE, 1887. 



Those marked (f) were present at the first meeting when the Society was 
founded. Those marked (l) are Life Fellows. Those marked with an 
asterisk have contributed papers. 



HONORARY FELLOWS. 

Barkley, Sir Henry, K.C.M.G., K.C.B. 

Ellery, E. L. J., F.E.S. .. .. Melbourne 

*Garran, A., LL.D. .. .. Sydney ,. 

*Hull, H. M. .. . . . . Hobart . . 

Jervois, Sir W. F. D., K.C.M.G., C.B. New Zealand 

Little, E. 

Macleay, Hon. W., F.L.S... .. Sydney .. 

*Mueller, Baron F. von, K.C.M.G., 

F.R.S. .. .. .. Melbourne 

*Russell, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S. .. Sydney .. 

Warburton, Col. P. E., C.M.G. .. Beaumont 

* Woods, Eev. J. E. T., F.L.S. , F.G.S. Sydney . . 



1857 
1876 
1853 
1855 
1878 
1855 
1878 

1879 

1876 
1858 
1877 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Bailey, F. M., F.L.S. 

Canham, J. 
^Cloud, T. C, F.C.S. 
*East, J. J. 
*Foelsche, Paul . . 

Goldstein, J. R. Y. 
*Hayter, H. H., M.A., C.M.G., F. 

Holtze, Maurice . . 
*Kempe, Eev. J. . . 

Nicholay, Rev. C. G. 
*Richards, Mrs. A. 
*StirliDg, James, F.L.S. 



S.S. 



Brisbane 
Stuart's Creek 
Wallaroo. . 
Prospect . . 
Palmerston 
Melbourne 
Melbourne 
Palmerston 
Finke . . 
Fremantle, W.A. 
Beltana . . 
Omeo 



1881 
1880 
1881 
1884 
1882 
1880 
1878 
1882 
1880 
1886 
1880 
1883 



*Adamson, D. B. . . 

Adcock, D. J. 

Angas, J. H. 

Bagot, John 
*Blackburn, Rev. Thos., M 

Boettger, Otto 

Bragg, Prof. 

Brown, J. E., F.L.S. 

Brown, L. G. 



A. 



Adelaide . . 
Adelaide . . 
Angaston 
Adelaide . . 
Woodville 
Adelaide . . 
Adelaide . . 
Adelaide . . 
Two Wells 



1867 

1887 
1874 
1887 
1887 
1884 
1886 
1882 
1882 



320 



*Brown, H. Y. L., F.G.S. . . 


.. Adelaide.. 


Bruer, J. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Bussell, J. W. . . 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Campbell, Hon. Allan, 


M.L.C, 


L.E.C.P. Edin. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Chalwin, Thos., M.B.C.V.S. I 


]ng. . . Adelaide . . 


Chappie, F., B.A., B.Sc. .. 


. . Prince Alfred College 


*Cleland, W. L., M.B., Ch.M., F 


E.M.S. Parkside 


*{L)Cooke, E. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Cooke, W. Ernest, B.A. . . 


.. Adelaide.. 


Cox, W. C. 


. . Semaphore 


Cornish, W. H. . . 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Crawford, F. S. .. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Davenport, Sir Samuel 


. . Adelaide . . 


Davies, Edward .. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Davis, F. W. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Dixon, Samuel . . 


. . Adelaide . . 


Dobbie, A. W. . . 


. . Adelaide . . 


Elder, Sir Thomas 


. . Adelaide . . 


Eyres, Thos. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Fleming, David . . 


. . North Adelaide . . 


•Fletcher, Eev. W. E., M.A. 


. . Kent Town 


Foote, H. 


. . Outalpa . . 


Fowler, W. 


. . Kulpara . . 


Gardner, Wm., M.D., CM. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Gill, H. P 


.. Adelaide,. 


Gill, Thomas 


. . Adelaide . . 


Gosse, John, M.B.C.S. . . 


.. Wallaroo 


*Goyder, Geo., jun. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Grasby, W. C. . . 


. . Adelaide . . 


Grundy, E. B. .. 


. . Adelaide . . 


* Harris, C. H 


. . Adelaide . . 


Harrold, A. L. . . 


. . Adelaide . . 


Hay, Hon. A., M.L.C. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Henry, A., M.D. .. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Hopkins, Eev. W. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Howchin, W., F.G.S. 


. . Goodwood East 


Hughes, H. W. . . 


. . Booyoolie 


*Hullett, J. W. H. 


. . Port Augusta 


Johnson, J. A. . . 


. . Adelaide . . 


*(r)Kay, E. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Kelly, Eev. Eobert 


. . Mount Barker 


Knevett, S. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Lamb, Prof., M.A., F.E.S. 


. . England . . 


*Laughton, E. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Lendon, A. A., M.D. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Lloyd, J. S. 


. . Adelaide . . 


*Lucas, E. B. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Magarey, A. T. . . 


. . North Adelaide . . 


*Magarey, S. J., M.B. 


.. Adelaide.. 


*Mayo, Geo., F.E.C.S. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Mayo, G. G. 


. . Adelaide . . 


Mestayer, E. L., F.E.M.S. 


.. 


*Meyrick, E. T., B.A. 


.. Sydney .. 


Middleton, W. J. E. 


. . Upper Stmt 


Mitchell, J.T., M.D. 


. . Port Adelaide 


Molioeux, A. . . 


. . Kent Town 


(l) Murray, Hon. David, M.L.C 


/. . . Adelaide . . 



321 



Munton, H. S... 




Adelaide.. 


. . 1884 


O'Leary, M. P., M.K.C.S. 




Port Victor 


. . 1884 


♦Parker, Thomas, C.E. 




Port Adelaide 


. . 1883 


Phillips, W.H 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1883 


Poole, W. B. 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1886 


Poulton, B., M.D. 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1883 


Eeed, T. S 




Adelaide . . . . 


. . 1885 


Eobertson, E.,F.F.P.S. .. 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1882 


*EenDie, Prof. E. H., D.Sc, F.C.S... 


Adelaide . . 


. . 1885 


Eenner, F. E., M.D. 




Carrie ton 


. . 1885 


Eobins, A. F. 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1887 


Eussell, William 




Port Adelaide 


. . 1879 


*Eutt, Walter, C.E. 




Adelaide . . 


.. 1866 


Salom, Hon. M., M.L.C. .. 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1866 


*Schomburgk, E., Ph.D. . . 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1865 


Scott, Jas. L. 




Hyde Park 


. . 1865 


*Smeaton, Thos. D. 




Mount Barker 


. . 1857 


Smith, E. Barr 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1871 


Smythe, J. T., B.A., B.E... 




Glenelg .. 


. . 1882 


*Stirling, E.G., M.D., F.E.C.S. 


M.P. 


Adelaide . . 


. . 1881 


Stuckey, J. J., M.A. 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1878 


*Tate, Prof. E., F.G.S. . . 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1876 


*Thomas, J. D., M.D., F.E.C.S. 




Adelaide . . 


.. 1877 


*Tepper, J. G. 0., F.L.S. ..- 




Norwood . . 


. . 1878 


*Todd, Charles, C.M.G., M.A., F.E.A.S. 


Adelaide . . 


. . 1856 


Tyas, J.W 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1882 


Umbehaun, C. . . 




Adelaide . . 


. . 1879 


*Varley, A. K. • • . . 




Mount Gambier . . 


. . 1883 


Vaughan, A. P., M.B. 




North Adelaide . . 


. 1886 


*Verco, J. C, M.D., F.E.C.S. 




Adelaide . . 


. 1878 


Vickery, G. 




Meadows . . . . 


. 1868 


Ware,W.L 




Adelaide . . 


. 1878 


Wainwright, E. H., B.Sc... 




St. Peter's CoUege 


. 1883 


Way, E. W., M.B. 




Adelaide 


. 1879 


Way, S. J., Chief Justice .. 




Adelaide . . 


. 1859 


Wheeler, F 




Freemantle, W.A. . . 


. 1884 


*Whittell, H., M.D., F.E.M.S. 




Adelaide . . 


. 1882 


Wilson, John, F.E.T.S. .. 




Goodwood 


. 1886 


*Wragge, C. L., F.E.G.S. . . 




Brisbane . . 


. 1887 


Young, Wm., M.A. 




Hindmarsh 


. 1880 


*Zietz, A. 




Adelaide 


. 1886 




ASSOCIATES. 




Hodgson, Mrs. . . 




Port Victor 


. 1884 



822 



^ i^ IP E 3sr ID I x: 



FIELD NATURALISTS' SECTION 

or THE 

|l0gal §0dctj3 of §oitth ^ustralm 



POURTH ANNUAL EEPOET, 1886-7. 

I:n- accordance with tlie alteration made in the Eules last year? 
the annual general meeting is held this time in September 
instead of October, as formerly. 

The Committee are pleased to be able to report a well- 
sustained interest in the work of the Section during the past 
year. 

There have been eleven excursions during the year, most of 
which have been well attended. The thanks of the Section are 
due to the following gentlemen for assistance rendered by them 
in connection with excursions made to their respective districts, 
yi2,. — Messrs E. Guest (Balhannah), Gr. W. Hannaford (Cudlee 
Creek), A. Murray (Coromandel Yalley), C. P. Newmau 
(Water Gully), Jno. E. Martin (Gawler), and Leonard G. 
Browne (Buckland Park), To the two last-named gentlemen 
we are especially indebted for their hospitality. 

Six evening meetings have been held, at which seven papers 
have been read. The attendance on the whole shows an im- 
provement on that of last year. The Committee would again 
urge upon members to increase the usefulness and interest of 
the evening meetings by bringing specimens in Natural History. 
The first practical steps towards holding a show of native 
plants were taken during the year. Eules and prize-lists have 
been printed and distributed, and the first competitive show 
will be held in October, 1888. The Committee hope that this 
action will be a means of encouraging the cultivation of our 
native flora. Evidences of such a result have already been 
noticed. 



323 

The additions to our membership liave not been so numerous 
as last year, and tbe Committee would take this opportunity of 
urging members to induce tbeir friends to join tbe Section, and 
thus extend its usefulness. The number now on the Eoll is 
107. 

"We have not been quite so successful financially as last year, 
the receipts from subscriptions having been £20 10s., while the 
expenses amount to £22 15s. 2d. There are, however, arrears 
which more than cover the difference. 

The Committee notice w4th pleasure the recent establishment 
of a Boys' Naturalist Class in connection chiefly with our State- 
schools, and trust that this attempt to popularise the study of 
IS'atural History amongst the young in our midst will meet with 
the success which it deserves. 

Tor the Committee, 

J. Gr. O. Teppee, Chairman. 
"W. H. Selwat, Jirif., Hon. Sec. 



324 



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325 



MICROSCOPICAL SECTION 

OF THE 

^0j)al (§0dctg of §onih ^xxQtxdm, 



The Committee beg to report that the work of the Section 
has been successfully carried on during the past year, although 
the attendance of members at the meetings is not so good as it 
should be, considering the numbers on the roll. Our member- 
ship is now 42, there having been nine new members elected 
since last report. One member has resigned in consequence of 
leaving the colony. The average attendance at ordinary meet- 
ings has only been 12.' We have held ten meetings, as there 
was a recess during the months of January and March. The 
subjects discussed were as under : — 

1886. 
Oct. 12. Mounting in Canada balsam, with demonstrations, by 

Mr. W. B. Poole. 
Nov. 16. Eemarks on application of electricity as a light for 

the microscope, by Mr. H. Yeates. 
Dec. 14. Gossip meeting and exhibition of objects. 

1887. 
Mar. 8. Measurtment by the micrometer and camera lucida, 

by Mr. ¥. S. Crawford. 
Apr. 12. Discussion on mounting in fluids and glycerine jelly. 
May 10. Annual conversazione. 
June 14. Cutting and mounting rock sections, by Mr. Gr. 

Groyder, jun. 
July 12. Diatoms and their resolution, by Dr. H. T. Whittell. 
Aug. 9. Grossip meeting and exhibition of objects. 
Sept. 13. Annual business meeting. 

On Saturday, January 1st, an excursion was made by boat to 
the North Arm, when a number of interesting objects were 
obtained by dredging. Amongst them were the following 
Polyzoa : — Scrupocellaria cervicornis, AmatJiicB tortuosa, Wood^; 
Menipea, nov. sp. ; AmatJiicPj nov. sp., allied to A. maiiiQnata ; 



32(5 

Bitgula, allied to B. (HalophilaJ Jolmstonia ; Bowerhanlcia, 
nov. sp. It is to be hoped that more of these excursions will 
be arranged for during the ensuing summer. 

The conversazione was well attended by members and 
friends. The chairman of the Section (E. L. Mestayer, Esq., 
F.E.M.S.) gave an interesting and instructive address on 
microscopical work, in which was much practical advice both to 
beginners and to those who were more advanced workers with 
the microscope. There were 24 microscopes exhibited, of 
various classes, and a large number of objects. Amongst the 
objects that attracted much attention were the bacilli of various 
diseases, such as consumption, tvphoid fever, Asiatic cholera, 
&c., exhibited by Dr. "Whittell. " 

Two microscopical magazines — the American Montlily 
Ilicroscopical Journal and the Journal of Microscopy and 
Natural Science — are subscribed for and circulated amongst the 
members. A box of interesting mounted objects is also kept 
passing round for the inspection of members at their own 
homes. 



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